The Civil Code of the Russian Federation

(with the Additions and Amendments of February 20, August 12, 1996,
October 24, 1997, July 8, December 17, 1999, April 16, May 15,
November 26, 2001, March 21, November 14, 26, 2002,
January 10, March 26, November 11, December 23, 2003)

Section I
 Subsection 1
  Chapter 1
The Civil Legislation (Art. 1 - 7)
  Chapter 2
Arising of the Civil Rights and Duties, Exercising and Protection of the Civil Rights (Art. 8 - 16)
 Subsection 2
  Chapter 3
The Citizens (Natural Persons) (Art. 17 - 47)
  Chapter 4
The Legal Entities (Art. 48 - 123)
   _ 1.
The Basic Provisions
   _ 2.
The Economic Partnerships and Companies
    __ 1.
The General Provisions
    __ 2.
The General Partnership
    __ 3.
The Limited Partnership
    __ 4.
The Limited Liability Company
    __ 5.
The Double Liability Company
    __ 6.
The Joint-Stock Company
    __ 7.
The Subsidiary and Dependent Companies
   _ 3.
The Production Cooperatives
   _ 4.
The State-Run and Municipal Unitary Enterprises
   _ 5.
The Non-Profit Organizations
  Chapter 5
Participation of the Russian Federation, of the Subjects of theRussian Federation and of the Municipal Entities in the Relationships, Regulated by the Civil Legislation (Art. 124 - 127)
 Subsection 3
  Chapter 6
The General Provisions
  Chapter 7
The Securities
  Chapter 8
The Non-Material Values and Their Protection (Art. 150 - 152)
 Subsection 4
  Chapter 9
The Deals
   _ 1.
The Concept, the Kinds and the Form of the Deals
   _ 2.
The Invalidity of the Deals
  Chapter 10
The Representation. The Warrant
 Subsection 5
  Chapter 11
The Counting of the Term
  Chapter 12
The Limitation of Actions
Section II
  Chapter 13
The General Provisions
  Chapter 14
The Acquisition of the Right of Ownership
  Chapter 15
The Cessation of the Right of Ownership
  Chapter 16
The Common Property
  Chapter 17
The Right of Ownership and the Other Rights of Estate to the Land
  Chapter 18
The Right of Ownership and the Other Rights of Estate to the Living Quarters
  Chapter 19
The Right of Economic Management and the Right of Operation Management
  Chapter 20
Protection of the Right of Ownership and of the Other Rights of Estate
Section III
 Subsection 1
  Chapter 21
The Concept and the Aspects of an Obligation
  Chapter 22
The Discharge of Obligations
  Chapter 23
Providing for the Discharge of Obligations
   _ 1.
The General Provisions
   _ 2.
The Forfeit
   _ 3.
The Pledge
   _ 4.
The Retention
   _ 5.
The Surety
   _ 6.
The Bank Guarantee
   _ 7.
The Advance
  Chapter 24
The Substitution of Persons in an Obligation
   _ 1.
The Transfer of the Creditor's Rights to Another Person
   _ 2.
The Transfer of the Debt
  Chapter 25
Responsibility for the Violation of Obligations
  Chapter 26
The Termination of Obligations
 Subsection 2
  Chapter 27
The Concept and the Terms of the Contract
  Chapter 28
The Conclusion of the Contract
  Chapter 29
The Amendment and the Cancellation of the Contract

PART I

SECTION I
The General Provisions

Subsection 1
THE BASIC PROVISIONS

Chapter 1. The Civil Legislation

Article 1. Chief Principles of the Civil Legislation

1. The civil legislation shall be based on recognizing the equality of participants in the relationships regulated by it, the inviolability of property, the freedom of agreement, the inadmissibly of anybody's arbitrary interference into the private affairs, the necessity to freely exercise the civil rights, the guarantee of the reinstatement of the civil rights in case of their violation, and their protection in the court.
2. The citizens (natural persons) and the legal entities shall acquire and exercise their civil rights of their own free will and in their own interest. They shall be free to establish their rights and duties on the basis of an agreement and to define any terms of the agreement, which are not in contradiction with legislation. The civil rights may be restricted on the basis of the Federal Law and only to the extent, to which it shall be necessary for the purposes of protecting the foundations of the constitutional system, morality, the health, the rights and the lawful interests of other persons, of providing for the defence of the country and for the state security.
3. The commodities, services and financial means shall move unhindered throughout the entire territory of the Russian Federation. Restrictions on the movement of commodities and services shall be imposed in conformity with the Federal Law, if this is necessary to provide for security, and to protect the human life and health, the environment and the cultural benefits.

Article 2. Relations Regulated by the Civil Legislation

1. The civil legislation shall define the legal status of the participants in the civil turnover, the grounds for the emergence and the order of exercising the right of ownership and the other rights of estate, the exclusive right to the results of the intellectual activity (intellectual property); it shall regulate the contractual and other obligations, as well as the other property and personal non-property relations related to the former, based on the equality, the autonomous will and the property independence of their participants. Both the citizens and the legal entities may be the participants of the relations, regulated by the civil legislation. The Russian Federation, the subjects of the Russian Federation and the municipal entities may also participate in the relations, regulated by the civil legislation (Article 124).
The civil legislation shall regulate relations between the persons, engaged in business activities or in those performed with their participation, proceeding from the fact that the business activity shall be an independent activity, performed at one's own risk, aimed at systematically deriving a profit from the use of the property, the sale of commodities, the performance of work or the rendering of services by the persons, registered in this capacity in conformity with the law-established procedure.
The rules, laid down by the civil legislation, shall be applied toward relations with the participation of foreign citizens, of persons without any citizenship, and also of foreign legal entities, unless otherwise stipulated by the Federal Law.
2. The inalienable human rights and freedoms, and the other non-material values shall be protected by the civil legislation, unless otherwise following from the substance of these non-material values.
3. Unless otherwise stipulated by legislation, the civil legislation shall not be applied toward the property relations, based on the administrative or the other kind of authoritative subordination of one party to the other party, including toward the taxation and other financial or administrative relations.

Article 3. The Civil Legislation and the Other Acts, Containing the Civil Legislation Norms

1. In conformity with the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the civil legislation shall be within the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation.
2. The civil legislation shall be comprised of the present Code and of the federal laws (hereinafter referred to as the laws), adopted in conformity with it, which regulate the relations, indicated in Items 1 and 2 of Article 2 of the present Code. The norms of the civil legislation, contained in the other laws, shall correspond to the present Code. 3. The relations, indicated in Items 1 and 2 of Article 2 of the present Code, shall also be regulated by the Decrees of the President of the Russian Federation, which shall not be in contradiction with the present Code and with the other laws.
4. On the grounds and in execution of the present Code and of the other laws, and of the Decrees of the President of the Russian Federation, the Government of the Russian Federation shall have the right to adopt decisions, containing the norms of the civil law.
5. If the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation or the decision of the Government of the Russian Federation proves to be in contradiction with the present Code or with the other law, the present Code or the corresponding law shall be applied.
6. The operation and implementation of the norms of the civil law, contained in the Decrees of the President of the Russian Federation and in the decisions of the Government of the Russian Federation (hereinafter referred to as the other legal acts), shall be defined by the rules of the present chapter.
7. The ministries and the other federal executive power bodies may issue the acts, containing the norms of the civil law, in the cases and within the limits, stipulated by the present Code, by the other laws and by the other legal acts.

Article 4. Operation of the Civil Legislation in Time

1. The acts of the civil legislation shall not be retroactive and shall be applied toward the relations, which have arisen after they have been put in force. The operation of the law shall be extended toward the relations, which have arisen before it has been put in force, only in the cases, directly stipulated by law.
2. Concerning the relations, which have arisen before the civil legislation act has been put in force, it shall be applied toward the rights and duties, which have arisen after its being put in force. The relations of the parties by the agreement, signed before the civil legislation act has been enforced, shall be regulated in conformity with Article 422 of the present Code.

Article 5. The Customs of the Business Turnover

1. The custom of the business turnover shall be recognized as the rule of behavior, which has taken shape and is widely applied in a certain sphere of business activities, and which has not been stipulated by legislation, regardless of whether it has or has not been fixed in any one document.
2. The customs of the business turnover, contradicting to the provisions of legislation or to the agreement, obligatory for the participant in the given relationship, shall not be applied.

Article 6. Application of the Civil Legislation by Analogy

1. In cases when the relations, stipulated in Items 1 and 2 of Article 2 of the present Code are not directly regulated by legislation or by an agreement between the parties, while the custom of the business turnover that would be applicable to them does not exist, and if this is not in contradiction with their substance, the civil legislation shall be applied, which regulates similar relations (the analogy of the law).
2. If it is impossible to apply the similar law, the rights and duties of the parties shall be defined, proceeding from the general principles and the meaning of the civil legislation (the analogy of the right), and also from the requirements of honesty, wisdom and justice.

Article 7. The Civil Legislation and the Norms of International Law

1. The generally recognized principles and norms of international law and the international treaties of the Russian Federation, shall be, in conformity with the Constitution of the Russian Federation, a component part of the legal system of the Russian Federation.
2. The international treaties of the Russian Federation shall be directly applied toward the relations, indicated in Items 1 and 2 of Article 2 of the present Code, with the exception of the cases, when it follows from the international treaty that for it to be applied, a special intra-state act shall be issued. If the rules, laid down in the international treaty of the Russian Federation, differ from those stipulated by the civil legislation, the rules of the international treaty shall be applied.

Chapter 2. Arising of the Civil Rights and Duties, Exercising and Protectionof the Civil Rights

Article 8. The Grounds for the Arising of the Civil Rights and Duties

1. The civil rights and duties shall arise from the grounds, stipulated by the law and by the other legal acts, as well as from the actions of the citizens and of the legal entities, which, though not stipulated by the law or by such acts, still generate, by force of the general principles and of the meaning of the civil legislation, the civil rights and duties. In conformity with this, the civil rights and duties shall arise:
1) from the law-stipulated contracts and other deals, and also from the contracts and other deals, which, though not stipulated by the law, are not in contradiction with it;
2) from the acts of the state bodies and of the local self-government bodies, which are stipulated by the law as the grounds for the arising of the civil rights and duties;
3) from the court ruling, which has established the civil rights and duties;
4) as a result of the acquisition of property on the grounds, admitted by the law;
5) as a result of creating the works of science, literature and art, of making inventions and producing other results of the intellectual activity;
6) as a result of inflicting damage to another person;
7) as a consequence of an unjust enrichment;
8) because of other actions performed by the citizens and the legal entities;
9) as a result of the events, with which the law or the other legal act connects the arising of the civil legislation consequences.
2. The rights to the property, liable to the state registration, shall arise from the moment of the registration of the corresponding rights to it, unless otherwise stipulated by the law.

Article 9. Exercising of the Civil Rights

1. The citizens and the legal entities shall exercise the civil rights they possess at their own discretion.
2. The refusal of the citizens and of the legal entities to exercise the civil rights they possess shall not entail the termination of these rights, with the exception of the law-stipulated cases.

Article 10. The Limits of Exercising the Civil Rights

1. Not admissible shall be actions by the citizens and the legal entities, performed with the express purpose of inflicting damage to another person, as well as the abuse of the civil rights in other forms. Not admissible shall also be the use of the civil rights for the purpose of restricting the competition, as well as the abuse of the dominating position on the market.
2. In case of the person not abiding by the requirements, stipulated in Item 1 of the present Article, the court of justice, the arbitration court or the arbitration tribunal shall have the right to reject this person's claim for the protection of the right he possesses.
3. In the cases when the law makes the protection of the civil rights dependent on whether these rights have been exercised in wisdom and honesty, the wisdom of actions and the honesty of the participants in the civil legal relations shall be presumed.

Article 11. Protection of the Civil Rights in the Court

1. The violated or disputed civil rights shall be protected by the court of justice, the arbitration court or the arbitration tribunal (hereinafter referred to as the court), in conformity with the liability of the cases to these bodies' jurisdiction, established by the procedural legislation.
2. Protection of the civil rights in the administrative order shall be effected only in the law-stipulated cases. The decision, adopted administratively, may be appealed against in the court.

Article 12. The Ways of Protecting the Civil Rights

The civil rights shall be protected by way of:
- the recognition of the right;
- the restoration of the situation, which existed before the given right was violated, and the suppression of the actions that violate the right or create the threat of its violation;
- the recognition of the disputed deal as invalid and the implementation of the consequences of its invalidity, and the implementation of the consequences of the invalidity of an insignificant deal;
- the recognition as invalid of an act of the state body or of the local self-government body;
- the self-defence of the right;
- the ruling on the execution of the duty in kind;
- the compensation of the losses;
- the exaction of the forfeit;
- the compensation of the moral damage;
- the termination or the amendment of the legal relationship;
- the non-application by the court of an act of the state body or of the local self-government body, contradicting the law;
- using the other law-stipulated methods.

Article 13. Recognition as Invalid of an Act of the State Body or of the Local Self-Government Body

A non-normative act of the state body or of the local self-government body, and also, in the law-stipulated cases, a normative act, which does not correspond to the law or to the other legal acts and which violates the civil rights and the law-protected interests of the citizen or of the legal entity, may be recognized by the court as invalid. In case the act has been recognized by the court as invalid, the violated right shall be liable to restoration or to protection by the other means, stipulated by Article 12 of the present Code.

Article 14. The Self-Defence of the Civil Rights

The self-defence of the civil rights shall be admissible.
The methods of the self-defence shall be proportionate to the violation and shall not go beyond the limits of actions that are necessary to suppress it.

Article 15. Compensation of the Losses

1. The person, whose right has been violated, shall be entitled to demand the full recovery of the losses inflicted upon him, unless the recovery of losses in a smaller amount has been stipulated by the law or by the agreement.
2. Under the losses shall be understood the expenses, which the person, whose right has been violated, made or will have to make to restore the violated right, the loss or the damage done to his property (the compensatory damage), and also the undeceived profits, which this person would have derived under the ordinary conditions of the civil turnover, if his right were not violated (the missed profit). If the person, who has violated the right of another person, has derived profits as a result of this, the person, whose right has been violated, shall have the right to claim, alongside with the compensation of his other losses, also the compensation of the missed profit in the amount not less than such profits.

Article 16. Compensation of the Losses Caused by the State Bodies and by the Local Self-Government Bodies

The losses, inflicted upon the citizen or upon the legal entity as a result of illegal actions (the inaction) on the part of the state bodies, of the local self-government bodies or of the officials thereof, including the issue by the state body or by the local self-government body of an act, which is not in correspondence with the law or with the other legal act, shall be liable to compensation by the Russian Federation, by the corresponding subject of the Russian Federation, or by the municipal entity.

Subsection 2
THE PERSONS

Chapter 3. The Citizens (Natural Persons)

Article 17. The Legal Capacity of the Citizen

1. The capability to possess the civil rights and to perform duties (the civil legal capacity) shall be recognized as equally due to all the citizens.
2. The citizen's legal capacity shall arise at the moment of his birth and shall cease with his death.

Article 18. The Content of the Citizens' Legal Capacity

The citizens may possess the property by the right of ownership; may inherit and bequeath the property; may engage in business and in any other activities, not prohibited by the law; may set up legal entities - on their own or jointly with other citizens and legal entities; may effect any deals, which are not in contradiction with the law, and take part in obligations; may select the place of residence; may enjoy the rights of the authors of the works of science, literature and art, of inventions and of other law-protected results of the intellectual activity; and may also enjoy other property and personal non-property rights.

Article 19. The Name of the Citizen

1. The citizen shall acquire and exercise the rights and duties under his own name, which includes the surname and the name proper, as well as the patronymic, unless otherwise following from the law or from the national custom. In the cases and in the order, stipulated by the law, the citizen shall have the right to make use of a pseudonym (an assumed name).
2. The citizen shall have the right to change his name in conformity with the law-stipulated procedure. The citizen's change of the name shall not be the ground for the termination or the change of his rights and duties, which he has acquired under his former name. The citizen shall be obliged to take the necessary measures to inform his debtors and creditors about the change of his name and shall take the risk of the consequences that may arise in case these persons have no information on the change of his name.
The citizen, who has changed his name, shall have the right to demand that the corresponding changes be introduced, at his own expense, into the documents, formalized in his former name.
3. The name, acquired by the citizen at his birth, as well as the change of his name, shall be liable to registration in conformity with the procedure, laid down for the registration of the acts of the civil state.
4. The acquisition of the rights and duties under the name of another person shall not be admitted.
5. The damage caused to the citizen as a result of an illegal use of his name shall be liable to compensation in conformity with the present Code. In case the citizen's name has been distorted or used in the ways or in the form, infringing upon his honor, dignity or business reputation, the rules shall be applied, stipulated by Article 152 of the present Code.

Article 20. The Place of the Citizen's Residence

1. The place, where the citizen resides permanently or most of the time, shall be recognized as the place of his residence. 2. The place of residence of the young minors, who have not reached 14 years of age, or of the citizens who have been put under the guardianship, shall be recognized as the place of residence of their legal representatives - the parents, the adopters or the guardians. Article 21. The Active Capacity of the Citizen 1. The capability of the citizen to acquire and exercise by his actions the civil rights, to create for himself the civil duties and to discharge them (the civil active capacity) shall arise in full volume with the citizen's coming of age, i.e., upon his reaching the age of 18 years. 2. In case the law admits the right to enter into a marriage before reaching the age of 18 years, the citizen, who has not reached the law-stipulated age of 18, shall acquire the active capacity in full volume from the moment of his entering into a marriage. The active capacity, acquired as a result of entering into a marriage, shall be retained in full volume in case the marriage is dissolved before the citizen's reaching the age of 18 years. In case the marriage is recognized as invalid, the court may pass a decision on the underaged spouse being deprived of the full active capacity as from the moment fixed by the court. Article 22. Inadmissibility of Depriving the Citizen of His Legal and Active Capacity and of the Restriction Thereof 1. No one citizen shall be restricted in his legal and active capacity, with the exception of the cases and in conformity with the procedure, stipulated by the law. 2. The failure to observe the law-stipulated terms and procedure for the restriction of the citizens' active capacity or of their right to engage in business or in any other activity shall entail the invalidation of the act of the state or of another body, which has established the corresponding restriction. 3. The full or the partial renouncement by the citizen of his legal or active capacity, and the other deals, aimed at the restriction of his legal or active capacity, shall be insignificant, with the exception of the cases, when such deals are admitted by the law. Article 23. The Citizen's Business Activity 1. The citizen shall have the right to engage in business activities without forming a legal entity from the moment of his state registration in the capacity of an individual businessman. 2. The head of the peasant (farmer's) economy, performing business activities without setting up a legal entity (Article 257), shall be recognized as a businessman from the moment of the state registration of the peasant (farmer's) economy. 3. Toward the citizens' business activities, performed without forming a legal entity, shall be correspondingly applied the rules of the present Code, regulating the activity of the legal entities, which are commercial organizations, unless otherwise following from the law, from the other legal acts or from the substance of the legal relationship. 4. The citizen, engaged in business activities without forming a legal entity with the violation of the requirements of Item 1 of the present Article, shall have no right to refer, with respect to the deals he has thus effected, to the fact that he is not a businessman. The court may apply to such deals the rules of the present Code on the obligations, involved in the performance of business activities. Article 24. The Property Responsibility of the Citizen The citizen shall bear responsibility by his obligations with his entire property, with the exception of that property, upon which, in conformity with the law, no penalty may be inflicted. The list of the citizens' property, onto which no penalty may be imposed, shall be compiled by the civil procedural legislation. Article 25. Insolvency (Bankruptcy) of the Individual Businessman 1. The individual businessman, who is incapable of satisfying the claims of his creditors, related to his performance of business activities, may be recognized as insolvent (bankrupt) by the court decision. From the moment of such decision being passed, his registration in the capacity of an individual businessman shall be invalidated. 2. During the implementation of the procedure, involved in recognizing an individual businessman to be bankrupt, his creditors by the obligations, not related to his performance of business activities, shall also be entitled to the right to file their claims. The claims of the said creditors, filed by them in this order, shall stay in force after the completion of the procedure, involved in declaring the individual businessman to be bankrupt. 3. In case the individual businessman is declared to be bankrupt, the claims of his creditors shall be satisfied at the expense of the property in his possession, onto which the penalty may be imposed, in the following order: - in the first turn shall be satisfied the claims of the citizens, to whom the businessman bears responsibility for inflicting injury to the life or the health - by way of capitalization of the corresponding periodical payments, and also the claims for the exaction of aliments; - in the second turn shall be made the settlements, involved in the payment of the retirement allowances and in the remuneration of labour with the persons, working by a labour agreement, including by a contract, and also in the payment of fees and royalties by the authors' contracts; - in the third turn shall be satisfied the claims of the creditors, secured against by the pledge of the property in the possession of the individual businessman; - in the fourth turn shall be serviced the debts by obligatory payments into the budget and into the extra-budgetary funds; - in the fifth turn shall be made, in conformity with the law, the settlements with other creditors. 4. After completing the settlements with the creditors, the individual businessman, recognized as bankrupt, shall be relieved of discharging the other obligations, related to his business activities, as well as of satisfying the other claims, presented for execution and taken into account when recognizing him to be bankrupt. The claims of the citizens, to whom the person, declared bankrupt, bears responsibility for inflicting injury to the life or the health, and the other claims of a personal nature shall stay in force. 5. The grounds and the procedure for the court's recognizing an individual businessman to be bankrupt, or for his declaring himself bankrupt shall be established by the Law on the Insolvency (Bankruptcy). Article 26. The Active Capacity of the Minors of 14-18 Years of Age 1. The minors of from 14 to 18 years of age shall have the right to effect deals, with the exception of those listed in Item 2 of the present Article, upon the written consent of their legal representatives - the parents, the adopters or the trustee. The deal, effected by such a minor, shall be also valid, if it is subsequently approved in written form by his parents, adopters or trustee. 2. The minors of from 14 to 18 years of age shall have the right independently, without the consent of the parents, the adopters or the trustee: 1) to dispose of their earnings, student's grant or other incomes; 2) to exercise the author's rights to a work of science, literature or art, to an invention or to another law-protected result of their intellectual activity; 3) in conformity with the law, to make deposits into the credit institutions and to dispose of these; 4) to effect petty everyday deals, and also the other deals, stipulated by Item 2 of Article 28 of the present Code. On reaching the age of 16 years, the minors shall also acquire the right to be members of cooperatives in conformity with the laws on the cooperatives. 3. The minors of from 14 to 18 years of age shall bear the property responsibility for the deals they effect in conformity with Items 1 and 2 of the present Article. For the inflicted damage, such minors shall bear responsibility in conformity with the present Code. 4. In case there are sufficient grounds, the court, upon the request of the parents, the adopters or the trustee, or of the guardianship and trusteeship body, may restrict the right of the minor of from 14 to 18 years of age to independently dispose of his earnings, student's grant or other incomes, or deprive him of this right, with the exception of the cases, when such a minor has acquired the full active capacity in conformity with Item 2 of Article 21, or with Article 27 of the present Code. Article 27. Emancipation 1. The minor, who has reached the age of 16 years, may be declared to have the full active capacity, if he works by a labour agreement, including by a contract, or if he engages in business activities upon the consent of the parents, the adopters or the trustee. The minor shall be declared as having acquired the full active capacity (emancipation) by the decision of the guardianship and trusteeship body - upon the consent of the parents, the adopters or the trustee, or, in the absence of such consent - by the court decision. 2. The parents, the adopters and the trustee shall not bear responsibility for the obligations of an emancipated minor, in particular for those obligations, which have arisen as a result of his inflicting damage. Article 28. The Active Capacity of the Young Minors 1. Only the parents, the adopters or the guardians shall effect deals on behalf of the minors, who have not reached the age of 14 years (the young minors), with the exception of the deals, pointed out in Item 2 of the present Article. Toward the deals with his property, effected by the legal representatives of the young minor, shall be applied the rules, stipulated by Items 2 and 3, Article 37 of the present Code. 2. The minors of from 6 to 14 years of age shall have the right to independently effect: 1) petty everyday deals; 2) the deals, aimed at deriving a free profit, which are not liable to the notary's certification or to the state registration; 3) the deals, involved in the disposal of the means, provided by the legal representative or, upon the latter's consent, by a third person for a definite purpose or for a free disposal. 3. The property responsibility by the young minor's deals, including by the deals he has effected independently, shall be borne by his parents, adopters or guardians, unless they prove that the obligation has been violated not through their fault. These persons, in conformity with the law, shall also be answerable for the damage, caused by the young minors. Article 29. Recognizing the Citizen as Legally Incapable 1. The citizen who, as a result of a mental derangement, can neither realize the meaning of his actions nor control them, may be recognized by the court as legally incapable in conformity with the procedure, laid down by the procedural legislation. In this case, he shall be put under the guardianship. 2. The deals on behalf of the citizen, who has been recognized as legally incapable, shall be effected by his guardian. 3. If the grounds, by force of which the citizen was recognized as legally incapable, have ceased to exist, the court shall recognize him as legally capable. On the grounds of the court's ruling, the guardianship, formerly established over him, shall be recalled. Article 30. Restriction of the Citizen's Active Capacity 1. The active capacity of the citizen, who as a result of his abuse of alcohol or drug addiction has plunged his family into a precarious financial position, may be restricted by the court in conformity with the procedure, laid down by the procedural legislation. He shall be put under the guardianship. Such a citizen shall have the right to independently effect petty everyday deals. He shall have the right to effect other kinds of the deals and to receive the earnings, the pension and other incomes, and to dispose thereof only upon the consent of his trustee. Nevertheless, such a citizen shall independently bear property responsibility by the deals he has effected and for the damage he has caused. 2. If the grounds, by force of which the citizen was restricted in his active capacity, have ceased to exist, the court shall cancel the restriction of his active capacity. On the ground of the court ruling, the guardianship, formerly established over him, shall be recalled. Article 31. The Guardianship and the Trusteeship 1. The guardianship and the trusteeship shall be established to protect the rights and interests of the legally incapable or partially capable citizens. The guardianship and the trusteeship over the minors shall also be established for educational purposes. The corresponding rights and duties of the guardians and the trustees shall be defined by the legislation on the marriage and the family. 2. The guardians and the trustees shall not need being vested with special authority to come out in defence of the rights and interests of their wards in their relations with any other persons, including in the courts. 3. The guardianship and the trusteeship over the minors shall be established in case the minors have no parents and no adopters, in case the parents have been deprived of parental rights by the court, and also in those cases, when such citizens have been left without parental care, in particular when the parents have been shirking their duties, involved in their education or in the protection of their rights and interests. Article 32. The Guardianship 1. The guardianship shall be established over the minors and over the citizens, who have been recognized by the court as legally incapable as a result of a mental derangement. 2. The guardians shall be representatives of their wards by force of the law and shall effect all the necessary deals on their behalf and in their interests. Article 33. The Trusteeship 1. The trusteeship shall be established over the minors aged from 14 to 18 years, and also over the citizens, who have been restricted in their active capacity as a result of their abuse of alcohol or drug addiction. 2. The trustees shall give their consent for effecting such deals, which the citizens under their trusteeship have no right to effect independently. The trustees shall render assistance to their wards in their exercising their rights and duties, and shall protect them from the possible maltreatment on the part of the third persons. Article 34. The Guardianship and Trusteeship Bodies 1. The guardianship and trusteeship bodies shall be the local self-government bodies. 2. The court shall be obliged, within three days from the date of the enforcement of its decision on recognizing the citizen as legally incapable or on restricting his active capacity, to inform about this the guardianship and trusteeship body by the place of this citizen's residence for putting him under the guardianship or the trusteeship. 3. The guardianship and trusteeship body by the place of the wards' residence shall exercise supervision over the activities of their guardians and trustees. Article 35. The Guardians and the Trustees 1. The guardian or the trustee shall be appointed by the guardianship and trusteeship body by the place of residence of the person in need of guardianship or trusteeship, within the term of one month from the moment, when the said bodies have become aware of the need to establish the guardianship or the trusteeship over the citizen. In case of the existence of the circumstances, worthy of attention, the guardian or the trustee may be appointed by the guardianship and trusteeship body by the place of residence of the guardian (the trustee). If the guardian or the trustee is not appointed for the person in need of the guardianship or the trusteeship within the term of one month, the execution of the duties of the guardian or the trustee shall be temporarily imposed upon the guardianship and trusteeship body. The appointment of the guardian or the trustee may be appealed against by the interested persons in the court. 2. Only the adult and legally capable citizens shall be appointed as the guardians and the trustees. The citizens, deprived of parental rights, shall not be appointed as the guardians and the trustees. 3. The guardian or the trustee shall be appointed only upon his consent. Account shall be taken of his moral and other personal characteristics, his capability to perform the duties of the guardian or the trustee, the relationships, existing between him and the person in need of the guardianship or the trusteeship, and, if possible, also of the wish of the ward. 4. The guardians and the trustees of the citizens in need of the guardianship or the trusteeship, who have been kept in or placed into the corresponding educational or medical institutions, into the institutions for the social protection of the population or into other similar institutions, shall be these particular institutions. Article 36. Execution of Their Duties by the Guardians and the Trustees 1. The duties, involved in the guardianship and the trusteeship, shall be executed free of charge, with the exception of the law-stipulated cases. 2. The guardians and the trustees of the underaged citizens shall be obliged to live together with their wards. Residing of the trustee apart from their wards, who have reached 16 years of age, shall be admissible only upon the permission of the guardianship and trusteeship body under the condition that this may not have a negative effect on the ward's education and on the protection of his rights and interests. The guardians and the trustees shall be obliged to inform the guardianship and trusteeship bodies on the change of their place of residence. 3. The guardians and the trustees shall be obliged to take care of the maintenance of their wards, to provide for them all the essential services and medical treatment, and to protect their rights and interests. The guardians and the trustees shall be obliged to take care of their wards' education. 4. The duties, delineated in Item 3 of the present Article, shall not be imposed upon the guardians and the trustees of the adult citizens, who have been restricted in their active capacity by the court. 5. If the grounds, by force of which the citizen was recognized as legally incapable or partially incapable as a result of his abuse of alcohol or drug addiction, have ceased to exist, the guardian or the trustee shall be obliged to file a request with the court on his ward to be recognized as legally capable and on recalling the guardianship or the trusteeship, formerly established over him. Article 37. Disposal of the Ward's Property 1. The incomes of the citizen, put under the guardianship or the trusteeship, including the incomes due to him from the management of his property, with the exception of those incomes, of which the ward has the right to dispose independently, shall be spent by the guardian or the trustee exclusively in the ward's interest and upon the preliminary permission of the guardianship and trusteeship body. The guardian or the trustee shall have the right to make the outlays, necessary for the maintenance of the ward, at the expense of the amounts of money, due to the latter by way of his income, without obtaining the preliminary permission from the guardianship or trusteeship body. 2. The guardian shall not have the right to effect, and the trustee - to give his consent to effecting, the deals, involved in the alienation of the ward's property, including in the exchange or making a gift of it, in leasing it out (renting it), in giving it into a gratuitous use or in pawning it, or to effect the deals, entailing the renouncement of the rights possessed by the ward, the division of his property into parts or the apportioning of shares out of it, which would entail the reduction of the ward's property. The procedure for the management of the ward's property shall be laid down by the law. 3. The guardian, the trustee, their spouses and close relations shall have no right to effect any deals with the ward, with the exception of those involved in giving their own property to the ward as a gift or into a gratuitous use, or to substitute the ward in signing the deals or in conducting the court proceedings between the ward and the guardian's or the trustee's spouse and their close relations. Article 38. Confidential Management of the Ward's Property 1. In case of a need for the permanent management of the ward's realty and valuable movable property, the guardianship and trusteeship body shall sign with the manager, selected by this body, a contract on the confidential management of such property. In this case, the guardian or the trustee shall retain his powers with respect to that property of the ward, which has not been given into the confidential management. While the manager exerts the legal powers, involved in the management of the ward's property, the rules, stipulated by Items 2 and 3 of Article 37 of the present Code, shall be extended to his activity. 2. The confidential management of the ward's property shall be terminated on the grounds, stipulated by the law for cancelling the contract on the confidential management of the property, and also in the cases, when the guardianship and the trusteeship are recalled. Article 39. Relieving and Dismissal the Guardians and the Trustees from the Execution of Their Duties 1. The guardianship and trusteeship body shall relieve the guardian or the trustee of the execution of his duties in case the ward is returned to his parents or is adopted. In case the ward is placed into an educational or into a medical institution, an institution for the social protection of the population or into another similar institution, the guardianship and trusteeship body shall relieve the formerly appointed guardian or trustee of the execution of his duties, if this does not contradict to the ward's interests. 2. In case of the existence of the sound reasons (such as an illness, the change of the financial position, the absence of mutual understanding between him and the ward, etc.), the guardian or the trustee may be relieved of the execution of his duties upon his request. 3. In case of an improper execution by the guardian or by the trustee of the duties imposed on him, including in the case of his making use of his guardian's or trustee's status in his own selfish interests or of his leaving the ward without the proper supervision and the necessary assistance, the guardianship and trusteeship body shall have the right to dismiss the guardian or the trustee from the execution of these duties and to take the necessary measures for making the guilty citizen answerable in conformity with the law, stipulated liability. Article 40. Recalling the Guardianship and the Trusteeship 1. The guardianship and the trusteeship over the adult citizens shall be recalled in the cases when the court passes the decision on recognizing the ward as legally capable or on cancelling the restriction of his active capacity upon the petition of the guardian, of the trustee or of the guardianship and trusteeship body. 2. The guardianship over the young minor shall be recalled on his reaching the age of 14 years, and the citizen, who has formerly performed the functions of the young minor's guardian, shall become the minor's trustee without any additional decision made to this effect. 3. The trusteeship over the minor shall be recalled without any special decision upon his reaching the age of 18 years, and also in the case of his entering into a marriage, or in the other cases, when he acquires the full active capacity before attaining his majority (Item 2 of Article 21, and Article 27). Article 41. Patronage over the Legally Capable Persons 1. Upon his request, the adult legally capable person, who on account of the poor condition of his health cannot exercise and protect his rights and perform his duties, may be put under the trusteeship in the form of patronage. 2. The patron (assistant) of the adult legally capable citizen may be appointed by the guardianship and trusteeship body only upon the consent of such citizen. 3. The property, belonging to an adult capable ward, shall be disposed of by his patron (assistant) on the grounds of the contract of commission or of confidential management, signed with the ward. The everyday and other kind of deals, aimed at the maintenance and at the satisfaction of the ward's everyday needs, shall be effected by his patron (assistant) upon the consent of the ward. 4. The patronage over an adult legally capable citizen, established in conformity with Item 1 of the present article, shall be recalled upon the demand of the citizen, put under the patronage. The patron (assistant) of the citizen, put under the patronage, shall be relieved of the fulfillment of the duties imposed on him in the cases, stipulated by Article 39 of the present Code. Article 42. Recognition of the Citizen as Missing for an Unknown Reason The citizen may be recognized by the court, on the ground of an application, filed by the interested persons, as missing for an unknown reason, if at the place of his residence there is no information on the place of his stay in the course of one year. If it is impossible to establish the date of receiving the last information on the missing person, the first day of the month, next to that during which the last information on the missing person was received, shall be regarded as the beginning of the term to be calculated for recognizing the fact of the given person to be missing for an unknown reason, and in the case of the impossibility to establish this month - the first day of January of the next year. Article 43. The Consequences of Recognizing the Citizen as Missing for an Unknown Reason 1. If the property, belonging to the citizen, who has been recognized as missing for an unknown reason, requires a permanent management, it shall be passed, on the grounds of the court decision, to the person, who shall be appointed by the guardianship and trusteeship body and who shall act on the ground of the contract of confidential management, signed with the said body. Out of this property an allowance shall be paid for the maintenance of the citizens, whom the person, missing for an unknown reason, is obliged to keep, and the debts by the other obligations of the said person, missing for an unknown reason, shall be serviced. 2. The guardianship and trusteeship body shall have the right to appoint the manager of the missing citizen's property before the expiry of one year from the date of receiving the last information on the place of his stay. 3. The consequences of recognizing the person as missing for an unknown reason, not stipulated by the present Article, shall be defined by the law. Article 44. Repeal of the Decision on Recognizing the Person as Missing for an Unknown Reason In case the citizen, who has been recognized as missing for an unknown reason, turns up, or the place of his stay is discovered, the court shall repeal its decision on recognizing him as missing for an unknown reason. On the grounds of the court's decision, the management of this citizen's property shall be recalled. Article 45. Declaring the Citizen as Dead 1. The citizen may be declared by the court as dead, if at the place of his residence there has been no information on the place of his stay in the course of five years, and in case he has disappeared under the life-hazardous circumstances, or under such circumstances as give the ground for supposing that he might have perished as a result of a definite accident - if he has been missing in the course of six months. 2. The serviceman or the other citizen, who has been missing in connection with military operations, shall not be declared by the court as dead until the expiry of two years from the date of the cessation of the military operations. 3. The date of the departure of the citizen, who has been declared as dead, shall be the date of the coming into force of the court decision on declaring him as dead. In the case of declaring as dead the citizen, who has disappeared under the life-hazardous circumstances or under such circumstances as give the ground to suppose that he might have perished as a result of a definite accident, the court may recognize the day of this citizen's supposed perish as the date of his death. Article 46. The Consequences of the Turning up of the Citizen, Declared as Dead 1. In the case the citizen, who has been declared as dead, turns up, or the place of his stay is discovered, the court shall cancel its decision on declaring him as dead. 2. Regardless of the time of his turning up, the citizen shall have the right to demand from any person the return of the remaining property, which has been gratuitously passed to that person after the citizen was declared as dead, with the exception of the cases, stipulated by Item 3 of Article 302 of the present Code. The persons, to whom the property of the citizen, who has been declared as dead, passed as a result of commercial deals, shall be obliged to return to him this property, in case it has been proved that, while acquiring the property at issue, they were aware that the citizen, declared as dead, is actually alive. If the property at issue cannot be returned in kind, its cost shall be recompensed.

Article 47. Registration of the Civil State Acts

1. The following civil state acts shall be liable to the state registration:
1) the birth;
2) entering into a marriage;
3) the dissolution of the marriage;
4) the adoption;
5) the establishment of the paternity;
6) the change of the name;
7) the death of the citizen.
2. The registration of the civil state acts shall be effected by the civil registration bodies by making the corresponding entries into the Civil Registers (Civil Acts Books) and by issuing certificates to the citizens on the ground of these entries.
3. The civil state acts shall be corrected and amended by the civil registration bodies in case there are sufficient grounds for effecting this and there is no dispute between the interested persons. If there is a dispute between the interested persons, or if the civil registration body refuses to correct or to amend the entry, the dispute shall be resolved by the court.
The entries on the civil state acts shall be annulled or restored by the civil registration body on the ground of the court decision.
4. The bodies, performing the registration of the civil state acts, the procedure for registering these acts, the order of the restoration and annulment of the entries of the civil state acts, the forms for the civil acts books and for the certificates, as well as the procedure for and the term of the keeping of the civil acts books shall be defined by the Law on the Civil State Acts.

Chapter 4. The Legal Entities

_ 1. The Basic Provisions

Article 48. The Concept of the Legal Entity

1. The legal entity shall be recognized as an organization, which has in its ownership, economic management or operative management the set-apart property and which is answerable by its obligations with this property and may on its own behalf acquire and exercise the property and the personal non- property rights, to discharge duties and to come out as a plaintiff and as a defendant in the court. The legal entities shall have an independent balance or an estimate.
2. In connection with taking part in the formation of the property of the legal entity, its founders (participators) shall be entitled to the rights of obligation with respect to this legal entity, or the rights of estate to its property. To the legal entities, with respect to which their participants have the rights of obligation, shall be referred the economic partnerships and companies, and the production and consumer cooperatives.
To the legal entities, with respect to whose property their founders have the right of ownership or another right of estate, shall be referred the state and the municipal unitary enterprises, as well as the institutions, financed by the owner.
3. To the legal entities, with respect to which their founders (participants) shall not have the property rights, shall be referred the public and religious organizations (the associations), the charity and other funds, and the amalgamations of the legal entities (the associations and the unions).

Article 49. The Legal Capacity of the Legal Entity

1. The legal entity shall enjoy the civil rights that correspond to the goals of its activity, stipulated in its constituent documents, and shall discharge the duties related to this activity. The commercial organizations, with the exception of the unitary enterprises and the other law-stipulated kinds of organizations, shall possess the civil rights and discharge the civil duties, indispensable for the performance of any kinds of activity that are not prohibited by the law. The legal entity shall engage in the individual kinds of activity, the list of which shall be defined by the law, only on the ground of a special permit (license).
2. The legal entity may be restricted in its rights only in the cases and in conformity with the procedure, stipulated by the law. The decision on the restriction of its rights may be appealed against by the legal entity in the court.
3. The legal capacity of the legal entity shall arise at the moment of its establishment (Item 2 of Article 51) and shall cease at the moment, when its liquidation is completed (Item 8 of Article 63). The right of the legal entity to engage in an activity, for the performance of which a license shall be drawn, shall arise from the moment of its obtaining such a license, or from the time indicated in the license, and shall cease after the expiry of the term of its operation, unless otherwise stipulated by the law or by the other legal acts.

Article 50. Commercial and Non-Profit Organizations

1. The legal entities may be either the organizations, which see deriving profits as the chief goal of their activity (the commercial organizations), or those organizations, which do not see deriving profits as such a goal and which do not distribute the derived profit among their participants (the non-profit organizations).
2. The legal entities that are commercial organizations, may be set up in the form of the economic partnerships and companies, of the production cooperatives and of the state and the municipal unitary enterprises.
3. The legal entities that are non-profit organizations, may be set up in the form of the consumer cooperatives, of the public or religious organizations (associations), financed by the owner of the institutions, of the charity and other funds, and also in the other law-stipulated forms. The non-profit organizations shall engage in the business activity only so far as it helps them to achieve the goals, in the name of which they have been established, and of the kind that corresponds to these goals.
4. The creation of the alliances of the commercial and (or) the non-profit organizations in the form of associations and unions shall be admissible.

Article 51. State Registration of Legal Entities

1. A legal entity shall be subject to state registration with the authorized state body in conformity with the procedure, laid down by the Law on Registration of Legal Entities. The data on state registration shall be entered to the Unified State Register of Legal Entities, which shall be open to the general public. The refusal of state registration of a legal entity shall be only allowed in the cases stipulated by law. The refusal of state registration of a legal entity, as well as the avoidance of such registration, may be appealed against with the court.
2. The legal entity shall be regarded as established from the moment of making an appropriate entry to the Unified State Register of Legal Entities.

Article 52. Constituent Documents of the Legal Entity

1. The legal entity shall operate on the ground of the Rules, or of the constituent agreement and the Rules, or only of the constituent agreement. In the law-stipulated cases, the legal entity, which is not a non-profit organization, may operate on the ground of the general provisions on the given type of organizations. The constituent agreement of the legal entity shall be signed, and the Rules shall be approved by its founders (participants). The legal entity, created in conformity with the present Code by one founder, shall operate on the ground of the Rules, approved by this founder.
2. In the constituent documents of the legal entity shall be indicated the name of the legal entity, the place of its location, the way in which the legal entity's activity is managed, and the other information, required by the law for legal entities of the corresponding type. In the constituent documents of the non-profit organizations and of the unitary enterprises, and in the law-stipulated cases - also of the other commercial organizations, shall be defined the object and the goals of the legal entity's activity. The definition of the object and of the goals, pursued by the commercial organization, may also be stipulated by the constituent documents, in the cases, when it is not obligatory by the law. In the constituent agreement, the founders shall assume upon themselves an obligation to create the legal entity, shall delineate the order of their joint activities, involved in its creation, and the terms for the transfer to it of their property and for their participation in its activity. The agreement shall also define the terms and procedure for the distribution of the profits and losses among the participants, for the management of the legal entity's activity and for the founders' (the participants') withdrawal from its structure.
3. The amendments, made in the constituent documents, shall come into force for the third persons from the moment of their state registration, and in the cases, established by the law - from the moment of notifying about the effecting of such amendments the body, performing the state registration. However, the legal entities and their founders (participants) shall not have the right to refer to the absence of the registration of such amendments in their relationships with the third persons, who have acted with account for such amendments.

Article 53. The Legal Entity's Bodies

1. The legal entity shall acquire the civil rights and shall assume upon itself the civil duties through its bodies, acting in conformity with the law, with the other legal acts and with the constituent documents. The procedure for the appointment or the election of the legal entity's bodies shall be laid down by the law and by the constituent documents.
2. In the law-stipulated cases, the legal entity shall have the right to acquire the civil rights and to assume upon itself the civil duties through its participants.
3. The person, who by force of the law or of the legal entity's constituent documents comes out on its behalf, shall act in the interests of the legal entity it represents honestly and wisely. He shall be obliged, upon the demand of the founders (the participants) of the legal entity, to recompense the losses he has inflicted upon the legal entity, unless otherwise stipulated by the law or by the agreement.

Article 54. The Name and the Place of Location of the Legal Entity

1. The legal entity shall have its own name, which shall contain an indication of its legal-organizational form. The names of non-commercial organisations, and in the cases specified by law, the names of commercial organisations shall contain an indication of the nature of the legal person's activity.
2. The place of location of a legal entity shall be determined by the place of its state registration. The state registration of a legal entity shall be carried out at the location of a standing executive body thereof, and in the event of the absence of a standing executive body, it shall be done by other body or person empowered to act on behalf of the legal entity without a letter of authority.
3. The name and the place of location of the legal entity shall be pointed out in its constituent documents.
4. The legal entity, which is a commercial organization, shall have a trade name. The legal entity, whose trade name has been registered in conformity with the established procedure, shall be entitled to an exclusive right of its use.
The person, illegally making use of somebody else's registered trade name, shall be obliged, upon the demand of the owner of the right to the trade name, to stop making use of it and to recompense the inflicted losses.
The procedure for the registration and the use of the trade name shall be laid down by the law and by the other legal acts in conformity with the present Code.

Article 55. The Representations and the Subsidiaries

1. The representation shall be a set-apart subdivision of the legal entity, situated outside of the place of its location, which represents and protects the legal entity's interests.
2. The subsidiary shall be the legal entity's set-apart subdivision, situated outside of the place of its location and performing all its functions or a part thereof, including the functions of representation.
3. The representations and the subsidiaries shall not be legal entities. They shall be given the property of the legal entity, by which they have been set up, and shall operate in conformity with the provisions it has approved. The managers of the representations and the subsidiaries shall be appointed by the legal entity and shall act on the ground of its warrant. The representations and the subsidiaries shall be named in the constituent documents of the legal person, who has set them.

Article 56. The Legal Entity's Responsibility

1. The legal entities, with the exception of the institutions, financed by their owner, shall be answerable by their obligations with the entire property in their possession. 2. The state-run enterprise and the institution, financed by the owner, shall be answerable by their obligations in conformity with the order and on the terms, stipulated by Item 5 of Article 113 and by Articles 115 and 120 of the present Code. 3. The founder (the participant) of the legal entity or the owner of its property shall not be answerable by the legal entity's obligations, and the legal entity shall not be answerable by the obligations of the founder (the participant) or of the owner, with the exception of the cases, stipulated by the present Code or by the constituent documents of the legal entity. If the insolvency (bankruptcy) of the legal person has been caused by the founders (participants), by the owner of the legal entity's property or by the other persons, who have the right to issue the obligatory instructions for the given legal entity, or may determine its actions in any other way, in case the legal entity's property proves to be insufficient, the subsidiary liability by the legal entity's obligations may be imposed upon such persons.

Article 57. Reorganization of the Legal Entity

1. The reorganization of the legal entity (the merger, affiliation, division, branching off, transformation) shall be effected by the decision of its founders (participants) or of the legal entity's body, authorized for this by the constituent documents. 2. In the law-stipulated cases, the reorganization of the legal entity in the form of its division or of the branching off from its structure of one or of several legal entities, shall be effected by the decision of the authorized state bodies or by the court decision. If the founders (the participants) of the legal entity, its authorized body or the legal entity's body, which has been authorized to effect the reorganization by its constituent documents, fail to effect the legal entity's reorganization within the term, fixed in the decision of the authorized state body, the court shall appoint, upon the claim of the said state body, an outside manager as the legal entity and shall entrust to him the given legal entity's reorganization. From the moment of the appointment of an outside manager, the powers, involved in the management of the legal entity's affairs, shall pass to him. The outside manager shall come out on behalf of the legal entity in the court, shall compile the divisional balance and shall present it for examination to the court, together with the constituent documents of the legal entities, created as a result of the reorganization. The endorsement of the said documents by the court shall be the ground for the state registration of the newly emerging legal entities. 3. In the law-stipulated cases, the reorganization of the legal entities in the form of the merger, affiliation or transformation shall be effected only upon the consent of the authorized state bodies. 4. The legal entity shall be regarded as reorganized, with the exception of the cases of reorganization in the form of affiliation, from the moment of the state registration of the newly created legal entities. In case of the reorganization of the legal entity in the form of another legal entity's affiliation to it, the former shall be regarded as reorganized from the moment of making an entry about the cessation of activity of the legal entity, affiliated to it, into the State Register of the Legal Entities.

Article 58. Legal Succession in the Reorganization of Legal Entities

1. In case of the merger of the legal entities, the rights and duties of every one of them shall pass to the newly emerged legal entity in conformity with the transfer deed. 2. In case of the legal entity's affiliation to another legal entity, the rights and duties of the former legal entity shall pass to the latter legal entity in conformity with the transfer deed. 3. In case of the division of the legal entity, its rights and duties shall pass to the newly emerged legal entities in conformity with the divisional balance. 4. In case of the branching off from the structure of the legal entity of one or of several legal entities, the rights and duties of the reorganized legal entity shall pass to every one of these in conformity with the divisional balance. 5. In case of the transformation of the legal entity of one type into a legal entity of a different type (the change of its legal-organizational form), the rights and duties of the reorganized legal entity shall pass to the newly emerged legal entity in conformity with the transfer deed. Article 59. The Transfer Deed and the Divisional Balance 1. The transfer deed and the divisional balance shall contain provisions on the legal succession by all obligations of the reorganized legal entity with respect to all its creditors and debtors, including the obligations, disputed by the parties. 2. The transfer deed and the divisional balance shall be endorsed by the founders (participants) of the legal entity or by the body, which has adopted the decision on the reorganization of the legal entities, and shall be presented, together with the constituent documents, for the state registration of the newly emerged legal entities, or for the introduction of amendments into the constituent documents of the existing legal entities. The failure to present, together with the constituent documents, correspondingly, the transfer deed or the divisional balance, and the absence in these of the provisions on the legal succession by the obligations of the reorganized legal entity, shall entail the refusal to effect the state registration of the newly emerged legal entities. Article 60. Guarantees for the Rights of the Legal Entity's Creditors in Case of Its Reorganization 1. The founders (the participants) of the legal entity or the body, which have adopted the decision on the legal entity's reorganization, shall be obliged to notify about it in written form the creditors of the reorganized legal entity. 2. The creditor of the reorganized legal entity shall have the right to claim that the obligation, by which the given legal entity is the debtor, be terminated or that the latter discharge it before the fixed date. 3. If the divisional balance does not make it possible to define the legal successor of the reorganized legal entity, the newly emerged legal entities shall bear to its creditors the joint responsibility. Article 61. Liquidation of the Legal Entity 1. The liquidation of the legal entity shall entail its termination without the transfer of its rights and duties to the other entities by way of legal succession. 2. The legal entity may be liquidated: - by the decision of its founders (participants), or of the legal entity's body, authorized for this by the constituent documents, including in connection with the expiry of the term, for which the given legal entity has been created, with its achieving the goal, for the sole purpose of which it has been established; - by the court decision in case of gross violations of law made in the establishment thereof, where these violations cannot be rectified, or of the performance of an activity without a proper permit (license), or of an activity, prohibited by the law, or with other gross violations of the law or of the other legal acts, or in case of the systematic performance by the public or by the religious organization (the association), by the charity or the other fund of an activity, contradicting the goals, set in its Rules, and also in the other cases, stipulated by the present Code. 3. The claim for the liquidation of the legal entity on the grounds, stipulated in Item 2 of the present Article, may be lodged with a court by the state body or by the local self-government body, to which the right to present such a claim has been granted by the law. By the court decision on the liquidation of the legal entity, the fulfillment of the duties, involved in implementing the liquidation of the legal entity, may be imposed upon its founders (participants), or upon the body, authorized to effect the liquidation of the legal entity by its constituent documents. 4. The legal entity, which is a commercial organization or which operates in the form of a consumer cooperative, a charity or another fund, shall also be liquidated in conformity with Article 65 of the present Code as a result of its being recognized as insolvent (bankrupt). If the cost of the legal entity's property proves to be insufficient to satisfy the creditors' claims, it shall be liquidated only in conformity with the procedure, stipulated by Article 65 of the present Code. The provisions on the liquidation of the legal entities as a result of their insolvency (bankruptcy) shall not be extended to the state-run enterprises. Article 62. The Duties of the Person Who Has Adopted the Decision on the Liquidation of the Legal Entity 1. The founders (the participants) of a legal entity or the body, who (which) have adopted the decision on liquidation of the legal entity, shall be obliged to immediately notify about this in written form the authorized state body which shall enter the information on the given legal entity, being in the process of liquidation, to the Unified State Register of Legal Entities. 2. The founders (the participants) of a legal entity or the body, who (which) have adopted the decision on liquidation of the legal entity, shall appoint a liquidation commission (the liquidator), and shall establish, in conformity with the present Code and other laws, the procedure for, and the term of, liquidation thereof. 3. From the moment of appointment of the liquidation commission, the powers involved in the management of the legal entity's affairs shall pass to it. The liquidation commission shall also come out on behalf of the liquidated legal entity in the court. Article 63. Procedure for the Legal Entity's Liquidation 1. The liquidation commission shall send to the press organs, in which information on the state registration of the legal entity is published, an advertisement on its liquidation and on the procedure and the term for the claims to be filed by its creditors. The liquidation commission shall take measures for the exposure of the creditors and the exaction of the debit indebtedness, and shall notify the creditors in written form about the liquidation of the legal entity. 2. After the expiry of the term fixed for the creditors' filing claims, the liquidation commission shall compile an intermediary liquidation balance, containing information on the structure of the legal entity's property, on the list of the creditors' claims and on the results of their examination. The intermediary liquidation balance shall be approved by the founders (the participants) of a legal entity or by the body, which has adopted the decision on the legal entity's liquidation. In the cases established by law the intermediary liquidation balance shall be endorsed by agreement with the authorized state body. 3. If the monetary means at the disposal of the legal entity under liquidation (except for the institutions) prove to be insufficient to satisfy the creditors' claims, the liquidation commission shall organize the sale of the legal entity's property at a public auction in conformity with the procedure, laid down for the execution of the court decisions. 4. The payment of monetary amounts to the creditors of the liquidated legal entity shall be effected by the liquidation commission according to the order of priority, established by Article 64 of the present Code, in conformity with the intermediary liquidation balance, beginning with the date of its approval, with the exception of the creditors of the fifth turn, to whom the payments shall be made on the expiry of one month from the date of the endorsement of the intermediary liquidation balance. 5. After completing the settlements with the creditors, the liquidation commission shall compile the liquidation balance, which must be approved by the founders (the participants) of the legal entity, or by the body, which has adopted the decision on the legal entity's liquidation. In the cases established by law the liquidation balance shall be approved by agreement with the authorized state body. 6. In case the property at the disposal of the liquidated state-run enterprise, or the monetary means at the disposal of the liquidated institution are insufficient to satisfy the creditors' claims, the latter shall have the right to turn to the court with a claim for the satisfaction of the rest of the claims at the expense of the owner of the property of this enterprise or institution. 7. The property of the liquidated legal person, left after the creditors' claims are satisfied, shall be passed to its founders (participants), who have the rights of estate to this property, if not otherwise stipulated by the law, by the other legal acts or by the founding documents of the legal entity. 8. The liquidation of the legal entity shall be regarded as completed and the legal entity as having ceased existence after an entry to this effect has been made into the Unified State Register of the Legal Entities.

Article 64. Satisfaction of the Creditors' Claims

1. In case of the liquidation of a legal entity, the creditors' claims shall be satisfied in the following order of priority: - in the first turn shall be satisfied the claims of the citizens, to whom the liquidated legal entity bears responsibility for causing harm to the life or the health, by way of capitalization of the corresponding regular payments; - in the second turn shall be effected the settlements, involved in the payment of retirement allowances and in the remuneration of labour to the persons, who have been employed on the ground of a labour agreement, including by a contract, and also those involved in the payment of fees by the author's contracts. - in the third turn shall be satisfied the claims of the creditors by the obligations, secured against by the property of the liquidated legal entity; - in the fourth turn shall be repaid the debts by the obligatory payments into the budget and into the extra-budgetary funds; - in the fifth turn shall be effected the settlements with the other creditors in conformity with the law. In the liquidation of banks or any other credit institutions attracting the resources of citizens, in the first place there shall be satisfied the demands of the citizens who are creditors of the banks or of any other credit institutions attracting the funds of citizens and also the requirements for the organisation that discharges the functions of the obligatory insurance of deposits in connection with the payment of compensation for deposits in accordance with the law on the insurance of deposits of individuals with banks. 2. The claims of each of these groups shall be satisfied after fully satisfying the claims of the previous groups. 3. In case the property of the liquidated legal entity proves to be insufficient, it shall be distributed among the creditors of the corresponding group proportionately to the amounts of the claims liable to satisfaction, if not otherwise stipulated by the law. 4. In case the liquidation commission refuses to satisfy the creditor's claim or evades its consideration, the creditor shall have the right, until the approval of the legal entity's liquidation balance, to turn to the court with a claim against the liquidation commission. By the court decision, the creditor's claims may be satisfied at the expense of the remaining property of the liquidated legal entity. 5. The creditor's claims, lodged after the expiry of the term, fixed by the liquidation commission for their presentation , shall be satisfied from the property of the liquidated legal entity, which has been left after the duly lodged creditors' claims have been satisfied. 6. The creditors' claims, left unsatisfied because of the insufficiency of the property of the liquidated legal entity, shall be regarded as settled, the same as the claims of the creditors, which have not been recognized by the liquidation commission, if the creditor did not file the claim with a court, and also those claims, which have been rejected by the court ruling.

Article 65. Insolvency (Bankruptcy) of the Legal Entity

1. The legal entity, which is a commercial organization, with the exception of the state-run enterprise, and the legal entity, operating in the form of a consumer cooperative or of a charity or another kind of the fund, may be recognized by the court decision as insolvent (bankrupt), if it is incapable to satisfy the creditors' claims. The recognition of the legal entity to be bankrupt shall entail its liquidation.
2. The legal entity, which is a commercial organization, and also the legal entity, operating in the form of a consumer cooperative or of a charity or another kind of the fund, may jointly with the creditors adopt the decision on declaring itself to be bankrupt and on its voluntary liquidation.
3. The grounds for the court recognizing the legal entity to be bankrupt or for its declaring itself to be bankrupt, and the procedure for the liquidation of such a legal entity shall be laid down by the Law on the Insolvency (Bankruptcy). The creditors' claims shall be satisfied according to the order of priority, stipulated by Item 1 of Article 64 of the present Code.

_ 2. The Economic Partnerships and Companies

__ 1. The General Provisions

Article 66. The Basic Provisions on the Economic Partnerships and Companies

1. The economic partnerships and companies shall be recognized as commercial organizations with the authorized (joint) capital, divided into the shares (investments) of the founders (the participants). The property, formed at the expense of the founders' (the participants') contributions, the same as that produced and acquired by the economic partnership or by the company in the process of its activity, shall belong to it by the right of ownership. In the cases, stipulated by the present Code, an economic company may be created by one person, who becomes its only participant. 2. The economic partnerships may be established in the form of a general partnership and of a limited (commandite) partnership. 3. The economic partnerships may also be created in the form of a joint-stock company with a limited or a double responsibility. 4. The participants in the general partnerships and the general partners in the limited (commandite) partnerships may be the individual businessmen and (or) the commercial organizations. The participants in the economic companies and the investors in the limited (commandite) partnerships may be the citizens and the legal entities. The state bodies and the local self-government bodies shall not have the right to be the participants in the economic companies and the investors in the limited partnerships, if not otherwise stipulated by the law. The institutions, financed by their owners, may be the participants in the economic companies and the investors in the partnerships upon the owner's permission, unless otherwise stipulated by the law. The law may prohibit or restrict the participation of the individual categories of citizens in the economic partnerships and companies, with the exception of the public joint-stock companies. 5. The economic partnerships and companies may be the founders (the participants) of the other economic partnerships and companies, with the exception of the cases, stipulated by the present Code and by the other laws. 6. Contributed to the property of an economic partnership or of a company may be the money, the securities and the other things, or the property and the other rights that may be evaluated in money. The monetary evaluation of the contribution, made by the participant in the economic company, shall be effected by an agreement between the founders (participants) of the company; in the law-stipulated cases, it shall be subject to an independent expert examination. 7. The economic partnerships, and also the companies with a limited and a double responsibility shall not have the right to issue shares. Article 67. The Rights and Duties of the Participants in the Economic Partnership or Company 1. The participants in the economic partnership or company shall have the right: - to take part in the management of affairs of the partnership or company, with the exception of the cases, stipulated by Item 2, Article 84 of the present Code and by the Law on the Joint-Stock Companies; - to get informed on the activity of the partnership or company and to get acquainted with its accounting books and other documentation in conformity with the procedure, laid down by the constituent documents; - to take part in the distribution of profits; - to receive, in the case of the partnership's or the company's liquidation, a part of its property, left after the settlements with the creditors, or the cost thereof. 2. The participants in the economic partnership or company shall be obliged: - to make investments in the order, in the amount, in the ways and within the term, stipulated by the constituent documents; - to keep secret the confidential information on the partnership's or the company's activity. The participants in the economic partnership or company may also discharge the other duties, stipulated by the constituent documents. Article 68. Transformation of the Economic Partnerships and Companies 1. The economic partnerships and companies of one type may be transformed into the economic partnerships and companies of another type or into the production cooperatives, by the decision of the general meeting of their participants in conformity with the procedure, stipulated by the present Code. 2. In case the partnership is transformed into a company, each general partner, who has become the participant (the share-holder) of the company, shall bear in the course of two years the subsidiary responsibility with his entire property by the obligations, which have passed to the company from the partnership. The alienation by the former partner of the participation shares (shares) in his possession shall not exempt him from such responsibility. The rules, expatiated in the present Item, shall be correspondingly applied in case the partnership is transformed into a production cooperative.

__ 2. The General Partnership

Article 69. The Basic Provisions on the General Partnership

1. The partnership, whose participants (general partners) are engaged, in conformity with the agreement signed between them, in business activities on behalf of the partnership and bear responsibility by its obligations with the property in their possession, shall be recognized as the general partnership. 2. The person shall have the right to be the participant of only one general partnership. 3. The trade name of the general partnership shall contain either the names (the titles) of all its participants and the words "general partnership", or the name (the title) of one or of several of its participants, with the words "and Co." and "general partnership" to be added. Article 70. The Constituent Agreement of the General Partnership 1. The general partnership shall be created and shall operate on the ground of a constituent agreement. The constituent agreement shall be signed by all its participants. 2. The constituent agreement of the general partnership shall contain, in addition to the information, stipulated in Item 2, Article 52 of the present Code, the terms for the amount and structure of the joint capital of the partnership; on the amount and the procedure for changing the share of each of the participants in the joint capital; on the amount, the structure, the term and the order, set for their making investments; and on the liability for the violation of the duties, involved in making such investments. Article 71. Management in the General Partnership 1. The activity of the general partnership shall be managed by the general agreement of all its participants. The constituent agreement of the partnership may also indicate the cases, when the decision shall be adopted by the majority of the participants' votes. 2. Every participant of the general partnership shall have one vote, if the constituent agreement does not stipulate a different order for the definition of its participants' votes. 3. Every participant of the partnership shall have the right to get acquainted with the entire documentation on the business management, regardless of whether he has been authorized to perform the partnership's business management. The renouncement of this right or its restriction, including by the agreement of the partnership's participants, shall be insignificant. Article 72. Business Management of the General Partnership 1. Every participant of the general partnership shall have the right to operate on behalf of the partnership, unless the constituent agreement has laid it down that all its participants shall effect the business management jointly, or unless the business management has been entrusted to the individual participants. If the partnership's participants effect a joint business management of the partnership, to make any one deal, the consent of all the participants of the partnership shall be required. If the business management of the partnership has been entrusted by its participants to one or to several persons from among them, the other participants, who are going to make a deal on behalf of the partnership, shall receive a warrant from the participant (the participants), to whom the business management of the partnership has been entrusted. The partnership shall not have the right to refer, in its relations with the third persons, to the provisions of the constituent agreement, restricting the powers of the partnership participants, with the exception of the cases, when the partnership can prove that at the moment of effecting the deal, the third person was aware, or should have been aware, of the partnership participant's having no right to act on behalf of the partnership. 2. The powers for the management of the partnership affairs, granted to one or to several of its participants, may be terminated by the court on the demand of one or of several other partnership participants, if there are serious grounds for this, in particular, if the authorized person (persons) has (have) committed a gross violation of their duties, or if he (they) have proved to be incapable of a wise management of the affairs. The necessary changes shall be introduced into the constituent agreement of the partnership on the grounds of the court decision. Article 73. The Duties of the Participant of the General Partnership 1. The participant of the general partnership shall take part in its activities in conformity with the terms of the constituent agreement. 2. The participant of the general partnership shall put at least a half of his contribution into the partnership's joint capital by the moment of its registration. The remaining part shall be put in by the participant within the term, fixed by the constituent agreement. In case he fails to discharge the said duty, the participant shall be obliged to pay to the partnership an annual 10 per cent from the underpaid part of the contribution and to recompense the inflicted losses, unless the other consequences have been stipulated by the constituent agreement. 3. The participant in a general partnership shall not have the right to make on his own behalf and in his own interest, or in the interest of the third persons, without the consent of the rest of the participants, the deals, which are similar to those that are the object of the partnership's activity. If this rule is violated, the partnership shall have the right to demand, according to his choice, either that the given participant recompense the losses he has caused to the partnership, or that the entire profit he has derived by such deals be transferred to the partnership. Article 74. Distribution of the Profits and Losses of the General Partnership 1. The profits and losses of the general partnership shall be distributed among its participants proportionately to their shares in the joint capital, if not otherwise stipulated by the constituent agreement or by another agreement, signed by the participants. No agreement on the exclusion of any partnership participants from the distribution of the profits and losses shall be admitted. 2. If, as a result of the losses the partnership has sustained, the value of its net assets shrinks to less than the amount of its joint capital, the profit, derived by the partnership, shall not be distributed among its participants until the value of its net assets exceeds the amount of the joint capital. Article 75. Responsibility of the Participants of the General Partnership by Its Obligations 1. The participants of the general partnership shall jointly bear the subsidiary responsibility by the partnership's obligations with their entire property. 2. The participant of the general partnership, who is not its founder, shall be answerable on a par with the other participants by the obligations, which have arisen before the date of his joining the partnership. The participant, who has withdrawn from the partnership, shall be answerable by the partnership's obligations, which have arisen before the moment of his retirement, on a par with the rest of the participants in the course of 2 years from the date of the approval of the accounting report on the activity of the partnership over the year, during which he has retired from the partnership. 3. The agreement of the partnership participants on the restriction or elimination of the responsibility, stipulated in the present Article, shall be insignificant. Article 76. The Change of the General Partnership's Membership 1. In case of the withdrawal or death of any one of the participants from the general partnership, the recognition of one of them as missing, legally incapable or partially capable, or as insolvent (bankrupt), or if the re-organizational procedures are instituted against one of the participants by the court ruling, or if a legal entity, which is a member of the partnership, is liquidated or the creditor of one of the participants turns the exaction of his debt onto the part of the property, amounting to the participant's share in the partnership's joint capital, the partnership may continue its activity, if this is stipulated by the constituent agreement of the partnership or by an agreement, signed between the rest of its participants. 2. The participants of the general partnership shall have the right to demand through the court that a certain participant be expelled from the partnership in conformity with the unanimous decision of the remaining participants and in the face of the serious grounds, in particular, on account of his gross violation of his duties or of his proving to be incapable of a wise management of affairs. Article 77. The Participant's Withdrawal from the General Partnership 1. The participant of the general partnership shall have the right to retire from it after having declared his refusal to take part in it. The participant shall declare his refusal to take part in the general partnership, created without indicating the term of operation, not less than 6 months in advance before his actual withdrawal from the partnership. The refusal to take part in the general partnership, created for a certain term, before the expiry of the said term, shall be admitted only on the valid grounds. 2. The agreement on the renouncement of the right to withdraw from the partnership, signed between the partnership participants, shall be insignificant. Article 78. The Consequences of the Participant's Withdrawal from the General Partnership 1. The participant, who has retired from the general partnership, shall be paid out the cost of the share of the partnership's property, corresponding to this participant's share in the joint capital, if not otherwise stipulated by the constituent agreement. By an agreement reached between the retiring participant and the rest of the participants, the payment out of the cost of the property may be replaced by the transfer of the property in kind. The part of the partnership's property due to the retiring participant, or its cost shall be defined by the balance, which shall be compiled by the moment of his withdrawal, with the exception of the cases, stipulated by Article 80 of the present Code. 2. In case of the death of the participant of the general partnership, his heir may join the general partnership only upon the consent of all the other participants. The legal entity - the successor of the reorganized legal entity, which was a member of the general partnership, shall have the right to join the general partnership upon the consent of its other participants, if not otherwise stipulated by the partnership's constituent agreement. The settlements with the heir (successor), who has not joined the partnership, shall be effected in conformity with Item 1 of the present Article. The heir (successor) of the participant of the general partnership shall bear responsibility by the partnership's obligations to the third persons, by which, in conformity with Item 2 of Article 75 of the present Code, the departed participant was answerable, within the amount of the property of the departed participant, passed to him. 3. In the case of one of the participants retiring from the partnership, the shares of the remaining participants in the partnership's joint capital shall correspondingly increase, unless otherwise stipulated by the constituent documents. Article 79. Transfer of the Participant's Share in the General Partnership's Joint Capital The participant of the general partnership shall have the right, with the consent of the rest of its participants, to transfer his share in the joint capital, or a part thereof, to another participant of the partnership or to the third person. When the share (a part of the share) is transferred to another person, the full rights or the corresponding part thereof, formerly possessed by the participant, who has effected the transfer of his share (a part of the share), shall also pass to the former. The person, to whom the share (a part of the share) has been transferred, shall bear responsibility by the partnership's obligations in conformity with the procedure, laid down by first paragraph of Item 2 of Article 75 of the present Code. The transfer of his entire share to another person, effected by the participant of the partnership, shall entail the termination of his participation in the partnership and also the consequences, stipulated by Item 2 of Article 75 of the present Code. Article 80. Turning the Penalty onto the Share of the Participant in the Joint Capital of the General Partnership The turning of the penalty onto the participant's share in the joint capital of the partnership by the participant's own debts shall be admissible only if his own property proves to be insufficient to cover his debts. The creditors of such a participant shall have the right to demand from the general partnership that it separate the part of the partnership's property that would correspond to the debtor's share in the joint capital, so that the penalty may be turned onto this property. The part of the partnership property, subject to being singled out, or the cost thereof, shall be defined by the balance, compiled by the moment when the creditors file the claim for it to be separated. The turning of the penalty onto the property, which corresponds to the participant's share in the joint capital of the general partnership, shall signify the termination of his participation in the partnership and shall also entail the consequences, stipulated by Paragraph 2 of Item 2 of Article 75 of the present Code. Article 81. Liquidation of the General Partnership The general partnership shall be liquidated on the grounds, indicated in Article 61 of the present Code, and also in case only one participant is left in it. Such a participant shall have the right, in the course of 6 months from the moment when he has become the only participant of the partnership, to transform such a partnership into an economic company in conformity with the procedure, laid down by the present Code. The general partnership shall also be liquidated in the cases, stipulated in Item 1 of Article 76 of the present Code, unless it has been stipulated by the constituent documents of the partnership, or by an agreement, signed between the remaining participants, that the partnership shall continue its activity.

__ 3. The Limited Partnership

Article 82. The Basic Provisions for the Limited Partnership

1. The limited (commandite) partnership shall be recognized as such a partnership, in which, alongside the participants, engaged in the performance of the business activity on behalf of the partnership and answerable by the obligations of the partnership with their property (the general partners), there is (are) also one or several participants-investors (commanditaires), who bear the risk of the losses in connection with the partnership's activity within the amount of their investments and who do not take part in the performance of the partnership's business activity. 2. The position of the general partners in the commandite partnership and their liability by the partnership's obligations shall be defined by the rules on the participants of the general partnership, laid down by the present Code. 3. The person shall be the general partner only in one commandite partnership. The participant of the general partnership shall not be the general partner in the commandite partnership. 4. The trade name of the commandite partnership shall contain either the names (the titles) of all its general partners and the words "limited partnership" or "commandite partnership", or the name (the title) of at least one of its general partners and the words "and Co.", and also the words "limited partnership" or "commandite partnership". If into the trade name of the partnership is included the name of the investor, this investor shall become the general partner. 5. Toward the limited (commandite) partnership shall be applied the rules on the general partnership, laid down in the present Code, so far as this does not contradict the rules of the present Code on the limited partnership. Article 83. The Constituent Agreement of the Limited Partnership 1. The limited partnership shall be created and shall operate on the ground of the constituent agreement. The constituent agreement shall be signed by all the general partners. 2. The constituent agreement of the limited partnership shall contain, in addition to the information, indicated in Item 2, Article 52 of the present Code, the terms on the amount and structure of the joint capital of the partnership; on the amount of and the procedure for changing the shares of each of the general partners in the joint capital; on the amount, the structure, the term and the order of their making investments, their liability for violating the duties, involved in making the investments; on the aggregate amount of the contributions, made by the investors. Article 84. Administrative and Business Management in the Limited Partnership 1. The activity of the limited partnership shall be led by its general partners. The procedure for the administrative and business management of such a partnership by its general partners shall be established according to the rules on the general partnership, laid down in the present Code. 2. The investors shall not have the right to take part in the administrative and business management of the limited partnership or to come out on its behalf other than by a warrant. Neither shall they have the right to dispute the actions of the general partners involved in the administrative and business management of the partnership. Article 85. The Rights and Duties of the Investor of the Limited Partnership 1. The investor of the limited partnership shall be obliged to make an investment into the joint capital. The fact of his making the investment shall be confirmed by the participation certificate, issued to the investor by the partnership. 2. The investor of the limited partnership shall have the right: 1) to receive a part of the partnership's profit, due for his share in the joint capital, in conformity with the procedure, stipulated by the constituent agreement; 2) to get acquainted with the partnership's annual reports and balances; 3) on the expiry of the fiscal year, to retire from the partnership and to withdraw his investment in conformity with the procedure, laid down by the constituent agreement; 4) to transfer his share in the joint capital or a part thereof to another investor or to a third person. The investors shall be entitled to the preferential right, in comparison with the third persons, to buy the share (a part thereof) as applied to the terms and order, stipulated by Item 2 of Article 93 of the present Code. The transfer by the investor of his entire share to another person shall amount to the termination of his membership in the partnership. The constituent agreement of the limited partnership may also stipulate other rights of the investor. Article 86. Liquidation of the Limited Partnership 1. The limited partnership shall be liquidated in case all the investors have retired from it. However, the general partners shall have the right, instead of the liquidation of the limited partnership, to transform it into a general partnership. The limited partnership shall also be liquidated on the grounds, stipulated for the liquidation of the general partnership (Article 81). However, the limited partnership shall continue operation, if at least one general partner and one investor are left in it. 2. In case of the liquidation of the limited partnership, including in the case of its bankruptcy, the investors shall have the preferential right before the general partners to get back their investments from the property of the partnership, left after the creditors' claims have been satisfied. The property of the partnership, left after this, shall be distributed among the general partners and the investors proportionately to their shares in the partnership's joint capital, if not otherwise stipulated by the constituent agreement or by an agreement between the general partners and the investors.

__ 4. The Limited Liability Company

Article 87. The Basic Provisions on the Limited Liability Company

1. The limited liability company shall be recognized as the company, established by one or by several persons, whose authorized capital is divided into the shares, the size of which is stipulated by the constituent documents; the participants of the limited liability company shall not be answerable by its obligations and shall bear the risk of the losses in connection with the company's activity within the cost of the contributions they have made. The participants of the company, who have not made their contributions in full volume, shall bear joint responsibility by its obligations within the cost of the underpaid part of the contribution of each of the participants. 2. The trade name of the limited liability company shall contain the name of the company and the words, "limited liability". 3. The legal position of the limited liability company, and the rights and duties of its participants shall be defined by the present Code and by the Law on the Limited Liability Companies. The peculiarities of the legal status of the credit organizations set up in the form of a limited liability company, the rights and duties of the stakeholders thereof shall also be provided by the laws governing the activities of credit organizations. Article 88. Participants in the Limited Liability Company 1. The number of participants in the limited liability company shall not exceed the limit, established by the Law on the Limited Liability Companies. Otherwise it shall be subject to transformation into a joint-stock company in the course of a year; on the expiry of this term, if the number of its participants has not been reduced to the law-established limit, it shall be liquidated by the court decision. 2. The limited liability company shall not include as a single participant another economic company, consisting of a single person. Article 89. Constituent Documents of the Limited Liability Company 1. The constituent documents of the limited liability company shall be the constituent agreement, signed by its participants, and the Rules, approved by them. If the company is set up by a single person, its constituent document shall be the Rules. 2. The constituent documents of the limited liability company, in addition to the information, stipulated in Item 2 of Article 52 of the present Code, shall contain the terms on the amount of the company's capital; on the size of the shares of every participant; on the size, the structure, the term and the procedure for their making the investments, and on their responsibility for violating their duties, involved in the making of the investments; on the structure and the competence of the public management bodies and on the order of their adopting decisions, including on the issues, the decisions on which shall be adopted unanimously or by a qualified majority of votes; and also other information, stipulated by the Law on the Limited Liability Companies. Article 90. Authorized Capital of the Limited Liability Company 1. The authorized capital of the limited liability company shall be comprised of the cost of its participants' contributions. The authorized capital of the limited liability company shall determine the minimum size of the company's property, guaranteeing the interests of its creditors. The authorized capital of the limited liability company shall not be less than the amount, stipulated by the Law on the Limited Liability Companies. 2. It is prohibited to relieve a stakeholder of the limited liability company from the obligation to make a contribution in the company's authorized capital, including but not limited to, accepting for offset claims to the company, excluding the cases provided by the law. 3. By the moment of registration, not less than a half of the authorized capital of the limited liability company shall be paid up by its participants. The remaining underpaid part of the authorized capital shall be subject to payment by its participants in the course of the first year of the company's operation. In case of violating this obligation, the company shall either make a statement on the reduction of its authorized capital and register its reduction in conformity with the established procedure, or cease its activity by way of liquidation. 4. If, on the expiry of the second or of every subsequent fiscal year, the cost of the net assets of the limited liability company proves to be less than its authorized capital, the company shall be obliged to make a statement on the reduction of its authorized capital and to register its reduction in conformity with the established procedure. In case the cost of the company's said assets falls below the law-stipulated minimum size of the authorized capital, the company shall be subject to liquidation. 5. The reduction of the authorized capital of the limited liability company shall be admitted after all its creditors have been notified to this effect. In this case, the latter shall have the right to demand that the corresponding obligations of the company shall be discharged in advance and that their losses be recompensed. The rights and duties of the creditors of credit organizations set up on the form of a limited liability company shall also be governed by the laws governing the activities of credit organizations. 6. The augmentation of the company's authorized capital shall be admitted after all its participants have made their investments in full volume. Article 91. Administration in the Limited Liability Company 1. The higher body of the limited liability company shall be the general meeting of its participants. An executive body (collegiate and/or single-man) shall be set up in the limited liability company, which shall perform the current direction of its activity and which shall report to the general meeting of its participants. The single-man management body of the company may also be elected not from among its participants. 2. The jurisdiction of the company's management bodies and the procedure, laid down for its adoption of decisions and coming out on behalf of the company, shall be defined in conformity with the present Code and with the Law on the Limited Liability Companies. 3. To the exclusive jurisdiction of the general meeting of the limited liability company shall be referred: 1) the amendment of the company's Rules and the change of the size of its authorized capital; 2) the setting up of the company's executive bodies and an advanced termination of their powers; 3) the approval of the company's annual reports and accounting balances and the distribution of its profits and losses; 4) the adoption of the decision on the company's reorganization or liquidation; 5) the election of the company's auditing committee (the auditor). The settlement of other questions may also be referred to the exclusive jurisdiction of the general meeting of the company's partners by Law on the Limited Liability Companies. The issues, referred to the exclusive jurisdiction of the general meeting of the company's participants, shall not be passed by it for adopting decisions to the company's executive body. 4. For the purposes of checking up and confirming the correctness of the annual financial reports of the limited liability company, it shall have the right annually to draw on the services of a certified auditor, whose material interests are not involved in the company or connected with its participants (the external audit). The audit examination of the company's annual financial reports may also be carried out on the demand of any of its participants. The procedure for carrying out the audit examinations of the company's activities shall be defined by the law and by the company's Rules. 5. The publication by the company of the results of the management of its activity (the public reports) shall not be required, with the exception of the cases, stipulated by the Law on the Limited Liability Companies. Article 92. Reorganization and Liquidation of the Limited Liability Company 1. The limited liability company may be reorganized or liquidated voluntarily by a unanimous consent of its participants. The other grounds for the reorganization and liquidation of the limited liability company and the procedure for its reorganization and liquidation shall be defined by the present Code and by the other laws. 2. The limited liability company shall have the right to transform itself into a joint-stock company or into a production cooperative. Article 93. Transfer of the Share in the Authorized Capital of the Limited Liability Company to a Third Person 1. The participant of the limited liability company shall have the right to sell or cede in another manner his share in the company's authorized capital or a part thereof to one or several participants of the given company. 2. The alienation by the participant of the company of his share (a part thereof) to third persons shall be admitted, unless otherwise stipulated by the company's Rules. The participants of the company shall enjoy the right of priority in acquiring the share of its participant (or a part thereof) proportionately to the size of their own shares, unless the other order for exercising this right is stipulated by the company's Rules or by an agreement between its participants. In case the company's participants do not avail themselves of their preferential right within a month's term from the date of notification or within the other term, stipulated by the company's Rules or by the agreement between its participants, the participant's share may be alienated in favour of a third person. 3. If, in conformity with the Rules of the limited liability company, the alienation of the participant's share (a part thereof) to third persons is inadmissible, while its other participants refuse to acquire it, the company shall be obliged to pay to the participant in question the actual cost of, or to give him in kind, the amount of property, which would correspond to such cost. 4. The share of the participant of the limited liability company may be alienated up to its full payment only in that part of it, which has already been paid. 5. In the participant's share (a part thereof) has been acquired by the limited liability company itself, it shall be obliged to realize it to its other participants or to third persons within the term and in conformity with the order, stipulated by the Law on the Limited Liability Companies and by the company's constituent documents, or to reduce its authorized capital in conformity with Items 4 and 5 of Article 90 of the present Code. 6. The shares of the authorized capital of the limited liability company shall be transferred to the citizens' heirs and to the legal successors of the legal entities, which have been the company's participants, unless the constituent documents of the company stipulate that such transfer shall be admitted only upon the consent of the rest of the company's participants. The refusal to grant the consent to the transfer of the share shall entail the obligation of the company to pay up to the heirs (the legal successors) of the participant the actual cost of his share, or to give them in kind the property, that would amount to such cost, in conformity with the order and on the terms, stipulated by the Law on the Limited Liability Companies and by the company's constituent documents. Article 94. Withdrawal of the Participant of the Limited Liability Company from the Company The participant of the limited liability company shall have the right to retire from the company regardless of the consent of its other participants. In this case, he shall be entitled to being paid up the cost of the part of the property, corresponding to the size of his share in the company's authorized capital in the order, in the manner and within the term, stipulated by the Law on the Limited liability Companies and by the company's constituent documents.

__ 5. The Double Liability Company

Article 95. The Basic Provisions on the Double Liability Companies

1. The double liability company shall be recognized as the company, established by one or by several persons, whose capital is divided into the shares of the size, defined by the company's constituent documents; the participants of such a company shall bear in common the subsidiary liability by its obligations with their property in the amount, divisible by the cost of their contributions, equal for all of them, which shall be defined by the company's constituent documents. In case of the bankruptcy of one of the participants, his liability by the company's obligations shall be distributed among the rest of the participants proportionately to their contributions, unless the other order for the liability sharing is stipulated by the company's constituent documents. 2. The trade name of the double liability company shall contain the name of the company and the words " double liability". 3. Toward the double liability company shall be applied the rules of the present Code on the limited liability company, unless otherwise stipulated by the present Article.

__ 6. The Joint-Stock Company

Article 96. The Basic Provisions on the Joint-Stock Company

1. The joint-stock company shall be recognized as the company, whose authorized capital is divided into a definite number of shares; the participants of the joint-stock company (the share-holders) shall not be answerable by its obligations and shall take the risks, involved in the losses in connection with its activity, within the cost of the shares in their possession. The share-holders, who have not paid up their shares in full, shall bear the joint responsibility by the obligations of the joint-stock company within the unpaid part of the cost of the shares in their possession. 2. The trade name of the joint-stock company shall contain its name and the indication of the fact that the company is a joint-stock one. 3. The legal status of the joint-stock company and the rights and duties of the share-holders shall be defined in conformity with the present Code and with the Law on the Joint-Stock Companies. The specifics of the legal status of the joint-stock companies, founded by way of the privatization of the state-run and municipal enterprises, shall be also defined by the laws and by the other legal acts on the privatization of these enterprises. The peculiarities of the legal status of the credit organizations set up in the form of a joint-stock company, the rights and duties of the shareholders thereof shall also be provided by the laws governing the activities of credit organizations. Article 97. The Open and Closed Joint-Stock Companies 1. The joint-stock company, whose participants may alienate the shares in their possession without the consent of the other share-holders, shall be recognized as an open joint-stock company. This kind of the joint-stock company shall have the right to carry out a public subscription for the shares it issues and to sell them freely on the terms, fixed by the law and by the other legal acts. The open joint-stock company shall be obliged every year to publish for general information an annual report, an accounting balance and also an account on the profits and the losses. 2. The joint-stock company, whose shares are distributed only among its founders or within another circle of persons, defined in advance, shall be recognized as a closed joint-stock company. Such a company shall not have the right to carry out a public subscription for the shares it issues or to offer them in any other way for acquisition to an unlimited circle of persons. The share-holders of the closed joint-stock company shall enjoy a preferential right to acquire the shares offered for sale by the other share-holders of this company. The number of the participants of the closed joint-stock company shall not exceed that fixed by the Law on the Joint-Stock Companies; otherwise, it shall be subject to the transformation into an open joint-stock company in the course of one year, and upon the expiry of this term - to the liquidation by the court ruling, if the number of its participants has not been reduced to the law-stipulated limit. In the cases, stipulated by the Law on the Joint-Stock Companies, the closed joint-stock company may be obliged to publish for general information the documents, indicated in Item 1 of the present Article. Article 98. The Founding of the Joint-Stock Company 1. The founders of the joint-stock company shall sign between themselves an agreement, defining the order of their performing a joint activity, involved in the establishment of the company,the size of its authorized capital, the categories of the shares it is going to issue and the way of their distribution, and also the other terms, stipulated by the Law on the Joint-Stock Companies. The agreement on founding a joint-stock company shall be made out in written form. 2. The founders of the joint-stock company shall bear a joint responsibility by the obligations, which have arisen before the company's registration. The company shall bear responsibility by the founders' obligations, related to its creation, only in case their actions have been subsequently approved by the general meeting of the share-holders. 3. The constituent documents of the joint-stock company shall be its Rules, approved by the founders. The Rules of the joint-stock company, in addition to the information, specified in Item 2 of Article 52 of the present Code, shall contain the terms on the categories of the shares, issued by the company, on their face value and number; on the size of the company's authorized capital; on the rights of the share-holders; on the structure and the jurisdiction of the company's management bodies and on the procedure, laid down for their decision-making, including on the issues, on which decisions shall be adopted unanimously or by a qualified majority of votes. The Rules of the joint-stock company shall also contain other information, stipulated by the Law on the Joint-Stock Companies. 4. The procedure for the performance of the other actions, involved in founding a joint-stock company, including the jurisdiction of the constituent assembly, shall be defined by the Law on the Joint-Stock Companies. 5. The specifics of the creation of the joint-stock companies as a result of the privatization of the state-run and the municipal enterprises shall be defined by the laws and by the other legal acts on the privatization of these enterprises. 6. The joint-stock company may be founded by one person, or it may consist of one person in case a single share-holder acquires all the company's shares. The data to this effect shall be contained in the company's Rules, shall be registered and published for general information. The joint-stock company shall not have the right to enlist another economic company, consisting of a single person, as its only participant. Article 99. The Authorized Capital of the Joint-Stock Company 1. The authorized capital of the joint-stock company shall be comprised of the face value of the company's shares, acquired by the share-holders. The company's authorized capital shall define the minimum amount of the company's property, guaranteeing the interests of its creditors. It shall not be less than it is stipulated by the Law on the Joint-Stock Companies. 2. The share-holder shall not be exempted from the duty to pay for the company's shares, including the exemption from this duty by taking into account his claims against the company. 3. The public subscription for the shares of the joint-stock company shall not be admitted until the authorized capital is paid up in full. When founding a joint-stock company, all its shares shall be distributed among the founders. 4. If upon the expiry of the second and of each of the next fiscal years the cost of the company's net assets proves to be less than its authorized capital, the company shall be obliged to declare and to register, in conformity with the established procedure, the reduction of its authorized capital. If the cost of the said company's assets falls below the minimum size of the authorized capital, fixed by the law (Item 1 of the present Article), the company shall be subject to liquidation. 5. The law or the Rules of the company may fix the limits upon the number, the total face value of its shares or the maximum number of the votes in the possession of a single share-holder. Article 100. Augmentation of the Capital of the Joint-Stock Company 1. The joint-stock company shall have the right, by the decision of the general meeting of the share-holders, to inflate its authorized capital by raising the face value of its shares or by issuing additional shares. 2. The augmentation of the authorized capital of the joint-stock company shall be admitted after it has been paid up in full. The augmentation of the company's authorized capital for the purpose of covering its losses shall not be admitted. 3. In the cases, stipulated by the Law on the Joint-Stock Companies, the company's Rules may establish the preferential right of the share-holders, possessing ordinary (common) shares or the other kind of the voting shares, for acquiring the shares, additionally issued by the company. Article 101. Reduction of the Authorized Capital of the Joint-Stock Company 1. The joint-stock company shall have the right, by the decision of the general meeting of the share-holders, to deflate its authorized capital by cutting down the face value of its shares, or by buying up a certain number of the shares in order to reduce their total number. The deflation of the company's authorized capital shall be admitted after the notification of all its creditors in conformity with the procedure, laid down by the Law on the Joint-Stock Companies. The creditors of the company shall have the right to demand that the company terminate in advance or execute its corresponding obligations and recompense their losses. The rights and duties of the creditors of credit organizations set up in the form of a joint-stock company shall also be provided by the laws governing the activities of credit organizations. 2. The reduction of the authorized capital of the joint-stock company by acquiring and paying off a part of the shares shall be admitted in case this possibility has been stipulated in the company's Rules. Article 102. Restrictions on the Issue of Securities and on the Payment of Dividends of the Joint-Stock Company 1. The proportion of the preference shares in the total volume of the authorized capital of the joint-stock company shall not exceed 25 per cent. 2. The joint-stock company shall have the right to issue bonds to the sum, not exceeding the size of the authorized capital or the amount of the security, provided for this purpose by the third persons, after the authorized capital has been paid up in full. In the absence of the security, the bond issue shall not be admitted until the third year of the joint-stock company's existence and on condition that by this time its two annual balances have been properly approved. 3. The joint-stock company shall not have the right to declare and pay dividends: - until the entire authorized capital is paid up in full; - if the cost of the net assets of the joint-stock company is less than its authorized capital and its reserve fund, or if it will fall below their size as a result of the payment of the dividends. Article 103. Management in the Joint-Stock Company 1. The higher management body of the joint-stock company shall be the general meeting of its share-holders. Within the exclusive jurisdiction of the general meeting of the share-holders shall be placed: 1) the amendment of the company's Rules, including the change of the size of its authorized capital; 2) the election of the members of the board of directors (the supervisory council) and of the auditing commission (the auditor) of the company, and the termination of their powers before the expiry of their term of office; 3) the formation of the company's executive bodies and the cessation of their powers before the expiry of their term of office, unless the company's Rules refer the resolution of these issues to the jurisdiction of the board of directors (the supervisory council); 4) the approval of the annual reports, the accounting balances and the accounts of the company's profits and losses, and the distribution of its profits and losses; 5) the adoption of the decision on the company's reorganization or liquidation. The Law on the Joint-Stock Companies may also refer to the exclusive jurisdiction of the general meeting of the share-holders the resolution of the other issues. The issues, placed by the law within the exclusive jurisdiction of the general meeting of the share-holders, shall not be turned over by it for resolution to the company's executive bodies. 2. In the company with over 50 share-holders, a board of directors (a supervisory council) shall be established. In case of the establishment of the board of directors (the supervisory council), the company's Rules, in conformity with the Law on the Joint-Stock Companies, shall delineate the scope of its exclusive jurisdiction. The issues, placed by the Rules within the exclusive jurisdiction of the board of directors (the supervisory council), shall not be turned over by it for resolution to the company's executive bodies. 3. The company's executive body may be collegiate (the board, the directorate) and (or) single-man (the director, the director-general). It shall effect the current management of the company's activity and shall report to the board of directors (to the supervisory council) and to the general meeting of the share-holders. To the jurisdiction of the company's executive body shall be referred the resolution of all issues, which are not placed within the exclusive jurisdiction of the other management bodies of the company, delineated by the law or by the company's Rules. By the decision of the general meeting of the share-holders, the powers of the company's executive body may be turned over by an agreement to another commercial organization, or to an individual businessman (manager). 4. The jurisdiction of the management bodies of the joint-stock company and the procedure for their adopting decisions and acting on behalf of the company shall be defined in conformity with the present Code by the Law on the Joint-Stock Companies and by the company's Rules. 5. The joint-stock company, which has been obliged, in conformity with the present Code or with the Law on the Joint-Stock Companies, to publish for general information the documents, indicated in Item 1 of Article 97 of the present Code, shall annually draw upon the services of a professional auditor, not bound up with the company or with its participants by property interests, for checking upon and confirming the correctness of the company's annual financial reports. The auditor's examination of the activity of the joint-stock company, including of the company, which has not been obliged to publish for general information the said documents, shall be carried out at any time upon the demand of the share-holders, whose aggregate share of the authorized capital comprises 10 or more per cent. The procedure for carrying out auditor's examinations of the activity of the joint-stock company shall be defined by the law and by the company's Rules. Article 104. Reorganization and Liquidation of the Joint-Stock Company 1. The joint-stock company may be reorganized or liquidated voluntarily, by the decision of the general meeting of the share-holders. The other grounds and the procedure for the reorganization and liquidation of the joint-stock company shall be stipulated by the present Code and by the other laws. 2. The joint-stock company shall have the right to transform itself into a limited liability company or into a production cooperative and also to a non-commercial organization in compliance with the law.

__ 7. The Subsidiary and Dependent Companies Article 105. The Subsidiary Economic Company 1. The economic company shall be recognized as subsidiary, if the other (the parent) economic company or partnership, on account of its prevalent participation in its authorized capital, or in conformity with the agreement, signed between them, or in any other way, can exert a decisive impact on the decisions, adopted by such a company. 2. The subsidiary company shall not be answerable by the debts of the parent company (the partnership). The parent company (the partnership), which has the right to issue to the subsidiary company, including by an agreement signed with it, the instructions that are obligatory for it, shall bear joint responsibility with the subsidiary company by the deals, effected by the latter in execution of such instructions. In case of the insolvency (the bankruptcy) of the subsidiary company through the fault of the parent company (the partnership), the latter shall bear the subsidiary responsibility by its debts. 3. The participants (the share-holders) of the subsidiary company shall have the right to claim that the losses, caused to the subsidiary company through the fault of the parent company (the partnership), shall be recompensed to them by the latter, unless otherwise stipulated by the laws on the economic companies. Article 106. The Dependent Economic Company 1. The economic company shall be recognized as dependent, if the other (the prevalent, the participant) company possesses over 20 per cent of the voting shares of the joint-stock company or over 20 per cent of the authorized capital of the limited liability company. 2. The economic company, which has acquired over 20 per cent of the voting shares of the joint-stock company, or over 20 per cent of the authorized capital of the limited liability company, shall be obliged to publish information to this effect without delay and in conformity with the procedure, stipulated by the laws on the economic companies. 3. The limits of the mutual participation of the economic companies in one another's authorized capitals and the number of the votes that one such company may use at the general meeting of the participants or of the share-holders of another company, shall be defined by the law.

_ 3. The Production Cooperatives Article 107. The Concept of the Production Cooperative 1. The production cooperative (the artel) shall be recognized as a voluntary association of the citizens, based on the membership and set up for the purpose of the joint production or of the other kind of the economic activity (the manufacture, processing and sale of the industrial, farming and the other kind of produce, the performance of works, the trade, the rendering of everyday and other services), based on their personal labour and on the other kind of participation and on the putting together by its members (participants) of the property participation shares. The law and the constituent documents of the production cooperative may stipulate the participation in its activity of the legal entities. The production cooperative shall be a commercial organization. 2. The members of the production cooperative shall bear the subsidiary responsibility by the cooperative's obligations in the amount and in conformity with the procedure, stipulated by the Law on the Production Cooperatives and by the Rules of the production cooperative. 3. The trade name of the cooperative shall contain its name and the words "production cooperative" or "artel". 4. The legal status of the production cooperatives and the rights and duties of their members shall be defined by the laws on the production cooperatives in conformity with the present Code. Article 108. Formation of the Production Cooperative 1. The constituent document of the production cooperative shall be its Rules, endorsed by the general meeting of its members. 2. The Rules of the production cooperative shall contain, in addition to the data, indicated in Item 2 of Article 52 of the present Code, the terms for the size of the share contributions to be made by the cooperative members; for the structure and the order of making the share contributions by the cooperative members and for their liability in case of violating the obligation on making the share contributions; for the nature and the order of the labour participation by its members in the cooperative's activity and for their liability in case of violating the obligation on the personal labour participation; for the order of the distribution of the cooperative's profits and losses; for the size of and the terms for the subsidiary liability of its members by the cooperative's debts; for the structure and the scope of jurisdiction of the cooperative's management bodies and the order of their decision-making, including on the issues, the decisions on which shall be adopted unanimously or by a qualified majority of votes. 3. The number of cooperative members shall be not less than 5 persons. Article 109. The Property of the Production Cooperative 1. The property in the possession of the production cooperative shall be divided into the shares of its members in conformity with the Rules of the cooperative. The Rules of the cooperative may decree that a certain part of the property in the possession of the cooperative shall be comprised of the indivisible funds, which shall be used for the purposes, defined by the Rules. The decision on the setting up of the indivisible funds shall be adopted by the cooperative members unanimously, unless otherwise stipulated by the Rules of the cooperative. 2. The member of the cooperative shall be obliged to put in, by the moment of the cooperative's registration, not less than 10 per cent of his share contributions; the rest shall be paid up in the course of one year from the moment of the cooperative's registration. 3. The cooperative shall not have the right to issue shares. 4. The profit of the cooperative shall be distributed among its members in accordance with their labour input, unless otherwise stipulated by the law and by the Rules of the cooperative. The property, left after the cooperative's liquidation and the satisfaction of the claims of its creditors, shall be distributed in the same order. Article 110. Management in the Production Cooperatives 1. The higher management body of the cooperative shall be the general meeting of its members. In the cooperative with over 50 members, a supervisory council may be established, which shall exert control over the activity of the cooperative's executive body. The cooperative's executive bodies shall be its management board and (or) its chairman. They shall effect the current leadership of the cooperative's activity and shall report to the supervisory council and to the general meeting of the cooperative members. Only the members of the cooperative shall have the right to be the members of the supervisory council and to fill the post of the chairman of the cooperative. The member of the cooperative shall not be simultaneously a member of the supervisory council and a member of the management board or the chairman of the cooperative. 2. The jurisdiction of the management bodies of the cooperative and the order for their decision-making shall be defined by the law and by the Rules of the cooperative. 3. The following functions shall be placed within the exclusive jurisdiction of the general meeting of the members of the cooperative: 1) the amendment of the Rules of the cooperative; 2) the establishment of the supervisory council and the termination of the powers of its members, and also the establishment and the termination of the powers of the cooperative's executive bodies, unless in conformity with the Rules of the cooperative this right has been vested in its supervisory council; 3) the admittance and expelling of the cooperative members; 4) the approval of the cooperative's annual reports and accounting balances and the distribution of its profits and losses; 5) the decision on the cooperative's reorganization and liquidation. The Law on the Production Cooperatives and the Rules of the cooperative may also place other issues within the exclusive jurisdiction of the general meeting. The issues, placed within the exclusive jurisdiction of the general meeting or of the supervisory council of the cooperative, shall not be turned over by these for resolution to the cooperative's executive bodies. 4. The member of the cooperative shall be entitled to one vote in the adoption of decisions by the general meeting. Article 111. Termination of the Membership in the Production Cooperative and the Transfer of the Share 1. The member of the cooperative shall have the right, at his own discretion, to withdraw from the cooperative. In this case, he shall be paid out the cost of his share or issued the property, corresponding to his share; he shall also be entitled to certain other payments, stipulated by the Rules of the cooperative. The payment out of the cost of the share or the issue of the other property to the retiring member of the cooperative shall be effected upon the expiry of the fiscal year and the approval of the accounting balance of the cooperative, unless otherwise stipulated by the Rules of the cooperative. 2. The member of the cooperative may be expelled from the cooperative by the decision of the general meeting in case of his non-performance or an improper performance of his duties, imposed upon him by the Rules of the cooperative, and also in the other cases, stipulated by the law and by the Rules. The member of the supervisory council or of the executive body may be expelled from the cooperative by the decision of the general meeting in connection with his membership in a similar cooperative. The expelled member of the cooperative shall have the right to get back his share contribution and to receive certain other payments, stipulated by the Rules of the cooperative, in conformity with Item 1 of the present Article. 3. The member of the cooperative shall have the right to turn over his share or a part thereof to another member of the cooperative, unless otherwise stipulated by the law and by the Rules of the cooperative. The turning over of the share (a part thereof) to the citizen, who is not a member of the cooperative, shall be admitted only upon the consent of the cooperative. In this case, the other members of the cooperative shall have the right of priority to the purchase of such a share (a part thereof). 4. In case of the death of a member of the production cooperative, his heirs may be admitted to the cooperative's membership, unless otherwise stipulated by the Rules of the cooperative. If this is not the case, the cooperative shall pay out to the heirs the cost of the share of the deceased member of the cooperative. 5. The turning of the claim for the property onto the share of the member of the production cooperative by the own debts of the cooperative member shall be admitted only in case his own property proves to be insufficient for covering such debts, in conformity with the order, stipulated by the law and by the Rules of the cooperative. The claim by the debts of the cooperative member shall not be turned onto the indivisible funds of the cooperative. Article 112. Reorganization and Liquidation of the Production Cooperatives 1. The production cooperative may be reorganized or liquidated voluntarily, by the decision of the general meeting of its members. The other grounds and the procedure for the reorganization and the liquidation of the cooperative shall be defined by the present Code and by the other laws. 2. By the unanimous decision of its members, the production cooperative may transform itself into an economic partnership or into a company.

_ 4. The State-Run and Municipal Unitary Enterprises Article 113. The Unitary Enterprise 1. The unitary enterprise shall be recognized as a commercial organization, not endowed with the right of ownership to the property, allotted to it by the property owner. The unitary enterprise's property shall be indivisible and shall not be distributed according to the instalments (the participation shares, the shares), including among the workers of the given enterprise. The Rules of the unitary enterprise shall contain, in addition to the information, indicated in Item 2 of Article 52 of the present Code, that on the subject and on the goals of the enterprise's activity, and also on the size of its authorized fund and on the order and the sources of its formation, except for treasury enterprises. Only the state-run and the municipal enterprises shall be set up in the form of unitary enterprises. 2. The property of the state-run or the municipal unitary enterprise shall correspondingly be in the state or in the municipal ownership, and shall belong to such an enterprise by the right of economic or operative management. 3. The trade name of the unitary enterprise shall contain an indication of the owner of its property. 4. The unitary enterprise shall be managed by its head, who shall be appointed either by the owner or by the owner's authorized body, and shall report to these. 5. The unitary enterprise shall be answerable by its obligations with the entire property in its possession. The unitary enterprise shall not bear responsibility by the obligations of the owner of its property. 6. The legal status of the state-run and municipal unitary enterprises shall be defined by the present Code and by the Law on the State-Run and Municipal Unitary Enterprises. Article 114. The Unitary Enterprise, Based on the Right of Economic Management 1. The unitary enterprise, based on the right of economic management, shall be set up by the decision of the state or the local self-government body, authorized for this purpose. 2. The constituent document of the enterprise, based on the right of economic management, shall be its Rules, approved by the state body or by the local self-government body. 3. The size of the authorized fund of the enterprise, based on the right of economic management, shall not be less than that fixed by the Law on the State-Run and Municipal Unitary Enterprises. 4. The procedure for forming up the authorised fund of an enterprise founded by the right of economic jurisdiction shall be determined by a law on state and municipal unitary enterprises. 5. If upon the expiry of the fiscal year the cost of the net assets of the enterprise, based on the right of economic management, proves to be less than the size of its authorized fund, the body, authorized to set up such enterprises, shall be obliged to effect, in conformity with the established procedure, the reduction of the authorized fund. If the cost of the net assets falls below the law-fixed amount, the enterprise may be liquidated by the court decision. 6. In case the decision has been adopted on the reduction of the authorized fund, the enterprise shall be obliged to inform about it its creditors in written form. The creditor of the enterprise shall have the right to demand that the obligations, by which the given enterprise is the debtor, be terminated or executed in advance and that his losses be recompensed. 7. The owner of the property of the enterprise, based on the right of economic management, shall not be answerable by the enterprise's obligations, with the exception of the cases, stipulated in Item 3 of Article 56 of the present Code. This rule shall also apply to the liability of the enterprise, which has founded the subsidiary enterprise, by the latter's obligations. Article 115. The Unitary Enterprise Founded by the Right of Operative Management 1. In the cases and in the manner envisaged by a law on state and municipal unitary enterprise a unitary enterprise may be founded by the right of operative management (treasury enterprise) on the basis of state or municipal property. 2. The constitutive document of the treasury enterprise shall be its constitution approved by the state or local governmental body authorised to do so. 3. The company name of a unitary enterprise founded by the right of operative management shall contain an indication of the fact that this enterprise is a treasury enterprise. 4. The rights of a treasury enterprise to the property consolidated thereto shall be determined according to Articles 296 and 297 of the present Code and by a law on state and municipal unitary enterprises. 5. The owner of property of a treasury enterprise shall bear subsidiary liability for the obligations of the enterprise if its property is insufficient. 6. The treasury enterprise may be reconstructed or liquidated in compliance with the law on state and municipal unitary enterprises.

_ 5. The Non-Profit Organizations

Article 116. The Consumer Cooperative

1. The consumer cooperative shall be recognized as a voluntary association of the citizens and the legal entities, based on membership and aimed at satisfying the participants' material and other needs by its members putting together their property share contributions. 2. The Rules of the consumer cooperative shall contain, in addition to the information indicated in Item 2 of Article 52 of the present Code, the terms for the size of the share contributions, made by the members of the cooperative; for the structure and the order of making the share contributions by the members of the cooperative, and for the responsibility they shall bear for violating the obligation, involved in making the share contributions; for the composition and the scope of authority of the cooperative management bodies, and for the order of their decision-making, including on the issues, with respect to which decisions shall be adopted unanimously or by a qualified majority of votes; and also for the procedure, laid down for covering the losses the cooperative has sustained, by its members. 3. The name of the consumer cooperative shall contain an indication of the main purpose of its activity, and also the word "cooperative", or the words "consumer union" or "consumer company". 4. The members of the consumer cooperative shall be obliged, in the course of 3 months after the approval of its annual balance, to cover the sustained losses by making new contributions. In case of the non-fulfillment of this duty, the cooperative may be liquidated by the court decision upon the creditor's demand. The members of the consumer cooperative shall bear the joint subsidiary liability by its obligations within the unpaid part of the additional contribution of every one of the cooperative members. 5. The incomes, derived by the consumer cooperative as a result of the business activity, performed by the cooperative in conformity with the law and with its Rules, shall be distributed among its members. 6. The legal status of the consumer cooperatives, and the rights and duties of their members shall be defined in conformity with the present Code and with the Law on the Consumer Cooperatives. Article 117. The Public and Religious Organizations (Associations) 1. The public and religious organizations (associations) shall be interpreted as the voluntary associations of the citizens, who have united in the law-stipulated order on the basis of the community of their interests for the purpose of satisfying their spiritual or other non-material needs. The public and religious organizations shall be non-profit organizations. They shall have the right to engage in the business activity only in order to attain the goals, in the name of which they have been set up, and of the nature, consonant with these goals. 2. The participants (members) of the public and religious organizations shall not retain the right to the property, which they have passed into the possession of these organizations, including to the membership dues. They shall not be answerable by the obligations of the public and religious organizations, in which they participate in the capacity of their members, while the said organizations shall not be answerable by the obligations of their members. 3. The specifics of the legal status of the public and religious organizations as the participants of the relations, regulated by the present Code, shall be defined by the law. Article 118. The Funds 1. The fund shall be interpreted for the purposes of the present Code as a non-membership non-profit organization, instituted by the citizens and (or) the legal entities on the basis of voluntary property contributions and pursuing the public, charity, cultural, educational or the other socially useful goals. The property, transferred to the fund by its founders (founder), shall be the fund's property. The founders shall not be answerable by the obligations of the fund they have created, while the fund shall not be answerable by the obligations of its founders. 2. The fund shall use the property for the purposes, defined in its Rules. The fund shall have the right to engage in business activities, necessary for it to attain the socially useful goals, in the name of which the fund has been established, and of the kind consonant with these goals. To perform the business activity, the funds shall have the right to set up economic companies or to take part in these. The fund shall be obliged to annually publish reports on the use of its property. 3. The procedure for the fund's management and for the setting up of its bodies shall be defined by its Rules, approved by its founders. 4. The Rules of the fund, in addition to the information, indicated in Item 2 of Article 52 of the present Code, shall also contain: the name of the fund, including the word "fund"; the information on the fund's goal; the data on the fund's bodies, including on the board of guardians, supervising its activities, on the order of appointing and relieving the fund's official persons, on the place of the fund's location, and on the fate of the fund's property in case of its liquidation. Article 119. Amendment of the Rules and the Liquidation of the Fund 1. The Rules of the fund may be amended by the fund's bodies, if the possibility of their amendment in this way has been stipulated by the Rules. If maintaining the Rules intact is fraught with the consequences, which it was impossible to foresee when the fund was established, but the possibility of introducing amendments into the Rules has not been stipulated by the latter, or the Rules are not amendable by the authorized persons, the right to effect such amendments shall be vested in the court upon the application of the fund's bodies or the body, authorized to exert supervision over its activities. 2. The decision on the liquidation of the fund shall be adopted only by the court upon the application of the interested persons. The fund may be liquidated: 1) if the fund's property is insufficient to attain its goals, and there is no realistic hope that the property it needs may be received; 2) if the fund's stipulated goals cannot be achieved, while they cannot be amended; 3) if in its activities the fund deviates from the goals, stipulated in its Rules; 4) in the other law-stipulated cases. 3. In case of the fund's liquidation, its property, left after the creditors' claims have been satisfied, shall be directed towards the achievement of the goals, pointed out in its Rules. Article 120. The Institutions 1. The institution shall be recognized as an organization, established by the owner for the performance of the managerial, the socio-cultural or the other kind of functions of the non-profit nature and financed by him in full or in part. The rights of the institution to the property, assigned to it, shall be defined in conformity with Article 296 of the present Code. 2. The institution shall be answerable by its obligations with the monetary means at its disposal. In case these are insufficient, the subsidiary liability by its obligations shall be borne by the owner of the corresponding property. 3. The specifics of the legal status of the individual kinds of the state-run and of the other institutions shall be defined by the law and by the other legal acts. Article 121. Amalgamations of the Legal Entities (the Associations and the Unions) 1. The commercial organizations shall have the right, by an agreement between themselves, to establish amalgamations in the form of associations or unions, which shall be non-profit organizations, for the purposes of coordinating their business activities and of representing and protecting their common property interests. If, by the decision of its participants, upon the given association (union) has been imposed the performance of business activities, such an association (union) shall be transformed into an economic company or into a partnership in accordance with the procedure, stipulated by the present Code, or it shall set up a commercial company for the performance of business activities, or shall participate in such a company. 2. The public and the other kind of the non-profit organizations, including the institutions, shall have the right to voluntarily unite into the associations (the unions) of these organizations. The association (the union) of non-profit organizations shall be a non-profit organization. 3. The members of the association (the union) shall retain their independence and the rights of a legal entity. 4. The association (the union) shall not be answerable by the obligations of its members. The members of the association (the union) shall bear the subsidiary liability by its obligations in the amount and in accordance with the order, stipulated by the constituent documents of the given association. 5. The name of the association (the union) shall contain an indication of the main object of its members' activities, with the word "association" or "union" included into it. Article 122. Constituent Documents of the Associations and the Unions 1. The constituent documents of the association (the union) shall be the constituent agreement, signed by its members, and the Rules approved by them. 2. The constituent documents of the association (the union) shall contain, in addition to the information indicated in Item 2 of Article 52 of the present Code, the terms for the composition and the authority of the management bodies of the association (the union) and for the order of their decision-making, including on the issues, the decisions on which shall be adopted unanimously or by a qualified majority of the votes of the association (the union) members, and also for the order, established for distributing the property, left after the liquidation of the association (the union).

Article 123. The Rights and Duties of the Members of the Associations and the Unions

1. The members of the association (the union) shall have the right to gratuitously enjoy its services. 2. The member of the association (the union) shall have the right, at his own discretion, to withdraw from the association (the union) upon the expiry of the fiscal year. In this case he shall bear the subsidiary liability by the obligations of the association (the union) proportionately to his contribution in the course of two years from the moment of his withdrawal. The member of the association (the union) may be expelled from it by the decision of the remaining participants, in the cases and in accordance with the procedure, laid down by the constituent documents of the association (the union). Toward the liability of the expelled member of the association (the union) shall be applied the same rules as in the case of the member's withdrawal from the association (the union). 3. Upon the consent of the members of the association (the union), a new participant may join it. The joining to the association (the union) of a new member may be grounded on his subsidiary liability by the obligations of the association (the union), which has arisen before his joining it.

Chapter 5. Participation of the Russian Federation, of the Subjects of theRussian Federation and of the Municipal Entities in the Relationships, Regulated by the Civil Legislation

Article 124. The Russian Federation, the Subjects of the Russian Federation and the Municipal Entities as the Subjects of Civil Law

1. The Russian Federation, the subjects of the Russian Federation: the Republics, the territories, the regions, the cities of federal importance, the autonomous region, the autonomous areas, and also the urban and rural settlements and the other municipal entities shall come out in the relationships, regulated by the civil legislation, on equal terms with the other participants of these relationships - the citizens and the legal entities.
2. Toward the subjects of civil law, indicated in Item 1 of the present Article, shall be applied the norms, defining the participation of the legal entities in the relationships, regulated by the civil legislation, unless otherwise following from the law or from the specifics of the given subjects.

Article 125. The Order of Participation of the Russian Federation, of the Subjects of the Russian Federation and of the Municipal Entities in the Relationships, Regulated by the Civil Legislation

1. The right to acquire and exercise by their actions the property and the personal rights, and to come out in the court on behalf of the Russian Federation and of the subjects of the Russian Federation shall be vested in the state power bodies within the scope of their jurisdiction, established by the acts, defining the status of these bodies. 2. The right to acquire and exercise by their actions the rights and duties, indicated in Item 1 of the present Article, on behalf of the municipal entities shall be vested in the local self-government bodies within the scope of their jurisdiction, established by the acts, defining the status of these bodies. 3. In the cases and in conformity with the procedure, stipulated by the federal laws, by the decrees of the President of the Russian Federation and the decisions of the Government of the Russian Federation, by the normative acts of the subjects of the Russian Federation and of the municipal entities, the state bodies, the local self-government bodies, and also the legal entities and the citizens may come out on their behalf upon their special order. Article 126. Liability by the Obligations of the Russian Federation, of the Subject of the Russian Federation and of the Municipal Entity 1. The Russian Federation, the subject of the Russian Federation and the municipal entity shall be answerable by their obligations with the property they possess by the right of ownership, with the exception of the property that has been assigned to the legal entities, which they have set up by the right of economic or of operative management, and also of the property that shall be placed only in the state or in the municipal ownership. The turning of the penalty onto the land and the other natural resources in the state or in the municipal ownership shall be admitted in the law-stipulated cases. 2. The legal entities, set up by the Russian Federation, by the subjects of the Russian Federation and by the municipal entities, shall not be answerable by their obligations. 3. The Russian Federation, the subjects of the Russian Federation and the municipal entities shall not be answerable by the obligations of the legal entities they have set up, with the exception of the law-stipulated cases. 4. The Russian Federation shall not be answerable by the obligations of the subjects of the Russian Federation and of the municipal entities. 5. The subjects of the Russian Federation and the municipal entities shall not be answerable by one another's obligations and also by those of the Russian Federation. 6. The rules, formulated in Items 2-5 of the present Article, shall not apply to the cases, when the Russian Federation has assumed upon itself the guarantee (surety) by the obligations of the subject of the Russian Federation, of the municipal or the legal entity, or when the said subjects have assumed upon themselves the guarantee (surety) by the obligations of the Russian Federation. Article 127. The Specifics of the Liability of the Russian Federation and of the Subjects of the Russian Federation in the Relationships, Regulated by the Civil Legislation, in Which the Foreign Legal Entities, Citizens and States Are Involved The specifics of the liability to be borne by the Russian Federation and by the subjects of the Russian Federation in the relationships, regulated by the civil legislation, in which the foreign legal entities, citizens and states are involved, shall be defined by the Law on the Immunity of the State and of Its Property.

Subsection 3
THE OBJECTS OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS

Chapter 6. The General Provisions

Article 128. The Kinds of the Objects of Civil Rights

To the objects of civil rights shall be referred the things, among them money and securities, and also the other kinds of the property, such as the rights of property; the works and services; information; the results of intellectual activities, including the exclusive right to these (the intellectual property); the non-material values. Article 129. The Circulation Capacity of the Objects of Civil Rights 1. The objects of civil rights may be freely alienated or may pass from one person to another by way of the universal legal succession (by inheritance or as a result of the reorganization of the legal entity), or in another way, if they have not been withdrawn from circulation or restricted in the circulation. 2. The kinds of the objects of civil rights, whose circulation shall not be admitted (the objects, withdrawn from circulation), shall be directly pointed out in the law. The kinds of the objects of civil rights, which may only be possessed by definite participants in the circulation, or whose being in the circulation shall be admitted by a special permit (the objects with a restricted circulation capacity), shall be defined in accordance with the law-established procedure. 3. The land and the other natural resources shall be alienated or shall pass from one person to another in other ways so far as their circulation is admissible in conformity with the laws on the land and on the other natural resources. Article 130. The Movables and the Immovables 1. To the immovables (the immovable property, realty) shall be referred the land plots, the land plots with mineral deposits, the set-apart water objects and everything else, which is closely connected with the land, i.e., such objects as cannot be shifted without causing an enormous damage to their purpose, including the forests, the perennial green plantations, the buildings and all kind of structures. To the immovables shall also be referred the air-borne and sea-going vessels, the inland navigation ships and the space objects. The law may also refer to the immovables certain other property. 2. The things, which have not been referred to the immovables, including money and securities, shall be regarded as the movables. The registration of the rights to the movables shall not be required, with the exception of the cases, pointed out in the law. Article 131. The State Registration of the Realty 1. The right of ownership and the other rights of estate to the immovables, the restriction of these rights, their arising, transfer and cessation shall be liable to the state registration in the Unified State Register, effected by the institutions of justice. Subject to the registration shall be: the right of ownership, the right of economic management, the right of operative management, the right of the inherited life possession, the right of the permanent use, the mortgage, the servitudes, and also the other rights in the cases, stipulated by the present Code and by the other laws. 2. In the law-stipulated cases, alongside the state registration, may be effected the special registration or the registration of the individual kinds of the realty. 3. The body, effecting the state registration of the rights to the realty and the deals with it, shall be obliged, upon the request of the owner of the rights, to certify the effected registration by issuing a document on the registered right or deals, or by making a superscription on the document, presented for registration. 4. The body, effecting the state registration of the rights to the realty and to the deals with it, shall be obliged to provide information on the effected registration and on the registered rights to any person. The information shall be issued in any one body, engaged in the registration of the realty, regardless of the place of effecting the registration. 5. The refusal of the state registration of the right to the realty or of the deal with it, or the evasion by the corresponding body from registering these, may be appealed against in the court. 6. The order of the state registration and the grounds for the refusal thereof shall be established in conformity with the present Code by the Law on the Registration of the Rights to the Realty and the Deals with It. Article 132. The Enterprise 1. The enterprise as an object of rights shall be recognized as a property complex, used for the performance of business activities. The enterprise in its entirety as a property complex shall be recognized as the realty. 2. The enterprise as a whole or a part thereof may be an object of the purchase and sale, of the mortgage, the lease and of the other deals, connected with the establishment, the change and the cessation of the rights of estate. Within the enterprise as a property complex shall be included all kinds of the property, intended for the performance of its activities, including the land plots, the buildings, the structures, the equipment, the implements, the raw materials, the products, the rights, the claims and the debts, and also the rights to the symbols, individualizing the given enterprise, its products, works and services (such as the trade name, the trade and the service marks), as well as the other exclusive rights, unless otherwise stipulated by the law or by the agreement. Article 133. The Indivisible Things The thing, whose division in kind is impossible without changing its purpose, shall be interpreted as indivisible. The specifics of apportioning a share in the right of ownership to the indivisible thing shall be defined by the rules, laid down in Articles 252 and 258 of the present Code. Article 134. The Composite Things In case a single whole is formed of heterogeneous things, presupposing their use for a single purpose, they shall be regarded as a single thing (a composite thing). The effect of the deal, made with respect to a composite thing, shall concern all its component parts, unless otherwise stipulated by the agreement. Article 135. The Principal Thing and Its Accessory The thing, intended for the servicing of another thing - the principal one - and connected with it by the common purpose (an accessory), shall share the fate of the principal thing, unless otherwise stipulated by the agreement. Article 136. The Fruits, Products and Incomes The receipts, resulting from the use of the property (the fruits, products and incomes), shall belong to the person, who has been using this property on the legal grounds, unless otherwise stipulated by the law, by the other legal acts or by the agreement on the use of the said property. Article 137. The Animals Toward the animals shall be applied the general rules on the property, unless otherwise stipulated by the law or by the other legal acts. While exercising the rights, a cruel treatment of the animals, contradicting the principles of humanity, shall not be admitted. Article 138. The Intellectual Property In the cases and in conformity with the procedure, established by the present Code and by the other laws, an exclusive right (the intellectual ownership) of the citizen or of the legal entity shall be recognized to the results of the intellectual activity and the means of the individualization of the legal entity, of the manufactured products, of the performed works and of the rendered services (the trade name, the trade and the service mark, etc.), equalized with them. The use of the results of the intellectual activity and of the means of individualization, which are the object of the exclusive rights, may be effected by the third persons only upon the consent of the owner of the rights. Article 139. The Official and the Commercial Secret 1. The information shall be regarded as an official or a commercial secret, if it presents an actual or a potential commercial value because of its being unknown to the third persons, if there is no free access to it on legal grounds and if its owner is taking measures to protect its confidentiality. The data, which shall not be regarded as an official or a commercial secret, shall be defined by the law and by the other legal acts. 2. The information, which is an official or a commercial secret, shall be protected in the ways, stipulated by the present Code and by the other laws. The persons, who have obtained by illegal methods the information, which is an official or a commercial secret, shall be obliged to recompense the inflicted losses. The same obligation shall be imposed upon the workers, who have divulged an official or a commercial secret despite the labour agreement, including the contract, and upon the counteragents, who have done so despite the civil law agreement. Article 140. The Money (Hard Currency) 1. The rouble shall be the legal means of payment, which shall be accepted by its face value on the entire territory of the Russian Federation. The payments on the territory of the Russian Federation shall be effected both in cash and cashless. 2. The cases of, the procedure and the terms for the use of foreign currency on the territory of the Russian Federation shall be defined by the law or in conformity with the established order. Article 141. The Currency Valuables The kinds of property, recognized as the currency valuables, and the order established for the deals made with them, shall be defined by the Law on the Currency Regulation and the Currency Control. The right of ownership to the currency valuables shall be protected in the Russian Federation on the general grounds.

Chapter 7. The Securities

Article 142. The Security

1. The security shall be a document, confirming, with the observance of the established form and obligatory requisites, the property rights, whose exercising or transfer shall be possible only upon its presentation. With the transfer of the security, all the rights, certified by it, shall also be transferred in their aggregate. 2. In the cases, stipulated by the law, or in conformity with the order, established by the law for the exercising and the transfer of the rights, confirmed by the security, it shall be sufficient to present proofs of their being confirmed in the special register (a common-type or a computerized one). Article 143. The Kinds of Securities To the securities shall be referred: the government bond, the bond, the promissory note, the cheque, the deposit and the savings certificates, the savings-bank book to bearer, the bill of lading, the share, the privatization securities and also the other documents, which have been referred to the securities by the laws on the securities or in conformity with the order, established by these laws. Article 144. The Demands of the Security 1. The kinds of the rights, certified by the securities, the obligatory requisites of the securities, the demands made on the form of the securities and the other indispensable requirements shall be defined by the law or in conformity with the law-established order. 2. The absence of the indispensable requisites of the security or the non-correspondence of the security to the form, established for it, shall entail its insignificance. Article 145. The Subjects of the Rights, Certified by the Security 1. The rights, certified by the security, may belong to: 1) the bearer of the security (the security to bearer); 2) the person, named in the security (the registered security); 3) the person, named in the security, who shall exercise these rights himself or shall appoint by his instruction (order) another authorized person (the order security); 2. The law may preclude the possibility of issuing a certain kind of securities as the registered ones, or the order ones, or those to bearer. Article 146. Transfer of the Rights by the Security 1. To effect the transfer to another person of the rights, certified by the security to bearer, it shall be sufficient to hand over the given security to the said person. 2. The rights, certified by the registered security, shall be transferred in accordance with the order, established for ceding the demands (the cession). In conformity with Article 390 of the present Code, the person, transferring the right by the security, shall bear responsibility for the invalidity of the corresponding demand, but not for its non-execution. 3. The rights by the order security shall be transferred by making a transfer superscription (endorsement) on the security in question. The endorser shall bear responsibility not only for the existence of the right, but also for its exercising. The endorsement, effected on the security, shall transfer all the rights, certified by the security, to the person, to whom, or to whose jurisdiction, the rights by the security are being transferred - i.e., to the endorsee. The endorsement shall be either a blank one (without the indication of the person, to whom or to whose jurisdiction the execution shall be due), or an order one (indicating the person, to whom or to whose jurisdiction the execution shall be due). The endorsement may amount only to the order to exercise the rights, certified by the security, without transferring these rights to the endorsee (the turnover endorsement). In this case, the endorsee shall come out in the capacity of the representative. Article 147. Execution by the Security 1. The person, who has issued the security, and all those persons, who have endorsed it, shall bear the joint liability to its legal owner. In case of the satisfaction of the demand of the legal owner of the security concerning the execution of the obligation, certified by it, by one or by several persons from among those who have assumed the obligation by the security to him, they shall acquire the right of the reverse demand (the right of regress) to the rest of the persons, who have assumed the obligation by the security. 2. The refusal to execute the obligation, certified by the security, with a reference to the absence of the ground for the obligation or for its invalidity, shall not be admitted. The owner of the security, who has discovered that the security has been forged or falsified, shall have the right to claim that the person, who has handed over this paper to him, properly execute the obligation, certified by the security, and recompense the losses. Article 148. Restoration of the Security The restoration of the rights by the lost securities to bearer and by the order securities shall be effected by the court in conformity with the procedure, stipulated by the procedural legislation. Article 149. The Non-Documentary Securities 1. In the law-stipulated cases or in conformity with the law-established procedure, the person, who has been granted a special license, shall be able to effect the fixation of the rights, confirmed by the registered or by the order security, including in the non-documentary form (using the computer technology, etc.). To this form of the fixation of the rights shall be applied the rules, laid down for the securities, unless otherwise following from the specifics of the fixation. The person, who has effected the fixation of the right in the non-documentary form, shall be obliged, upon the demand of the owner of the right, to issue to him the document, testifying to the fact that the right has been fixed. The rights, certified by way of the above-said fixation, the procedure for the official fixation of the rights and the owners of the rights, for the documentary confirmation of the entries and for performing operations with the non- documentary securities shall be defined by the law or in conformity with the procedure, established by it. 2. Operations with the non-documentary securities may be performed only drawing on the services of the person, who has been officially authorized to make the entries on the rights. The transfer, granting and restriction of the rights shall all be officially fixed by this person, who shall bear responsibility for the safety of the official entries, for guaranteeing their confidentiality, for the issue of true information on such entries, and for making official entries on the performed operations.

Chapter 8. The Non-Material Values and Their Protection

Article 150. The Non-Material Values

1. The life and health, the personal dignity and personal immunity, the honour and good name, the business reputation, the immunity of private life, the personal and family secret, the right of a free movement, of the choice of the place of stay and residence, the right to the name, the copyright and the other personal non-property rights and non-material values, possessed by the citizen since his birth or by force of the law, shall be inalienable and untransferable in any other way. In the cases and in conformity with the procedure, stipulated by the law, the personal non-property rights and the other non-material values, possessed by the deceased person, may be exercised and protected by other persons, including the heirs of their legal owner. 2. The non-material values shall be protected in conformity with the present Code and with the other laws in the cases and in the order, stipulated by these, and also in those cases and within that scope, in which the use of the ways of protecting the civil rights (Article 12) follow from the substance of the violated non-material right and from the nature of the consequences of this violation. Article 151. Compensation of the Moral Damage If the citizen has been inflicted a moral damage (the physical or moral sufferings) by the actions, violating his personal non-property rights or infringing upon the other non- material values in his possession, and also in the other law-stipulated cases, the court may impose upon the culprit the duty to pay out the monetary compensation for the said damage. When determining the size of compensation for the moral damage, the court shall take into consideration the extent of the culprit's guilt and the other circumstances, worthy of attention. The court shall also take into account the depth of the physical and moral sufferings, connected with the individual features of the person, to whom the damage has been done. Article 152. Protection of the Honour, Dignity and Business Reputation 1. The citizen shall have the right to claim through the court that the information, discrediting his honour, dignity or business reputation be refuted, unless the person who has spread such information proves its correspondence to reality. By the demand of the interested persons, the citizen's honour and dignity shall also be liable to protection after his death. 2. If the information, discrediting the honour, dignity or business reputation of the citizen, has been spread by the mass media, it shall be refuted by the same mass media. If the said information is contained in the document, issued by an organization, the given document shall be liable to an exchange or recall. In the other cases, the procedure for the refutation shall be ruled by the court. 3. The citizen, with respect to whom the mass media have published the information, infringing upon his rights or his law-protected interests, shall have the right to publish his answer in the same mass media. 4. If the ruling of the court has not been executed, the court shall have the right to impose upon the culprit a fine, to be exacted in the amount and in the order, stipulated by the procedural legislation, into the revenue of the Russian Federation. The payment of the fine shall not exempt the culprit from the duty to perform the action, ruled by the court decision. 5. The citizen, with respect to whom the information, discrediting his honour, dignity or business reputation has been spread, shall have the right, in addition to the refutation of the given information, also to claim the compensation of the losses and of the moral damage, caused by its spread. 6. If the person, who has spread the information, discrediting the honour, dignity or business reputation of the citizen, cannot be identified, the citizen shall have the right to turn to the court with the demand that it recognize the spread information as not corresponding to reality. 7. The rules of the present Article on the protection of the business reputation of the citizen shall be applied, correspondingly, to the protection of the business reputation of the legal entity.

Subsection 4
THE DEALS AND THE REPRESENTATION

Chapter 9. The Deals

_ 1. The Concept, the Kinds and the Form of the Deals

Article 153. The Concept of the Deal

The deals shall be interpreted as the actions, performed by the citizens and by the legal entities, which are aimed at the establishment, the amendment or the cessation of the civil rights and duties.

Article 154. The Agreements and the Unilateral Deals

1. The deals may be bilateral or multilateral (agreements), and also unilateral. 2. The deal shall be regarded as unilateral, if for its performance in conformity with the law, with the other legal acts or with the agreement between the parties, the expression of the will of only one party to it is necessary and sufficient. 3. To conclude an agreement, the expression of the agreed will of the two parties (bilateral deals), or of the three or more parties (multilateral deals) shall be required. Article 155. The Duties by the Unilateral Deal The unilateral deal shall create duties for the person, who has effected it. It shall create duties for other persons only in the cases, established by the law or by an agreement with these persons. Article 156. Legal Regulation of the Unilateral Deals Toward the unilateral deals shall be correspondingly applied the general provisions on the obligations and on the agreements, so far as this does not contradict the law, the unilateral character and the substance of the deal. Article 157. The Deals, Made Under a Condition 1. The deal shall be regarded as made under the suspensive condition, if the parties have made the arising of the rights and duties dependent on the circumstance, about which it is unknown, whether it will, or will not, take place. 2. The deal shall be regarded as made under the subsequent condition, if the parties have made the cessation of the rights and duties dependent upon the circumstance, about which it is unknown, whether it will, or will not, take place. 3. If the arrival of the condition has been obstructed in bad faith by the party, for which its taking place is undesirable, the said condition shall be recognized as having taken place. If the arrival of the condition has been obstructed in bad faith by the party, for which its taking place is desirable, the said condition shall be recognized as not having taken place. Article 158. The Form of the Deals 1. The deals shall be effected orally or in written form (simple or notarial). 2. The deal, which may be made orally, shall be regarded as having been effected also in the case, when the behaviour of the person clearly testifies to his will to effect the deal. 3. Silence shall be recognized as the expression of the will to effect the deal in the cases, stipulated by the law or by the agreement between the parties. Article 159. The Oral Deals 1. The deal, for which no written (simple or notarial) form has been stipulated by the law or by the agreement between the parties, may be effected orally. 2. Unless otherwise ruled by the agreement between the parties, all the deals, executed at the moment of their being made, may be effected orally, with the exception of those, for which the notarial form has been established, and also of those, the non-observance of the simple written form of which causes their invalidity. 3. The deals, effected in the execution of the agreement, concluded in written form, may by the agreement of the parties be effected orally, unless this contradicts the law, the other legal acts and the agreement. Article 160. The Written Form of the Deal 1. The deal in written form shall be effected by way of compiling a document, expressing its content and signed by the person or by the persons, who are effecting the deal, or by the persons, properly authorized by them to do so. The bilateral (multilateral) deals may be made in the ways, stipulated by Items 2 and 3 of Article 434 of the present Code. The law, the other legal acts and the agreement between the parties may decree additional requirements, to which the form of the deal shall correspond (it shall be made on the form of a definite kind, shall be certified by the stamp, etc.), and also the consequences of not satisfying these requirements. If such consequences have not been stipulated, the consequences of not observing the simple written form of the deal shall be applied (Item 1 of Article 162). 2. The use in effecting the deals of a facsimile reproduction of the signature, made with the assistance of the means of the mechanical or the other kind of copying, of the electronic-numerical signature or of another analogue of the sign manual shall be admitted in the cases and in the order, stipulated by the law and by the other legal acts, or by the agreement of the parties. 3. If the citizen, as a result of a physical defect, illness or illiteracy cannot put down his signature himself, another citizen may sign the deal upon his request. The latter's signature shall be certified by the notary or by another official person, possessing the right to perform such kind of the notarial action, with the indication of the reasons, by force of which the person, effecting the deal, was unable to put under it his sign manual himself. However, in effecting the deals, indicated in Item 4, Article 185 of the present Code, and in issuing warrants for their effecting, the signature of the person, signing the deal, may also be certified by the organization, where the citizen, who is unable to put under it his sign manual himself, works, or by the administration of the in-patient medical institution, where he is undergoing medical treatment. Article 161. The Deals, Made in the Simple Written Form 1. Shall be effected in the simple written form, with the exception of the deals, requiring notarial certification: 1) the deals of the legal entities between themselves and with the citizens; 2) the deals of the citizens between themselves to the sum at least ten times exceeding the minimum size of wages, fixed by the law, and in the law-stipulated cases - regardless of the sum of the deal. 2. The observance of the simple written form shall not be required for the deals, which, in conformity with Article 159 of the present Code, may be effected orally. Article 162. The Consequences of the Non-observance of the Simple Written Form of the Deal 1. The non-observance of the simple written form of the deal shall in the case of a dispute deprive the parties of the right to refer to the testimony for the confirmation of the deal and of its terms, while not depriving them of the right to cite the written and the other kind of proofs. 2. In the cases, directly pointed out in the law or in the agreement between the parties, the non-observance of the simple written form of the deal shall entail its invalidity. 3. The non-observance of the simple written form in a foreign economic deal shall entail its invalidity. Article 163. The Notarially Certified Deal 1. The notarial certification of the deal shall be performed by making upon the document, corresponding to the requirements of Article 160 of the present Code, of the certifying superscription by the notary or by another official person, possessing the right to perform such kind of the notarial action. 2. The notarial certification of the deals shall be obligatory: 1) in the cases, pointed out by the law; 2) in the cases, stipulated by the parties' agreement, even if this form is not required for the given kind of the deals by the law. Article 164. The State Registration of the Deals 1. The deals with the land and with the other realty shall be subject to the state registration in the cases and in conformity with the order, stipulated by Article 131 of the present Code and by the Law on the Registration of the Rights to the Realty and the Deals with It. 2. The law may decree the state registration of the deals with the realty of certain kinds. Article 165. The Consequences of the Non-Observance of the Notarial Form of the Deal and of the Requirement for Its Registration 1. The non-observance of the notarial form of the deal and, in the law-stipulated cases, of the requirement for its state registration, shall entail its invalidity. Such kind of the deal shall be regarded as insignificant. 2. If one of the parties has executed, in full or in part, the deal, requiring the notarial certification, while the other party has been evading such certification of the deal, the court shall have the right, upon the claim of the party, which has executed the deal, to recognize the deal as valid. In this case, no subsequent certification of the deal shall be required. 3. If the deal, requiring the state registration, has been made in the proper form, but one of the parties is evading its registration, the court shall have the right, upon the claim of the other party, to adopt the decision on the registration of the deal. In this case the deal shall be registered in conformity with the court ruling. 4. In the cases, stipulated by Items 2 and 3 of the present Article, the party, ungroundlessly evading the notarial certification or the state registration of the deal, shall be obliged to recompense to the other party the losses, inflicted by the delay in the effecting or in the registration of the deal.

_ 2. The Invalidity of the Deals

Article 166. The Disputable and the Insignificant Deals

1. The deal shall be invalid on the grounds, established by the present Code, by force of its being recognized as such by the court (a disputable deal), or regardless of such recognition (an insignificant deal). 2. The claim for recognizing the disputed deal to be invalid may be lodged by the persons, pointed out in the present Code. The claim for the application of the consequences of an insignificant deal may be submitted by any interested person. The court shall also have the right to apply such consequences on its own initiative. Article 167. The General Provisions on the Consequences of the Invalidity of the Deal 1. The invalid deal shall not entail legal consequences, with the exception of those involved in its invalidity, and shall be invalid from the moment of its effecting. 2. If the deal has been recognized as invalid, each of the parties shall be obliged to return to the other party all it has received from it by the deal, and in the case of such return to be impossible in kind (including when the deal has been involved in the use of the property, the work performed or the service rendered), its cost shall be recompensed in money - unless the other consequences of the invalidity of the deal have been stipulated by the law. 3. If it follows from the content of the disputed deal that it may only be terminated for the future, the court, while recognizing the deal to be invalid, shall terminate its operation for the future. Article 168. Invalidity of the Deal Not Corresponding to the Law or to the Other Legal Acts The deal, which does not correspond to the requirements of the law or of the other legal acts, shall be regarded as insignificant, unless the law establishes that such a deal is disputable or stipulates the other consequences of the breach. Article 169. Invalidity of the Deal, Made for the Purpose, Contradicting the Foundations of the Law and Order, and of Morality The deal, which has been aimed at the goal, flagrantly contrary to the foundations of the law and order, or of morality, shall be regarded as insignificant. If the malicious intent has been found on the part of both parties to such a deal, in the case of the execution of the deal by both parties, all they have gained by the deal shall be exacted from them into the revenue of the Russian Federation, and in the case of the deal being executed by one party, into the revenue of the Russian Federation shall be exacted all the gain by the deal, derived by the other party, and also all that was due from it to the first party in compensation of the gain. If the malicious intent has been found in only one party to such a deal, all it has gained by the deal shall be returned to the other party, while what the latter has received, or what is due to it in compensation of the executed, shall be exacted into the revenue of the Russian Federation. Article 170. Invalidity of the Sham and of the Feigned Deal 1. The sham deal, i.e., the deal, effected only for the form's sake, without an intention to create the legal consequences, corresponding to it, shall be regarded as insignificant. 2. The feigned deal, i.e., the deal, which has been effected for the purpose of screening another deal, shall be regarded as insignificant. Toward the deal, which has actually been intended, shall be applied the relevant rules, with account for its substance. Article 171. Invalidity of the Deal, Made by the Citizen, Recognized as Legally Incapable 1. The deal, effected by the citizen, who has been recognized as legally incapable on account of a mental derangement, shall be regarded as insignificant. Each of the parties to such a deal shall be obliged to return to the other party all it has received in kind, and if it is impossible to return what has been received in kind - to recompense its cost in money. Besides that, the legally capable party shall also be obliged to recompense to the other party the actual damage the latter has sustained, if the legally capable party has been aware, or should have been aware, of the legal incapability of the other party. 2. In the interest of the citizen, recognized as legally incapable on account of a mental derangement, the deal he has effected may be recognized by the court as valid upon the demand of his guardian, if it has been made to the benefit of the said citizen. Article 172. Invalidity of the Deal, Made by the Minor Below 14 Years of Age 1. The deal, effected by the minor, who has not reached 14 years of age (the young minor), shall be regarded as invalid. Toward such a deal shall be applied the rules, stipulated by the second and the third paragraphs of Item 1 of Article 171 of the present Code. 2. In the interest of the young minor, the deal he has effected may be recognized by the court as valid upon the demand of his parents, adopters or guardian, if it has been made to the benefit of the young minor. 3. The rules of the present Article shall not concern the petty everyday and other kind of deals, effected by the young minors, which they have the right to make independently in conformity with Article 28 of the present Code. Article 173. Invalidity of the Deal, Made by the Legal Entity, Which Is Beyond the Scope of Its Legal Capacity The deal, effected by the legal entity in contradiction to the goals of the activity, definitely restricted in its constituent documents, or by the legal entity, which has no license for the performance of the corresponding activity, may be recognized by the court as invalid upon the claim of this legal entity, of its founder (participant), or of the state body, exerting control over the activity of the legal entity, if it has been proved that the other party to the deal has been aware, or should have been aware, of its being illegal. Article 174. The Consequences of the Restriction of Powers for Making the Deal If the powers of the person for effecting the deal have been restricted by the agreement, or the powers of the legal entity's body have been restricted by its constituent documents, as compared to the way they have been delineated in the warrant or in the law, or to the extent to which they may be regarded as evident from the actual setting, in which the deal is being effected, and if, while effecting the deal, such person or such body have trespassed the borders of such restrictions, the deal may be recognized by the court as invalid upon the claim of the person, in whose interest the said restrictions have been imposed, only in the cases, when it has been proved that the other party to the deal has been aware, or should have been aware, of the said restrictions. Article 175. Invalidity of the Deal, Made by the Minor of 14-18 Years of Age 1. The deal, effected by the minor, aged from 14 to 18 years, without the consent of his parents, adopters or his trustee, in the cases when such consent is required in conformity with Article 26 of the present Code, may be recognized by the court as invalid upon the claim of the parents, adopters or the trustee. If such a deal has been recognized as invalid, the rules, stipulated by the second and the third paragraphs of Item 1 of Article 171 of the present Code, shall be correspondingly applied. 2. The rules of the present Article shall not concern the deals of the minors, who have acquired the full legal capacity. Article 176. Invalidity of the Deal, Made by the Citizen Whose Legal Capacity Has Been Restricted by the Court 1. The deal, involved in the disposal of the property, which has been effected without the consent of his trustee by the citizen, whose legal capacity has been restricted by the court on account of his abuse of alcohol or drug addiction, may be recognized by the court as invalid upon the claim of the trustee. If such a deal has been recognized as invalid, the rules, stipulated by the second and the third paragraphs of Item 1 of Article 171 of the present Code, shall be correspondingly applied. 2. The rules of the present Article shall not concern the petty everyday deals, which the citizen, restricted in his legal capacity, has the right to effect independently in conformity with Article 30 of the present Code. Article 177. Invalidity of the Deal, Made by the Citizen, Incapable of Realizing the Meaning of His Actions or of Keeping Them Under Control 1. The deal, effected by the citizen, who, while being legally capable, at the moment of making the deal was in such a state that he was incapable of realizing the meaning of his actions or of keeping them under control, may be recognized by the court as invalid upon the claim of this citizen or of the other persons, whose rights or law-protected interests have been violated as a result of its being effected. 2. The deal, effected by the citizen, who has been recognized as legally incapable at a later date, may be recognized by the court as invalid upon the claim of his guardian, if it has been proved that at the moment of making the deal, the citizen was incapable of realizing the meaning of his actions or of keeping them under control. 3. If the deal has been recognized as invalid on the ground of the present Article, the rules, stipulated by the second and the third paragraphs of Item 1 of Article 171 of the present Code, shall be correspondingly applied. Article 178. Invalidity of the Deal, Made Under the Impact of Delusion 1. The deal, effected under the impact of the delusion, which has been of an essential importance, may be recognized by the court as invalid upon the claim of the party, which has acted under the impact of the delusion. Of an essential importance shall be the delusion about the nature of the deal, or about the identity of the features of its object, which essentially narrow down the possibility of its use for the intended purpose. The delusion about the motives of the deal shall not be regarded as essential. 2. If the deal has been recognized as invalid as that effected under the impact of the delusion, the rules, stipulated by Item 2, Article 167 of the present Code, shall be correspondingly applied. In addition to that, the party, upon whose claim the deal has been recognized as invalid, shall have the right to claim from the other party the compensation of the actual damage inflicted upon it, if it proves that the delusion has arisen through the fault of the other party. If this has not been proven, the party, upon whose claim the deal has been recognized as invalid, shall be obliged to recompense to the other party upon its claim the actual damage inflicted upon it, even if the delusion has arisen on account of the circumstances, not depending on the deluded party. Article 179. Invalidity of the Deal, Made Under the Impact of the Fraud, Coercion, a Threat or an Ill-Intentioned Agreement of the Representative of One Party with the Other Party, or of the Coincidence of Ill Circumstances 1. The deal, effected under the impact of the fraud, coercion, a threat or an ill-intentioned agreement of the representative of one party with the other party, and also the deal, which the person has been forced to make on the extremely unfavourable terms because of the coincidence of ill circumstances, while this has been made use of by the other party (the bondage deal), may be recognized as invalid by the court upon the claim of the victim. 2. If the deal has been recognized as invalid on one of the grounds, pointed out in Item 1 of the present Article, all that the other party has received by the deal shall be returned by it to the victim, and in case it is impossible to return all this in kind, its cost shall be recompensed in money. The property, which the victim has received by the deal from the other party, shall be passed into the revenue of the Russian Federation. In case of the impossibility to pass the property into the revenue of the state in kind, its cost shall be exacted in money. In addition, the victim shall be recompensed by the other party all the actual damage inflicted upon him. Article 180. The Consequences of the Invalidity of a Part of the Deal The invalidity of a part of the deal shall not entail the invalidity of its other parts, if it may be supposed that the deal could have been effected without the incorporation into it of the invalidated part. Article 181. The Term of Legal Limitation by the Invalid Deals 1. The claim for the application of the consequences of the invalidity of an insignificant deal may be filed within the term of ten days from the date, when its execution has begun. 2. The claim for recognizing the disputed deal as invalid and for the application of the consequences of its invalidity shall be filed within one year from the date of the cessation of the coercion or the threat, under the impact of which the deal has been made (Item 1 of Article 179), or from the date, when the plaintiff has learned, or should have learned, about the other circumstances, which are the ground for invalidating the deal.

Chapter 10. The Representation. The Warrant

Article 182. The Representation

1. The deal, effected by one person (the representative) on behalf of another person (the representee) by force of the power, based on the warrant, on the indication of the law or on the act, issued by the state body or by the local self-government body, authorized for this purpose, shall directly create, amend or terminate the civil rights and duties of the representee. The power may also stem from the setting, in which the representative operates (the salesman in retail trade, the cashier, etc.). 2. The persons, who operate in the interest of the other persons, but on their own behalf (the trade agents, the trustees of a bankrupt's estate, the executors of the will, etc.), and also the persons, authorized to enter into negotiations on the deals, which may be possibly effected in the future, shall not act as representatives. 3. The representative shall not effect the deals on behalf of the representee in his own interest. Neither shall he effect such deals in the interest of another person, whose representative he is at the same time, with the exception of the cases of the commercial representation. 4. The effecting through the representative of the deal, which by its nature shall be effected only in person, and also of the other deals, which have been pointed out in the law, shall not be admitted. Article 183. The Effecting of the Deal by an Unauthorized Person 1. If the deal has been effected on behalf of the other person in the absence of relevant powers, or in case such powers have been exceeded, the deal shall be regarded as made on behalf and in the interest of the person who has made it, unless the other person (the representee) subsequently directly approves of such a deal. 2. The subsequent approval of the deal by the representee shall create, amend and terminate for him the civil rights and duties by the given deal from the moment of its being effected. Article 184. The Commercial Representation 1. The trade agent shall be the person, who constantly and independently represents and acts on behalf of businessmen in their concluding agreements in the sphere of business activities. 2. The simultaneous commercial representation of different parties in the deal shall be admitted upon the consent of these parties and in the other law-stipulated cases. The trade agent shall be obliged to execute the orders he has been given with the circumspection of a common businessman. The trade agent shall have the right to claim the payment of the agreed remuneration and the compensation of the expenses, he has incurred while executing the commission, from the parties to the agreement in equal shares, unless otherwise stipulated by the agreement between them. 3. The commercial representation shall be performed on the ground of a commission contract, concluded in written form and containing instructions on the agent's powers, and in the absence of such instructions - also the warrant. The trade agent shall be obliged to keep in secret the information on the commercial deals even after the execution of the commission given to him. 4. The specific features of the commercial representation in the individual spheres of business activities shall be established by the law and by the other legal acts. Article 185. The Warrant 1. The warrant shall be recognized as the written authorization document, granted by one person to the other person for the purpose of representing him before the third persons. The written authorization document for effecting the deal by the representative may be presented by the representee directly to the corresponding third person. 2. The warrant for effecting the deals, requiring the notarial form, shall be notarially certified, with the exception of the law-stipulated cases. 3. To the notarially certified warrants shall be equalized: 1) the warrants of the servicemen and of the other persons, undergoing medical treatment in military hospitals and sanatoria, and in other military medical institutions, certified by the head of such an institution, by his deputy for medicine, by the senior doctor, or by the doctor on duty; 2) the warrants of the servicemen, and in the places of the stationing of military units, formations, institutions and military educational establishments, where there are no notary's offices or other bodies, performing notarial actions, also the warrants of the workers and employees, of their family members and of the family members of the servicemen, certified by the commander (the head) of this unit, formation, institution or establishment; 3) the warrants of the persons, maintained in the places of the deprivation of freedom (in the prisons and the prison camps), certified by the head of the corresponding place of the deprivation of freedom; 4) the warrants of the adult legally capable citizens, staying at the institutions for the social maintenance of the population, certified by the administration of the given institution or by the head (the deputy head) of the corresponding body for the social maintenance of the population. 4. The warrant for the receipt of the wages and the other payments, connected with labour relations, for the receipt of the author's and the inventor's fees, of the pensions, allowances and grants, of the citizens' deposits in the banks and of their correspondence, including money orders and parcels, may also be certified by the organization, in which the trustee works or studies, by the housing-maintenance organization at the place of his residence and by the administration of the in-patient medical institution, in which he is undergoing medical treatment. A power of attorney for the drawing by a representative of a citizen of his deposit in a bank, or monetary funds from his bank account, or for the receipt of correspondence addressed thereto in organizations of communications, and also for the making on behalf of a citizen of any other transactions mentioned in Paragraph One of the present Item may be attested by the relevant bank or organization of communications. Such power of attorney shall be attested free of charge. 5. The warrant, granted on behalf of the legal entity, shall bear the signature of its head or of the other person, authorized for this action by its constituent documents, and shall be certified by the stamp of this organization. The warrant, granted on behalf of the legal entity, which is based on the state or municipal property, for the receipt or for the issue of money and of other property values, shall also be signed by the chief (senior) accountant of this organization. Article 186. The Period of the Warrant 1. The period of the warrant shall not exceed three years. If no term has been indicated in it, the warrant shall stay in force in the course of one year from the date of its granting. The warrant, in which no date of its granting has been indicated, shall be regarded as insignificant. 2. The notarially certified warrant, intended for the performance of actions abroad and containing no indication of the term of its operation, shall stay in force until it is revoked by the person, who has granted it. Article 187. Transfer of the Warrant 1. The person, to whom the warrant has been granted (the warrantee) shall be obliged to perform the actions, for which he has been authorized, in person. He shall be able to transfer their performance to another person, if he is authorized to do so by the warrant, or if he has been forced to do so on account of the circumstances in order to protect the interests of the person, who has granted him the warrant (the warrantor). 2. The person, who has transferred the power of attorney to another person, shall be obliged to notify about it the warrantor, and to pass to him all the essential information on the person, to whom he has transferred the said power. The failure to discharge this duty shall impose upon the person, who has transferred the power of attorney by the warrant, the same responsibility for the actions of the person, to whom he has passed the power, as he would have borne for his own actions. 3. The warrant, granted by way of transferring the power of attorney, shall be notarized, with the exception of the cases, stipulated in Item 4 of Article 185 of the present Code. 4. The period of operation of the warrant, granted by way of transferring the power of attorney, shall not exceed the period of the warrant, on the ground of which it has been granted. Article 188. Withdrawal of the Warrant 1. The operation of the warrant shall be terminated as a result of: 1) the expiry of the period of the warrant; 2) the revoking of the warrant by the person, who has granted it; 3) refusal on the part of the person, to whom is has been granted; 4) the termination of the legal entity, on whose behalf the warrant has been granted; 5) the termination of the legal entity, in whose name the warrant has been granted; 6) the death of the citizen, who has granted the warrant, or his recognition as legally incapable, partially capable or missing; 7) the death of the citizen, to whom the warrant has been granted, or his recognition as legally incapable, partially capable or missing. 2. The person, who has granted the warrant (the warrantor), shall have the right at any time to revoke the warrant or the transfer of the warrant, while the person, to whom the warrant has been granted (the warrantee), shall have the right at any time to reject it. An agreement on the renouncement of these rights shall be insignificant. 3. The transfer of the warrant shall lose power with the termination of the warrant. Article 189. The Consequences of the Termination of the Warrant 1. The person, who has granted the warrant and who has subsequently revoked it, shall be obliged to notify about it the person, to whom the warrant has been issued, and also the third persons he knows, for the representation before whom the warrant has been granted. The same responsibility shall be imposed upon the legal successors of the warrantor, in the cases of the termination of the warrant on the grounds, stipulated in Subitems 4 and 6 of Item 1 of Article 188 of the present Code. 2. The rights and duties, which have arisen as a result of the actions of the person, to whom the warrant has been granted (the warrantee), before the moment when he has learned, or should have learned, about its termination, shall stay in force for the warrantor and his legal successors with respect to the third persons. This rule shall not be applied, if the third person has been aware, or should have been aware, of the fact that the operation of the warrant has been terminated. 3. After the termination of the warrant, the warrantee or his legal successors shall be obliged to immediately return it.

Subsection 5
THE TERM, THE LIMITATION OF ACTIONs

Chapter 11. The Counting of the Term

Article 190. Definition of the Term

The term, established by the law, by the other legal acts and by the deal, or that fixed by the court, shall be defined by the calendar date or by the expiry of the period of time, counted in years, months, weeks, days or hours. The term may also be defined by the reference to the event, which shall inevitably take place. Article 191. The Start of the Term, Defined by a Period of Time The proceeding of the term, defined by a period of time, shall start on the next day after the calendar date or after the occurrence of the event, by which its start has been defined. Article 192. The End of the Term, Defined by a Period of Time 1. The term, counted in years, shall expire in the corresponding month and on the corresponding day of the last year of the term. Toward the term, defined as a half of the year, shall be applied the rules for the terms, counted in months. 2. Toward the term, counted in the quarters of the year, shall be applied the rules for the terms, counted by months. The quarter of the year shall be equal to three months, and the quarters shall be counted from the beginning of the year. 3. The term, counted in months, shall expire on the corresponding day of the last month of the term. The term, defined as a fortnight, shall be regarded as the term, counted in days, and shall be equal to 15 days. If the term, counted in months, expires in the month, which has no corresponding date, it shall expire on the last day of this month. 4. The term, counted in weeks, shall expire on the corresponding day of the last week of the term. Article 193. Expiry of the Term on a Holiday If the last day of the term falls on a holiday, the day of the expiry of the term shall be the working day, following right after it. Article 194. Procedure for Performing Actions on the Last Day of the Term 1. If the term has been fixed for the performance of a certain action, it may be performed before the expiry of 24 hours of the last day of the term. However, if this action has to be performed in an organization, the term shall expire at the hour, when, in conformity with the established rules, the performance of the corresponding actions in this organization is terminated. 2. Written applications and notifications, handed in to a communications agency before the expiry of 24 hours of the last day of the term, shall be regarded as executed on time.

Chapter 12. The Limitation of Actions

Article 195. The Concept of the Limitation of Actions

The limitation of actions shall be recognized as the term, fixed for the protection of the right by the claim of the person, whose right has been violated.

Article 196. The General Term of the Limitation of Actions

The general term of the limitation of actions shall be laid down as three years.

Article 197. Special Terms of the Limitation of Actions

1. For the individual kinds of claims, the law may establish special terms of the limitation of actions, reduced or extended as compared to the general term. 2. The rules of Articles 195 and 198-207 of the present Code shall also be extended to the special terms of the limitation of actions, unless otherwise established by the law. Article 198. Invalidity of the Agreement on Changing the Terms of the Limitation of Actions The terms of the limitation of actions and the order of their counting shall not be changed by an agreement between the parties. The grounds for the suspension and the interruption of the proceeding of the terms of the limitation of actions shall be laid down by the present Code and by the other laws. Article 199. Application of the Limitation of Actions 1. The claim for the protection of the violated right shall be accepted by the court for consideration regardless of the expiry of the term of the limitation of actions. 2. The limitation of actions shall be applied by the court only upon the application of the party to the dispute, filed before the court has passed the decision. The expiry of the term of the limitation of actions, the application of which has been pleaded by the party to the dispute, shall be the ground for the court passing the decision on the rejection of the claim. Article 200. The Start of the Proceeding of the Term of the Limitation of Actions 1. The proceeding of the term of the limitation of actions shall start from the day, when the person has learned, or should have learned, about the violation of his right. Exceptions to this rule shall be established by the present Code and by the other laws. 2. By the obligations with a fixed term of execution, the proceeding of the term of the limitation of actions shall start after the expiry of the term of execution. By the obligations without a fixed term of execution, or by those, whose term of execution has been defined as that on demand, the proceeding of the term of the limitation of actions shall start from the moment, when the creditor's right to present the claim for the execution of the obligation arises, and if the debtor has been granted a privileged term for the execution of such a claim, the term of the limitation of actions shall be counted after the expiry of the said term. 3. By the regress obligations, the proceeding of the term of the limitation of actions shall start from the moment of execution of the basic obligation. Article 201. The Term of the Limitation of Actions in the Substitution of the Persons in the Obligation The substitution of the persons in the obligation shall not entail a change of the term of the limitation of actions or of the order of its counting. Article 202. Suspension of the Proceeding of the Term of the Limitation of Actions 1. The proceeding of the term of the limitation of actions shall be suspended: 1) if the filing of the claim has been obstructed by an extraordinary and under the given conditions inexorable circumstance (a force-majeure); 2) if the plaintiff or the defendant is in the Armed Forces, put under the martial law; 3) by force of the postponement of the execution of the obligations (a moratorium), decreed on the ground of the law by the Government of the Russian Federation; 4) by force of the suspension of the operation of the law or of the other legal act, regulating the corresponding relationship. 2. The proceeding of the term of the limitation of actions shall be suspended under the condition that the circumstances, pointed out in the present Article, have arisen or have been existing over the last six months of the term of the limitation, and if this term is equal to six months or is less than six months - over the period of the term of the limitation of actions. 3. From the day of the termination of the circumstance, which has served as the ground for the suspension of the limitation, the proceeding of its term shall be resumed. The remaining part of the term shall be extended to six months, and in case the term of the limitation of actions is equal to six months or is less than six months - up to the term of the limitation. Article 203. Interruption of the Proceeding of the Term of Limitation of Actions The proceeding of the term of the limitation of actions shall be interrupted by the filing of a claim in conformity with the established order, and also by the obligator's performing the actions, which testify to his admitting the debt. After the interruption, the proceeding of the term of the limitation shall start anew; the time that has expired before the interruption, shall not be included into the new term. Article 204. Proceeding of the Term of Limitation if the Claim Is Dismissed If the court dismisses the claim, the term of limitation, which has started before the claim was filed, shall continue to proceed in the general order. If the court dismisses the claim, filed in a criminal case, the term of limitation, which has started before the claim was filed, shall be suspended until the sentence on dismissing the claim comes into legal force; the time, over which the limitation has been suspended, shall not be included into the term of limitation. In case the remaining part of the term of the limitation of actions is less than six months, it shall be extended to six months. Article 205. Restoration of the Term of the Limitation of Actions In exceptional cases, when the court recognizes the cause of missing the term of limitation as valid on the ground of the circumstances (it being related to the plaintiff's personal characteristics, such as a grave illness, total disability, illiteracy, etc.), the citizen's violated right shall be liable to protection. The reasons for his missing the term of the limitation of actions may be recognized as valid, if they have taken place within the last six months of the term of limitation, and if this term is equal to six months or is less than six months - over the term of limitation. Article 206. Execution of the Duty After the Expiry of the Term of the Limitation of Actions The debtor or another obligator, who has executed the duty after the expiry of the term of limitation, shall not have the right of regress, even if at the moment of the execution the said person was not aware of the expiry of the term of limitation. Article 207. Application of the Limitation of Actions to Supplementary Claims With the expiry of the term of limitation by the basic claim, that by the supplementary claims (the forfeit, pledge, surety, etc.) shall also expire. Article 208. The Claims to Which the Limitation of Actions Shall Not Be Apply The limitation of actions shall not be apply to: - the claims for the protection of personal non-property rights and the other non-material values, with the exception of the cases, stipulated by the law; - the claims of the depositors to the bank on the issue of deposits; - the claims on recompensing the damage, inflicted on the life or the health of the citizen. However, the claims, made after the expiry of three years from the moment, when the right to the compensation of such damage has arisen, shall be satisfied for the past time for no more than three years, preceding the filing of the claim; - the claims of the owner or another possessor for the elimination of all violations of his right, even though these violations have not been involved in the deprivation of the possession (Article 304); - the other claims in the cases, established by the law.

SECTION II
THE RIGHT OF THE OWNERSHIP AND THE OTHER RIGHTS OF ESTATE

Chapter 13. The General Provisions

Article 209. The Content of the Right of Ownership

1. The owner shall be entitled to the rights of the possession, the use and the disposal of his property. 2. The owner shall have the right at his own discretion to perform with respect to the property in his ownership any actions, not contradicting the law and the other legal acts, and not violating the rights and the law-protected interests of the other persons, including the alienation of his property into the ownership of the other persons, the transfer to them, while himself remaining the owner of the property, of the rights of its possession, use and disposal, the putting of his property in pledge and its burdening in other ways, as well as the disposal thereof in a different manner. 3. The possession, the use and the disposal of the land and of the other natural resources so far as their circulation is admitted by the law (Article 129), shall be freely effected by their owner, unless this inflicts damage to the natural environment or violates the rights and the legal interests of the other persons. 4. The owner may pass his property over into the confidential management, or into the trusteeship (to a confidential manager, or to the trustee). The transfer of the property into the confidential management shall not entail the transfer of the rights of ownership to the confidential manager, who shall be obliged to perform the management of the property in the interest of the owner or of the third person the owner has named. Article 210. The Burden of Maintaining the Property The owner shall bear the burden of maintaining the property in his ownership, unless otherwise stipulated by the law or by the contract. Article 211. The Risk of an Accidental Destruction of the Property The risk of an accidental destruction of the property or of an accidental damage inflicted on it shall be borne by its owner, unless otherwise stipulated by the law or by the contract. Article 212. The Subjects of the Right of Ownership 1. In the Russian Federation shall be recognized the private, the state, the municipal and the other forms of ownership. 2. The property may be in the ownership of the citizens and of the legal entities, and also of the Russian Federation, of the subjects of the Russian Federation and of the municipal entities. 3. The specifics of the acquisition and of the cessation of the right of ownership to the property, of the possession, the use and the disposal thereof may be established only by the law, depending on whether the given property is in the ownership of the citizen or of the legal entity, in the ownership of the Russian Federation, of the subject of the Russian Federation or of the municipal entity. The law shall stipulate the kinds of the property, which may be only in the state or in the municipal ownership. 4. The rights of all the owners shall be equally protected. Article 213. The Right of Ownership of the Citizens and of the Legal Entities 1. In the ownership of the citizens and of the legal entities may be any property, with the exception of the individual kinds of the property, which, in conformity with the law, may not be owned by the citizens or by the legal entities. 2. The amount and the cost of the property in the ownership of the citizens and of the legal entities shall not be limited, with the exception of the cases, when such limitations have been established by the law for the purposes, stipulated by Item 2, Article 1 of the present Code. 3. The commercial and the non-profit organizations, with the exception of the state and of the municipal enterprises, and also of the institutions, financed by the owner, shall be the owners of the property, transferred to them by way of the investments (the contributions), made by their founders (participants, members), and also of the property, acquired by these legal entities on the other grounds. 4. The public and the religious organizations (the associations), the charity and the other kind of funds shall be the owners of the property they have acquired and shall have the right to use it only for achieving the goals, stipulated in their constituent documents. The founders (the participants, the members) of these organizations shall lose the right to the property, which they have transferred into the ownership of the corresponding organization. In case of the liquidation of such an organization, its property, left after the creditors' claims have been satisfied, shall be used for the purposes, pointed out in its constituent documents. Article 214. The Right of the State Ownership 1. The state property in the Russian Federation shall be the property, owned by the right of ownership by the Russian Federation (the federal, or the federally owned property), and also the property, owned by the right of ownership by the subjects of the Russian Federation - by the Republics, the territories, the regions, the cities of federal importance, by the autonomous region and by the autonomous areas (the property of the subject of the Russian Federation). 2. The land and the other natural resources, which are not in the ownership of the citizens, the legal entities or the municipal entities, shall be the state property. 3. On behalf of the Russian Federation and of the subjects of the Russian Federation, the rights of the owner shall be exercised by the bodies and by the persons, indicated in Article 125 of the present Code. 4. The property, which is in the state ownership, shall be assigned to the state-run enterprises and institutions into the possession, the use and the disposal in conformity with the present Code (Articles 294 and 296). The means of the corresponding budget and the other state property, not assigned to the state enterprises and institutions, shall comprise the state treasury of the Russian Federation, the treasury of the Republic within the Russian Federation, of the territory, the region, the city of federal importance, of the autonomous region and of the autonomous area. 5. Referring the state property to the federal property and to the property of the subjects of the Russian Federation shall be effected in conformity with the procedure, laid down by the law. Article 215. The Right of the Municipal Ownership 1. The property, belonging by the right of ownership to the urban and to the rural settlements, and to the other municipal entities, shall be the municipal property. 2. On behalf of the municipal entity, the rights of the owner shall be exercised by the local self-government bodies and by the persons, indicated in Article 125 of the present Code. 3. The property in the municipal ownership shall be assigned to the municipal enterprises and to the institutions into the possession, the use and the disposal in conformity with the present Code (Articles 294 and 296). The means of the local budget and the other municipal property, not assigned to the municipal enterprises and to the institutions, shall comprise the municipal treasury of the corresponding urban or rural settlement or of the other municipal entity. Article 216. The Rights of Estate of the Persons, Who Are Not the Owners 1. The rights of estate shall be, alongside the right of ownership: - the right of the inherited life possession of the land plot (Article 265); - the right of the permanent (perpetual) use of the land plot (Article 268); - the servitudes (Articles 274 and 277); - the right of the economic management of the property (Article 294) and the right of the operation management of the property (Article 296). 2. The rights of estate to the property may be possessed by the persons, who are not the owners of this property. 3. The transfer of the right of the ownership to the property to the other person shall not be a ground for the cessation of the other rights of estate to this property. 4. The rights of estate of the person, who is not the owner of the property, shall be protected from their violation by any person in the order, stipulated by Article 305 of the present Code. Article 217. Privatization of the State and of the Municipal Property The property in the state or in the municipal ownership may be transferred by its owner into the ownership of the citizens and of the legal entities in the order, stipulated by the laws on the privatization of the state and of the municipal property. In the course of the privatization of the state and of the municipal property, the provisions, stipulated by the present Code, which regulate the order of the acquisition and of the cessation of the right of ownership, shall be applied, unless otherwise stipulated by the laws on the privatization.

Chapter 14. The Acquisition of the Right of Ownership

Article 218. The Grounds for the Acquisition of the Right of Ownership

1. The right of ownership to a new thing, manufactured or created by the person for himself, while abiding by the law and by the other legal acts, shall be acquired by this person. The right of ownership to the fruits, the products and the incomes, derived through the use of the property, shall be acquired on the grounds, stipulated by Article 136 of the present Code. 2. The right of ownership to the property, which has its owner, may be acquired by the other person on the grounds of the contract of the purchase and sale, of the exchange and of making a gift, or on the ground of another kind of the deal on the alienation of this property. In the case of the citizen's death, the right of ownership to the property he has owned shall pass by the right of succession to the other persons in conformity with the will or with the law. In the case of the reorganization of the legal entity, the right of ownership to the property it has owned shall pass to the legal entities, which are the legal successors of the reorganized legal entity. 3. In the cases and in the order, stipulated by the present Code, the person may acquire the right of ownership to the ownerless property, to the property, whose owner is unknown, and to the property, which the owner has renounced or to which he has lost the right of ownership on the other law-stipulated grounds. 4. The member of the housing, housing-construction, country cottage, garage or another kind of the consumer cooperative, and also the other persons, enjoying the right to make share accumulations, who have paid up in full their share contribution for the flat, the country cottage, the garage or the other quarters, given to these persons by the cooperative, shall acquire the right of ownership to the said property.

Article 219. Arising of the Right of Ownership to the Newly Created Realty

The right of ownership to the buildings, the structures and the other newly created realty, subject to the state registration, shall arise from the moment of such registration. Article 220. The Processing 1. Unless otherwise stipulated by the contract, the right of ownership to a new movable thing, which the person has manufactured by processing the materials he does not own, shall be acquired by the owner of the materials. However, if the cost of the processing essentially exceeds the cost of the materials, the right of ownership to the new thing shall be acquired by the person who, while acting in good faith, has effected the processing for himself. 2. Unless otherwise stipulated by the contract, the owner of the materials, who has acquired the right of ownership to the thing, manufactured from them, shall be obliged to recompense the cost of the processing to the person, who has performed it, and in the case of the right of ownership to the new thing being acquired by the latter, this person shall be obliged to recompense the cost of the materials to their owner. 3. The owner of the materials, who has been deprived of them as a result of the actions in bad faith of the person, who has executed the processing, shall have the right to claim that the new thing be transferred into his ownership and that the losses, inflicted upon him, be compensated. Article 221. Turning into the Ownership of the Objects, Generally Available for Collection In the cases, when in conformity with the law or with the general permission of the owner, or in conformity with the local custom, in the woods, in the water bodies or on the other territory, the berry-picking, fishing, gathering, extraction, hunting and trapping of the generally available objects and animals is admitted, the right of ownership to the corresponding objects shall belong to the person, who has performed these actions. Article 222. The Unauthorized Structure 1. The unauthorized structure shall be a living house and any other building or structure, erected on the land plot, which has not been allotted for this purpose in conformity with the order, established by the law or by the other legal acts, or that erected without having obtained the necessary permit to this effect, or that built with the substantial violation of the norms and rules, laid down for the town-development and construction. 2. The person, who has built an unauthorized structure, shall not acquire the right of ownership to it. He shall have no right to dispose of the said structure, i.e., to sell it, to make a gift of it, to give it in rent and to perform the other deals with it. The unauthorized structure shall be subject to demolition by the person, who has erected it, or at his expense, with the exception of the cases, stipulated by Item 3 of the present Article. 3. The right of ownership to the unauthorized structure may be recognized by the court in the person, who has erected it on the land plot he does not own, on the condition that the given land plot shall be allotted to this person in conformity with the established order for the structure built on it. The right of ownership to an unauthorized structure may be recognized by the court in the person, in whose ownership, inherited life possession or permanent (perpetual) use the land plot, on which the said structure has been built, is situated. In this case, the person, whose right of ownership to the structure has been recognized, shall recompense the expenses, involved in its erection, to the person, who has built it, in the amount, defined by the court. The right of ownership to the unauthorized structure shall not be adjudged to the said persons, if the maintenance of the structure infringes upon the rights and the law-stipulated interests of the other persons or if it jeopardizes the citizens' life and health. Article 223. The Moment of the Right of Ownership Arising in the Acquirer by the Contract 1. The right of ownership shall arise in the acquirer of the thing from the moment of its transfer, unless otherwise stipulated by the law or by the contract. 2. In the cases, when the alienation of the property is subject to the state registration, the right of ownership shall arise with the buyer from the moment of such registration, unless otherwise established by the law. Article 224. The Transfer of the Thing 1. The transfer shall be recognized as the handing in of the thing to the acquirer, and also as the handing in to a transporter for the delivery to the acquirer or the passing to a communications agency for forwarding to the acquirer of the things, alienated without an obligation of delivery. The thing shall be regarded as handed in to the acquirer from the moment of its actually being placed into the possession of the acquirer or of the person, whom he has named. 2. If by the moment of concluding the contract on the alienation of the thing it has already been placed into the acquirer's possession, it shall be regarded as transferred to him from this moment. 3. The transfer of the thing shall be equalized to the transfer of the bill of lading or of another document of title to the thing. Article 225. Ownerless Things 1. The thing shall be recognized as ownerless, if it has no owner, or if its owner is unknown, of if he has renounced his right of ownership to the said thing. 2. Unless this is excluded by the rules of the present Code on the acquisition of the right of ownership to the things, which have been renounced by the owner (Article 226), on the find (Articles 227 and 228), on the neglected animals (Articles 230 and 231) and on the treasure (Article 233), the right of ownership to the ownerless movables may be acquired by force of the acquisitive prescription. 3. The ownerless immovable things shall be registered by the body, engaged in the state registration of the right to the realty, upon the application of the local self-government body, on whose territory they are situated. After the expiry of one year from the day of registration of the ownerless immovable thing, the body, authorized to manage the municipal property, may file a claim with the court for recognizing the municipal ownership to the given thing. The ownerless immovable thing, which has not been recognized by the court ruling as given into the municipal ownership, may once again be accepted into the possession, the use and the disposal by its owner, who has formerly left it, or it may be acquired into ownership by force of the acquisitive prescription. Article 226. The Movables, Renounced by the Owner 1. The movable things, abandoned by their owner, or left by him in another way with the purpose of renouncing his right of their ownership (the abandoned things), may be turned by the other persons into their ownership in conformity with the order, stipulated by Item 2 of the present Article. 2. The person, in whose ownership, possession or use is the land plot, water body or another object, where the abandoned thing, which costs obviously less than the sum, corresponding to the five-fold minimum amount of the remuneration of labour, and also the abandoned metal scrap, the rejected products, the sinken logs in the floating, the dumps and the drains formed in the extraction of minerals, the production and the other kind of wastes are located, shall have the right to turn these things into his ownership by starting to use them, or by performing the other actions, testifying to the thing being turned into ownership. The other abandoned things shall go into the ownership of the person, who has entered into their possession, if, upon the application of this person, the court has recognized them as ownerless. Article 227. The Find 1. The person, who has found a lost thing, shall be obliged to immediately notify about this the person, who has lost it, or the person, who is its owner, or somebody else from among the persons he knows, who have the right to obtain it, and to return the thing he has found to this person. If the thing has been found indoors or in a transport vehicle, it shall be subject to being handed over to the person, representing the owner of the quarters or of the transport vehicle in question. In this case, the person, to whom the find has been handed over, shall acquire the rights and shall discharge the obligations of the person, who has found the thing. 2. If the person, who has the right to claim that the found thing be returned to him, or the place of his stay is not known, the person, who has found the thing, shall be obliged to declare the find to the militia or to the local self-government body. 3. The person, who has found the thing, shall have the right to keep it or to give it for keeping to the militia, to the local self-government body, or to the person these have pointed out. The perishable thing or the thing, the cost of whose storage is inordinately great compared with its cost, may be realized by the person, who has found it; the latter shall obtain a written proof of the earnings he has derived. The money, received from the sale of the find, shall be subject to the return to the person, legally entitled to obtain it. 4. The person, who has found the thing, shall be answerable for the said thing's loss or damage only in the case of an evil intent or of a flagrant carelessness on his part, and then only within the limits of its cost. Article 228. Acquisition of the Right of Ownership to the Find 1. If in the course of six months from the moment of the declaration of the find to the militia or to the local self-government body (Item 2 of Article 227), the person, legally entitled to obtain the found thing, is not identified, or does not himself declare his right to the thing to the person, who has found it, to the militia or to the self-government body, the person, who has found it, shall acquire the right of ownership to the given thing. 2. In case the person, who has found the thing, refuses to acquire the found thing into his ownership, it shall be turned into the municipal ownership. Article 229. Compensation of the Expenses, Involved in the Find, and the Reward to the Person, Who Has Found It 1. The person, who has found and returned the thing to the person, legally entitled to obtain it, shall have the right to receive from this person, and in case the thing is turned into the municipal ownership - from the corresponding local self-government body, the compensation of the necessary expenses, involved in the keeping, handing in or realization of the thing, as well as the outlays he has made in his efforts to discover the person, who has the right to obtain the thing. 2. The person, who has found the thing, shall have the right to claim from the person, legally entitled to obtain it, the reward for the find, amounting to up to 20 per cent of its cost. If the found thing presents a value only to the person, legally entitled to obtain it, the amount of the reward shall be defined by an agreement with this person. The right to the reward shall not arise, if the person, who has found the thing, has not declared the find or has tried to conceal it. Article 230. The Neglected Animals 1. The person, who has detained the neglected or stray cattle or the other neglected domestic animals, shall be obliged to return them to the owner, and if the owner of the animals or the place of his stay is not known, shall declare, within three days from the moment of their detention, about his finding the said animals to the militia or to the local self-government body, which shall take measures to find their owner. 2. The person, who has detained the animals, may maintain and use them during the time, required to find their owner, or turn them over for the maintenance and use to another person, disposing of the necessary facilities. By the request of the person, who has detained the neglected animals, the search for a person, who disposes of the necessary facilities for their maintenance, and the transfer of the said animals to this person shall be effected by the militia or by the local self-government body. 3. The person, who has detained the neglected animals, and also that person, to whom they have been turned over for the maintenance and for the use, shall be obliged to keep them properly and shall be answerable for their perish and for the harm done to the animals through their fault within the limits of the animals' cost. Article 231. Acquisition of the Right of Ownership to the Neglected Animals 1. If, in the course of six months from the moment, when the declaration about the detention of the neglected animals was made, their owner has not been found or has not himself claimed his right to them, the person, in whose maintenance and use the animals have been, shall acquire the right of ownership to them. In case this person has refused to acquire the right of ownership to the animals in his maintenance, they shall be turned into the municipal ownership and shall be used in conformity with the procedure, laid down by the local self-government body. 2. If the former owner of the animals turns up after their being passed over into the ownership of another person, the former owner shall have the right, in case the said animals are showing the signs of affection for him, or in case the new owner treats them cruelly or improperly, to claim that they be returned to him on the terms, defined by an agreement with the new owner, and if it is impossible to reach such an agreement - on the terms, ruled by the court. Article 232. Compensation of the Expenses Involved in Keeping Neglected Animals and the Reward for Them In case the neglected domestic animals are returned to the owner, the person, who has detained the animals, and also the person, in whose maintenance and use they have been, shall be entitled to the compensation by the owner of their outlays on the maintenance of the animals, with offsetting the profits, derived from their use. The person, who has detained the neglected domestic animals, shall have the right to the reward in conformity with Item 2 of Article 229 of the present Code. Article 233. The Treasure 1. The treasure, i.e., the money or the other valuable things, buried underground or hidden away in any other manner, whose owner cannot be identified or, by force of the law, has lost the right to them, shall be turned into the ownership of the person, who is the owner of the property (the land plot, the building, etc.), where the treasure was hidden, and of the person, who has discovered the treasure, in equal shares, unless another kind of agreement has been reached between them. In case the treasure is discovered by the person, who has been performing excavation work or the search for valuables without obtaining a permission to this effect from the owner of the land plot or of the other property, where it was hidden, the treasure shall be subject to the transfer to the owner of the land plot or of the other property, where the treasure was discovered. 2. In case of discovering a treasure, containing things, which have a bearing to the monuments of culture or history, they shall be handed over into the state ownership. The owner of the land plot or of the other kind of property, where the treasure was hidden, and the person, who has discovered the treasure, shall be together entitled to a reward, amounting to 50 per cent of the cost of the treasure. The reward shall be divided between these persons in equal shares, unless another kind of agreement has been reached between them. In case the treasure has been discovered by the person, who has performed excavation work or the search for valuables without the consent of the owner of the property, where the treasure was hidden, the reward shall not be paid to this person and shall be paid in full to the property owner. 3. The rules of the present Article shall not be applied to the persons, who have been engaged in the excavation work and in the search, aimed at the discovery of the treasure, by force of such duties being included within the range of their labour or official duties. Article 234. Acquisitive Prescription 1. The person - the citizen or the legal entity - who is not the owner of the property, but who has, in good faith, openly and uninterruptedly, possessed the realty as his own immovable property in the course of fifteen years, or any other property in the course of five years, shall acquire the right of ownership to this property (the acquisitive prescription). The right of ownership to the realty and to the other property, subject to the state registration, shall arise in the person, who has acquired this property by force of the acquisitive prescription, from the moment of such registration. 2. Before the acquisition of the right of ownership to the property by force of the acquisitive prescription, the person, possessing the given property as his own, shall have the right to protect his possession against the third persons, who are not the owners of the said property, and also against those, who have no rights to its possession on the other grounds, stipulated by the law or by the agreement. 3. The person, referring to the long term of possession, may add to the period of his possession the entire period of time, in the course of which the property has been possessed by the person, whose legal successor the given person is. 4. The proceeding of the term of the acquisitive prescription with respect to the things, which are in the custody of the person, from whose possession they could be claimed in conformity with Articles 301 and 305 of the present Code, shall start not earlier than after the expiry of the term of the limitation of actions by the corresponding claims.

Chapter 15. The Cessation of the Right of Ownership

Article 235. The Grounds for the Cessation of the Right of Ownership

1. The right of ownership shall cease with the alienation by the owner of his property in favour of the other persons, with the owner's renouncement of his right of ownership, with the perish or the destruction of the property and with the loss of the right of ownership in the other law-stipulated cases. 2. The forcible withdrawal of the property from the owner shall not be admitted, with the exception of the cases, when, on the law-stipulated grounds, shall be effected: 1) the turning of the penalty onto the property by the obligations (Article 237); 2) the alienation of the property, which by force of the law may not be owned by the given person (Article 238); 3) the alienation of the realty in connection with the withdrawal of the land plot (Article 239); 4) the redemption of the mismanaged cultural values and of domestic animals (Articles 240 and 241); 5) the requisition (Article 242); 6) the confiscation (Article 243); 7) the alienation of the property in the cases, stipulated by Item 4, Article 252, by Item 2, Article 272, and by Articles 282, 285 and 293 of the present Code. By the owner's decision and in conformity with the procedure, stipulated by the laws on the privatization, the property, which is in the state or in the municipal ownership, shall be alienated into the ownership of the citizens and of the legal entities. The turning into the state ownership of the property, which is in the ownership of the citizens and of the legal entities (the nationalization), shall be effected on the ground of the law with the recompensing of the cost of this property and of the other losses in conformity with the procedure, laid down by Article 306 of the present Code. Article 236. Renouncement of the Right of Ownership The citizen or the legal entity may renounce the right of ownership to the property in his (its) ownership by announcing this or by performing the other actions, definitely testifying to his abstaining from the possession, the use and the disposal of the property without an intention to preserve any rights to this property. The renouncement of the right of ownership shall not entail the cessation of the rights and duties of the owner with respect to the corresponding property until the right of ownership to it is acquired by the other person. Article 237. Turning of the Penalty onto the Property by the Owner's Obligations 1. The withdrawal of the property by way of turning onto it the penalty by the owner's obligations shall be effected on the grounds of the court decision, unless the other order of turning the penalty is stipulated by the law or by the agreement. 2. The right of ownership to the property, onto which the penalty has been turned, shall cease in its owner from the moment, when the right of ownership to the withdrawn property arises in the person, to whom this property is transferred. Article 238. Cessation of the Right of Ownership to the Property in the Person, Who May Not Own It 1. If on the grounds, admitted by the law, in the ownership of the person has been found the property, which he may not own by force of the law, this property shall be alienated by the owner in the course of one year from the moment of the arising of the right of ownership to the property, unless the law has established another term. 2. In the cases, when the property has not been alienated by the owner within the term, established by Item 1 of the present Article, such property, with account for its nature and purpose, shall be subject, in accordance with the court decision, passed upon the application of the state body or of the local self-government body, to the forcible sale with the transfer to the former owner of the money, derived from this sale, or to the transfer into the state or into the municipal ownership, with the compensation to the former owner of the cost of the property, defined by the court. The outlays, involved in the alienation of the property, shall be detracted. 3. If, on the grounds, admitted by the law, in the ownership of the person or of the legal entity has been found the thing, for the acquisition of which a special permit is required, while its issue has been refused to the owner, this thing shall be subject to alienation in the order, established for the property, which may not be owned by the given owner. Article 239. Alienation of the Realty in Connection with the Withdrawal of the Land Plot, on Which It Is Situated 1. In the cases, when the withdrawal of the land plot for the state or for the municipal needs, or because of the improper use of land, is impossible without the cessation of the right of ownership to the buildings, the structures or the other immovable property, situated on the given land plot, this property may be withdrawn from the owner by way of its redemption by the state or by way of its sale at a public auction in conformity with the procedure, stipulated, correspondingly, by Articles 279-282 and 284-286 of the present Code. The claim for the withdrawal of the immovable property shall not be liable to satisfaction, if the state body or the local self-government body, which has filed this claim with the court, does not prove that the use of the land plot for the purposes, for which it is being withdrawn, would be impossible, unless the right of ownership to the given immovable property is terminated. 2. The rules of the present Article shall correspondingly be applied, when the rights of ownership to the immovable property are terminated in connection with the withdrawal of the allotted mountain land plots, aquatorium sections and the other land plots, on which the given property is situated. Article 240. Redemption of the Mismanaged Cultural Values In the cases, when the owner of the cultural values, referred in conformity with the law to those particularly valuable and protected by the law, carelessly maintains these values, as a result of which they may lose their importance, such values may be withdrawn from the owner in accordance with the court decision, by way of their redemption by the state or by their sale at an open auction. In case of the redemption of the cultural values, the owner shall be recompensed their cost in the amount, fixed by the agreement between the parties, and in the case of a dispute arising between them - by the court. If the values are sold at an open auction, the owner shall receive the earnings from the sale, less the outlays for holding the auction. Article 241. Redemption of the Domestic Animals in Case of Their Improper Treatment In the cases, when the owner's treatment of the domestic animals is in glaring contradiction with the rules of the humane attitude toward the animals, established on the ground of the rules and norms, accepted in society, these animals may be withdrawn from the owner by way of their redemption by the person, who has filed the corresponding claim with the court. The redemption price shall be defined by the agreement between the parties, and in case of a dispute arising between them - by the court. Article 242. Requisition 1. In case of the natural calamities, the accidents, the epidemics or the epizootics, and under the other circumstances of an extraordinary nature, the property may be, in the interest of society and by the decision of the state bodies, withdrawn from the owner in accordance with the procedure and on the terms, laid down by the law, with the cost of the requisitioned property paid out to him (the requisition). 2. The estimate, according to which the owner shall be paid the cost of the requisitioned property, may be disputed by him in the court. 3. The person, whose property has been requisitioned, shall have the right to claim through the court the return to him of the preserved property, if the circumstances, in connection with which the requisition was performed, have ceased to operate. Article 243. Confiscation 1. In the law-stipulated cases, the property may be withdrawn from the owner without any compensation in accordance with the court decision as a sanction, inflicted for his committing a crime or another violation of the law (the confiscation). 2. In the law-stipulated cases, the confiscation may be carried out in the administrative order. The decision on the confiscation, adopted in the administrative order, may be appealed against in the court.

Chapter 16. The Common Property

Article 244. The Concept and the Grounds for the Common Property to Arise

1. The property, which is in the ownership of two or of several persons, shall belong to them by the right of common ownership. 2. The property may be in the common ownership, with the share of each of the owners in the right of ownership defined (the share ownership), or not defined (the joint ownership). 3. The common ownership of the property shall be the share ownership, with the exception of the cases, when the law stipulates the formation of the joint ownership to this property. 4. The common ownership shall arise when into the ownership of two or of several persons falls the property, which cannot be divided without changing its intended purpose (the indivisible things) or which shall not be subject to division by force of the law. The common ownership of the divisible property shall arise in the cases, stipulated by the law or by an agreement. 5. By an agreement between the participants in the joint ownership, and if no agreement can be reached - by the court decision, the share ownership to the common property may be established.

Article 245. Definition of the Shares in the Right of the Share Ownership

1. If the shares of the participants in the share ownership cannot be defined on the ground of the law and have not been established by an agreement between all its participants, the shares shall be regarded as equal. 2. By an agreement between all the participants in the share ownership, the order of defining and amending their shares, which would depend on the contribution of each of them into the formation and the increment of the common property, may be established. 3. The participant in the share ownership, who has effected at his own expense and with the observation of the order, established for the use of the common property, the inseparable improvements in this property, shall be entitled to the corresponding increase of his share in the right of ownership to the common property. The separable improvements, made in the common property, unless otherwise stipulated by the agreement between the participants in the common property, shall be the property of that of the participants, who has effected them.

Article 246. Disposal of the Property in the Share Ownership

1. The disposal of the property, which is in the share ownership, shall be effected in accordance with the agreement between all its participants. 2. The participant in the share ownership shall have the right at his own discretion to sell, to make a gift of, to leave by will, or to pledge his share, or to dispose of it in any other way, with the observation in its gratuitous alienation of the rules, stipulated by Article 250 of the present Code.

Article 247. Possession and Use of the Property in the Share Ownership

1. The possession and the use of the property, which is in the share ownership, shall be effected in accordance with an agreement between all its participants, and in case such an agreement cannot be reached - in accordance with the order, ruled by the court. 2. The participant in the share ownership shall have the right to put into his possession and use the part of the common property, proportionate to his share, and in case of this being impossible, he shall have the right to claim the corresponding compensation from the other participants, who possess and use the property, comprising his share. Article 248. The Fruits, Products and Incomes from the Use of the Property in the Share Ownership The fruits, products and incomes, derived from the use of the property, which is in the share ownership, shall comprise the common property and shall be distributed between the participants in the share ownership proportionately to their shares, unless otherwise stipulated by an agreement between them. Article 249. Expenses Involved in the Maintenance of the Property in the Share Ownership Every participant in the share ownership shall be obliged to take part, proportionately to his share, in the payment of the taxes, collections and other dues by the common property, as well as in the expenses, involved in its maintenance and storage. Article 250. Preferential Right of the Purchase 1. In case a share in the right of the common ownership is sold to an outsider, the rest of the participants in the share ownership shall have the right of priority in the purchase of the share on sale for the price, for which it is being sold, and on the other equal terms, with the exception of the case, when it is being sold at an open auction. An open auction for the sale of the share in the right of the common ownership in the absence of the consent to it of all the participants in the share ownership, may be held in the cases, stipulated by the second part of Article 255 of the present Code, and also in the other law-stipulated cases. 2. The seller of the share shall be obliged to notify in written form the rest of the participants in the share ownership about his intention to sell his share to an outsider, with an indication of the price and of the other terms, on which he is selling his share. If the rest of the participants in the share ownership refuse to buy it or do not acquire the share in the right of the ownership to the immovable property, offered for sale, in the course of one month, and in the right of the ownership to the movable property - within ten days from the date of notification, the seller shall have the right to sell his share to any person. 3. If the share is sold with a violation of the right of priority to the purchase, any other participant in the share ownership shall have the right to claim through the court, in the course of three months, that the buyer's rights and duties be transferred to him. 4. The cession of the right of priority to the purchase of the share shall not be admitted. 5. The rules of the present Article shall also be applied in case of the alienation of the share by a barter agreement.

Article 251. The Moment of the Transfer of the Share in the Right of the Common Ownership to the Acquirer by the Contract

The share in the right of the common ownership shall be transferred to the acquirer by the contract from the moment of its conclusion, unless otherwise stipulated by the agreement between the parties. The moment of the share in the right of the common ownership being transferred by the contract, which is subject to the state registration, shall be defined in conformity with Item 2 of Article 223 of the present Code.

Article 252. Division of the Property in the Share Ownership and the Setting Apart of a Share from It

1. The property, which is in the share ownership, may be divided between its participants by an agreement between them. 2. The participant in the share ownership shall have the right to claim that his share be set apart from the common property. 3. If the participants in the share ownership have failed to come to an agreement on the way and the terms for the division of the common property or for the setting apart of the share of one of the participants, the participant in the share ownership shall have the right to claim through the court that his share be set apart from the common property in kind. If the setting apart of the share in kind is not admitted by the law or is impossible without causing an inordinate harm to the property in the common ownership, the withdrawing owner shall have the right to the payment out to him of the cost of his share by the other participants in the share ownership. 4. The rift between the property, set apart in kind to the participant in the share ownership on the ground of the present Article, and his share in the right of ownership shall be eliminated by paying out to him of the corresponding sum of money or by the other kind of compensation. The payment out to the participant in the share ownership by the rest of the participants of a compensation instead of the setting apart of his share in kind, shall be admitted only with his consent. In case the owner's share is insignificant, cannot be realistically set apart and he doesn't display a serious interest in the use of the common property, the court may obligate the rest of the participants in the share ownership to pay him out the compensation even in the absence of his consent. 5. Upon the receipt of the compensation in conformity with the present Article, the owner shall lose the right to a share in the common property.

Article 253. Possession, Use and Disposal of the Property in the Joint Ownership

1. The participants in the joint ownership, unless otherwise stipulated by the agreement between them, shall possess and use the common property jointly. 2. The property in the joint ownership shall be disposed of by the consent of all the participants, which shall be presumed regardless of which particular participant performs the deal, involved in the disposal of the property. 3. Each of the participants in the joint ownership shall have the right to perform the deals, involved in the disposal of the common property, unless otherwise following from the agreement between all the participants. The deal, effected by one of the participants in the joint ownership, involved in the disposal of the common property, may be recognized as invalid upon the demand of the rest of the participants for the reason of the participant, who has made the deal, not having the necessary powers, only if it has been proved that the other party to the deal has known, or should have known, about it. 4. The rules of the present Article shall be applied so far as no other rules have been laid down for the individual kinds of the joint ownership by the present Code or by the other laws. Article 254. Division of the Property in the Joint Ownership and the Setting Apart of a Share from It 1. The division of the common property between the participants in the joint ownership, as well as the setting apart of the share of one of them may be effected after making a preliminary estimate of the share of each of the participants in the right to the common property. 2. Unless otherwise stipulated by the law or by the agreement between the participants, when dividing the common property and setting apart a share from it, their shares shall be recognized as equal. 3. The grounds and the order for the division of the common property and for the setting apart of a share from it shall be defined according to the rules of Article 252 of the present Code, so far as no other rules have been laid down for the individual kinds of the joint ownership by the present Code and by the other laws or follow from the substance of the relationships between the participants in the joint ownership. Article 255. Turning of the Penalty onto the Share in the Common Property The creditor of the participant in the share or in the joint ownership shall have the right, in case the given owner's other property proves to be insufficient, to claim the setting apart of the debtor's share in the common property for turning the penalty onto it. If in such cases the setting apart of the share in kind is impossible or if the rest of the participants in the share or in the joint ownership object to it, the creditor shall have the right to claim the sale by the debtor of this share to the rest of the participants of the common property for the price, proportionate to the market cost of this share, with the means, derived from the sale, going to service the debt. In case of the refusal of the rest of the participants in the common ownership to acquire the debtor's share, the creditor shall have the right to claim through the court that the penalty be turned onto the debtor's share in the right of the common ownership by way of selling this share at an open auction. Article 256. The Community Property 1. The property, accumulated by the spouses during their married life, shall be their joint, or community property, unless another regime has been established for this property by an agreement between them. 2. The property, which was owned by each of the spouses before they entered into the marriage, or that received by one of the spouses during their married life as a gift or by inheritance, shall be the property of this particular spouse. The things of personal use (such as the clothes, the footwear, etc.), with the exception of the jewels and the other luxury goods, even though acquired during the married life at the expense of the spouses' common means, shall be recognized as the property of that spouse, who has used them. The property of each of the spouses may be recognized as their joint property, if it has been established that during their married life, at the expense of the common property of the spouses or of the personal property of the other spouse, have been made the contributions, which have essentially increased the cost of that property (the overhaul, the reconstruction, the re-equipment, etc.). The present rule shall not be applied, if otherwise stipulated by an agreement between the spouses. 3. By the obligations of one of the spouses, the penalty may be turned only onto the property in his ownership and onto his share in the common property of the spouses, which should be due to him in case of the division of this property. 4. The rules for defining the spouses' shares in the common property during its division and the order of such a division, shall be laid down by the legislation on the family and on marriage. Article 257. The Ownership of the Peasant (Farmer's) Economy 1. The property of the peasant (the farmer's) economy shall belong to its members by the right of joint ownership, unless otherwise stipulated by the law or by an agreement between them. 2. In the joint ownership of the members of the peasant (the farmer's) economy shall be the land plot, assigned into the ownership of this economy or acquired, the plantations, the economic and the other kind of buildings, the amelioration and the other kind of structures, the productive and the draft animals, the poultry, the farm and the other kind of machinery and equipment, the transportation vehicles, the implements and the other kind of property, acquired for the economy at the expense of the common means of its members. 3. The fruits, products and incomes, derived as a result of the activity of the peasant (the farmer's) economy, shall be the common property of the members of the peasant (the farmer's) economy and shall be used by an agreement between them.

Article 258. Division of the Peasant (the Farmer's) Economy

1. Upon the termination of the peasant (the farmer's) economy in connection with the retirement of all its members or on the other grounds, the common property shall be subject to division in accordance with the rules, stipulated by Articles 252 and 254 of the present Code. The land plot in such cases shall be divided according to the rules, established by the present Code and by the land legislation. 2. The land plot and the means of production, belonging to the peasant (the farmer's) economy, shall not be subject to division in case of the retirement of one of its members. The retired member shall have the right to receive the money compensation, proportionate to his share in the common ownership of this property. 3. In the cases, stipulated by the present Article, the shares of the members of the peasant (the farmer's) economy in the right of the joint ownership to the property of the economy shall be recognized as equal, unless otherwise stipulated by an agreement between them. Article 259. The Ownership of the Economic Partnership or of the Cooperative, Based on the Property of the Peasant (the Farmer's) Economy 1. The members of the peasant (the farmer's) economy may set up, on the basis of the economy's property, an economic partnership or a production cooperative. Such an economic partnership or a cooperative as a legal entity shall possess the right of ownership to the property, transferred to it in the form of investments and other contributions by the members of the peasant (the farmer's) economy, and also to the property, which has resulted from its activity or has been acquired on the other grounds, admitted by the law. 2. The size of the contributions of the participants in the partnership or of the members of the cooperative, set up on the basis of the peasant (the farmer's) economy, shall be fixed, proceeding form their shares in the right of the common ownership to the economy's property, to be defined according to Item 3 of Article 258 of the present Code. Chapter 17. The Right of Ownership and the Other Rights of Estate to the Land Article 260. The General Provisions on the Right of Ownership to the Land 1. The persons, having in their ownership a land plot, shall have the right to sell it, to make a gift of it, to pledge it or to give it in rent, and to dispose of it in any other way (Article 209), so far as the corresponding lands have not been withdrawn from, or restricted in the circulation in conformity with the law. 2. On the ground of the law and of the law-established order, shall be defined the lands, intended for agricultural and other purposes, whose use for the different purposes is not admitted or is restricted. The land plot, referred to this category of lands, may be used within the limits, defined by its intended purpose. Article 261. The Land Plot as an Object of the Right of Ownership 1. The territorial boundaries of the land plot shall be delineated in conformity with the order, established by the land legislation, on the grounds of the documents, issued to the owner by the state bodies, responsible for the land resources and for the organization of the use of land. 2. Unless otherwise decreed by the law, the right of ownership to the land plot shall be spread to the surface (the soil) layer, the closed water bodies, the forests and the other plants, situated within the boundaries of this land plot. 3. The owner of the land plot shall have the right to use at his own discretion everything, which is over and under the surface of this land plot, unless otherwise stipulated by the laws on the mineral wealth and on the use of the air space and by the other laws, and so far as it does not violate the rights of the other persons. Article 262. The Land Plots of the Common Use. Access to the Land Plot 1. The citizens shall have the right to freely pass, without being obliged to draw any permits, to the land plots, which have not been closed for the common access, in the state or in the municipal ownership, and to use the natural objects, located on these plots within the limits, admitted by the law and by the other legal acts, as well as by the owner of the corresponding land plot. 2. Unless the land plot has been fenced off or its owner has clearly indicated that no trespassing is admitted without his permission, any person shall have the right to walk across the land plot under the condition that this does not inflict a loss or cause worry to the owner. Article 263. Construction on the Land Plot 1. The owner of the land plot shall have the right to erect on it buildings and structures, to rebuild or to pull them down, and also to permit the construction on his land plot to the other persons. These rights shall be exercised under the condition that the town-development and construction norms and rules, as well as the demands with regard to the intended purpose of the land plot (Item 2 of Article 260) be complied with. 2. Unless otherwise stipulated by the law or by the agreement, the owner of the land plot shall acquire the right of ownership to the building, the structure or the other kind of the immovable property, which he has erected or created for himself on the land plot in his ownership. The consequences of the unauthorized construction, effected by the owner on the land plot in his ownership, shall be defined by Article 222 of the present Code. Article 264. The Rights to the Land of the Persons, Who Are Not the Owners of the Land Plots 1. The land plots and the immovable property, situated on them, may be given by their owners to the other persons into the permanent or temporary use, including in rent. 2. The person, who is not the owner of the land plot, shall exercise the rights to the possession and to the use of the land plot on the terms and within the limits, laid down by the law or by the agreement with the owner. 3. The possessor of the land plot, who is not the owner, shall not have the right to dispose of this land plot, unless otherwise stipulated by the law or by the agreement. Article 265. The Grounds for the Acquisition of the Right to the Inherited Life Possession of the Land Plot The right of the inherited life possession of the land plot, which is in the state or in the municipal ownership, shall be acquired by the citizens on the grounds and in the order, stipulated by the land legislation. Article 266. Possession and Use of the Land Plot by the Right of the Inherited Life Possession 1. The citizen, enjoying the right of the inherited life possession (the possessor of the land plot) shall have the right of the possession and of the use of the land plot, which shall be passed by the right of succession. 2. Unless otherwise following from the terms, established for the use of the land plot by the law, the owner of the land plot shall have the right to erect on it buildings and structures and to create the other kinds of the immovable property, acquiring to it the right of ownership. Article 267. Disposal of the Land Plot, Which Is in the Inherited Life Possession 1. The possessor of the land plot shall have the right to give it in rent or into a gratuitous temporary use. 2. The sale and the mortgage of the land plot and the performance by its owner of the other deals, which entail or may entail the alienation of the land plot, shall not be admitted. Article 268. The Grounds for the Acquisition of the Right of the Permanent (Perpetual) Use of the Land Plot 1. The right of the permanent (perpetual) use of the land plot, which is in the state or in the municipal ownership, shall be granted to the citizens and to the legal entities on the ground of the decision of the state or of the municipal body, authorized to grant land plots into this kind of use. 2. The right of the permanent use of the land plot may also be acquired by the owner of the building, the structure and the other kind of the immovable property in the cases, stipulated by Item 1, Article 271 of the present Code. 3. In case of the reorganization of the legal entity, its right of the permanent use shall be passed in the order of the legal succession. Article 269. Possession and Use of the Land by the Right of the Permanent Use 1. The person, to whom the land plot has been given into the permanent use, shall exercise the possession and the use of this land plot within the limits, established by the law, by the other legal acts and by the act on granting the land plot into the use. 2. The person, to whom the land plot has been granted into the permanent use, shall have the right, unless otherwise stipulated by the law, to independently use the land plot for the purposes, for which it has been granted, including the erection with these purposes in view on the land plot of the buildings, the structures and the other kinds of the immovable property. The buildings, the structures and the other kinds of the immovable property, erected by this person for himself, shall be his property. Article 270. Disposal of the Land Plot, Which Is in the Permanent Use The person, to whom the land plot has been granted into the permanent use, shall have the right to give this land plot in rent or into a gratuitous temporary use only upon the consent of the owner of the land plot. Article 271. The Right of the Use of the Land Plot by the Owner of the Immovable Property 1. The owner of the building, of the structure or of the other kind of the realty, situated on the land plot, which is in the ownership of another person, shall have the right of the use to the part of the land plot, assigned by the latter for this realty. Unless otherwise following from the law, from the decision on the assignment of the land plot, which is in the state or in the municipal ownership, or from the agreement, the owner of the building or of the structure shall have the right of the permanent use of the part of the land plot (Articles 268-270), on which this immovable property is situated. 2. If the right of ownership to the realty, situated on the other man's land plot, is transferred to another person, the latter shall acquire the right of the use of the corresponding part of the land plot on the same terms and in the same volume, as the former owner of the realty. The transfer of the right of ownership to the land plot shall not be the ground for the termination or the amendment of the right to the use of this land plot, belonging to the owner of the realty. 3. The owner of the realty, situated on the other man's land plot, shall have the right to possess, to use and to dispose of this realty at his own discretion, including the pulling down of the corresponding buildings and structures, so far as this does not contradict the terms, laid down for the use of the given land plot by the law or by the agreement. Article 272. The Consequences of the Loss by the Realty Owner of the Right to the Use of the Land Plot 1. If the right to the use of the land plot, granted to the owner of the realty, situated on this land plot, is terminated (Article 271), the rights to the realty, left by its owner on the land plot, shall be defined in conformity with an agreement between the owner of the land plot and the owner of the corresponding immovable property. 2. In the absence of, or in case of the failure to reach an agreement, stipulated in Item 1 of the present Article, the consequences of the termination of the right to the use of the land plot shall be defined by the court upon the claim of the owner of the land plot or of the owner of the realty. The owner of the land plot shall have the right to claim through the court that the owner of the realty remove it from his land plot after the termination of the right to the use of the land plot and bring the land plot into its primary state. In the cases, when the demolition of the building or of the structure, situated on the land plot, is prohibited in conformity with the law or with the other legal acts (the living quarters, the monuments of culture and history, etc.), or is not subject to being effected in view of an obvious excess of the cost of the building or the structure over the cost of the land plot assigned for it, the court, taking into account the grounds for the termination of the right to the use of the land plot and in case of the corresponding claims being filed by the parties, shall have the right: - to recognize the right of the owner of the realty to the acquisition into ownership of the land plot, on which this realty is situated, or the right of the owner of the land plot to the acquisition of the realty left upon it, or to lay down the terms for the use of the land plot by the owner of the realty for a new period of time. 3. The rules of the present Article shall not be applied, if the land plot is withdrawn for the state or for the municipal needs (Article 283), and also in case the rights to the land plot are terminated in view of its improper use (Article 286). Article 273. Transfer of the Right to the Land Plot in Case of the Alienation of the Buildings or the Structures, Situated on It In the transfer of the right of ownership to the building or to the structure, belonging to the owner of the land plot, on which it is situated, the rights to the land plot, defined by the agreement between the parties, shall pass to the acquirer of the building (the structure). Unless otherwise stipulated by the agreement on the alienation of the building or of the structure, the right of the ownership to that part of the land plot, which is occupied by the building (the structure) and which is necessary for its use, shall also pass to the acquirer. Article 274. The Right of the Limited Use of the Other Person's Land Plot (the Servitude) 1. The owner of the immovable property (the land plot and the other realty) shall have the right to claim from the owner of the neighboring land plot, and if necessary, also from the owner of yet another land plot (the neighboring plot) that the right of the limited use of the neighboring land plot (the servitude) be granted to him. The servitude may be established to guarantee the passage across the neighboring land plot both on foot and by a motor vehicle, to provide for the laying and operating of the electric power and communication lines, as well as of the pipelines, for the water supply and amelioration, and also for the other needs of the owner of the realty, which cannot be provided for without establishing the servitude. 2. The burdening of the land plot with the servitude shall not deprive the owner of the land plot of the rights of the possession, the use and the disposal of this land plot. 3. The servitude shall be established by an agreement between the person, claiming the institution of the servitude, and the owner of the neighboring land plot, and shall be subject to the registration in conformity with the procedure, laid down for the registration of the immovable property. In case of the failure to reach an agreement on the establishment or on the terms of the servitude, the dispute shall be resolved by the court upon the claim of person, demanding that the servitude be instituted. 4. On the terms and in conformity with the order, stipulated by Items 1 and 3 of the present Article, the servitude may also be established in the interest and upon the claim of the person, to whom the land plot has been granted by the right of the inherited life possession or by the right of the permanent use. 5. The owner of the land plot, burdened with the servitude, shall have the right, unless otherwise stipulated by the law, to claim from the persons, in whose interest the servitude has been established, a proportionate payment for the use of the land plot. Article 275. Preservation of the Servitude in the Transfer of the Rights to the Land Plot 1. The servitude shall be preserved in the case of the transfer of the land plot, burdened with this servitude, to the other person. 2. The servitude shall not be an independent object of the purchase and sale or of the mortgage, and shall not be transferred in any way to the persons, who are not the owners of the immovable property, to provide for the use of which the servitude has been established. Article 276. Termination of the Servitude 1. Upon the claim of the owner of the land plot, burdened with the servitude, the servitude may be terminated in view of the disappearance of the grounds, on account of which it has been instituted. 2. In the cases, when the land plot, owned by the citizen or by the legal entity, cannot be used in conformity with its intended purpose as a result of its being burdened with the servitude, the owner shall have the right to claim through the court that the servitude be terminated. Article 277. The Burdening with the Servitude of the Buildings and the Structures As applied to the rules, stipulated by Articles 274-276 of the present Code, with the servitude may also be burdened the buildings, the structures and the other immovable property, whose limited use is necessary, regardless of the use of the land plot. Article 278. The Turning of the Penalty onto the Land Plot The turning of the penalty onto the land plot by the obligations of its owner shall be admitted only on the grounds of the court decision. Article 279. Redemption of the Land Plot for the State and for the Municipal Needs 1. The land plot may be withdrawn from the owner for the state or for the municipal needs by way of redemption. Depending on for whose needs the land plot is being withdrawn, the redemption shall be effected by the Russian Federation, by the corresponding subject of the Russian Federation, or by the municipal entity. 2. The decision on the withdrawal of the land plot for the state or for the municipal needs shall be adopted by the federal executive power bodies and by the executive power bodies of the subjects of the Russian Federation. The state bodies, authorized to take decisions on the withdrawal of land plots for the state or for the municipal needs, and the order of the preparation and the adoption of these decisions shall be defined by the federal land legislation. 3. The owner of the land plot shall be notified in written form about the forthcoming withdrawal of the land plot not later than one year in advance by the body, which has passed the decision on the withdrawal. The redemption of the land plot before the expiry of one year from the date of the owner's receipt of the notification shall be effected only upon his consent. 4. The decision of the state body on the withdrawal of the land plot for the state or for the municipal needs shall be subject to the state registration with the body, engaged in the registration of the rights to the land plot. The owner of the land plot shall be notified about the registration having been effected with the indication of its date. 5. The redemption for the state or for the municipal needs of a part of the land plot shall be admitted only with the consent of the owner. Article 280. The Rights of the Owner of the Land Plot, Subject to Withdrawal for the State or for the Municipal Needs The owner of the land plot, subject to the withdrawal for the state or for the municipal needs, shall have the right to possess, use and dispose of the plot at his own discretion, and also to make the necessary outlays, providing for the use of the land plot in conformity with its stipulated purpose, over the period of time from the moment of the registration of the decision on the withdrawal of the land plot and up to the moment of reaching an agreement, or of the court passing the decision on the redemption of the land plot. However, the owner shall take the risk that the outlays and the losses he has borne in connection with the new construction, with the extension and the reconstruction of the buildings and the structures on the land plot during the said period may be turned against himself when defining the redemption price of the land plot (Article 281). Article 281. Redemption Price of the Land Plot, Withdrawn for the State or for the Municipal Needs 1. The payment for the land plot. being withdrawn for the state or for the municipal needs (the redemption price), the term and the other conditions of the redemption shall be defined by an agreement with the owner of the land plot. The agreement shall incorporate an obligation of the Russian Federation, of the subject of the Russian Federation or of the municipal entity to pay the redemption price for the withdrawn land plot. 2. While defining the redemption price, incorporated into it shall be the market cost of the land plot and of the immovable property, situated on it, as well as all the losses, inflicted upon the owner by the withdrawal of the land plot, including the losses, borne by him in connection with an advanced termination of his obligations to the third persons, including the missed profit. 3. By an agreement with the owner, he may be allotted, instead of the land plot, withdrawn for the state of for the municipal needs, another land plot, with the offsetting of its cost against the redemption price. Article 282. Redemption of the Land Plot for the State and Municipal Needs by the Court Decision If the owner does not agree with the decision on the withdrawal from him of his land plot for the state or for the municipal needs, or if no agreement has been reached with him on the redemption price or on the other terms of the redemption, the state body, which has adopted the said decision, shall have the right to file a claim for the redemption of the land plot with the court. The claim for the redemption of the land plot for the state or for the municipal needs may be presented within two years from the moment of forwarding the notification, indicated in Item 3, Article 279 of the present Code, to the owner of the land plot. Article 283. Cessation of the Rights of the Possession or the Use of the Land Plot When It Is Withdrawn for the State or Municipal Needs In the cases, when the land plot, being withdrawn for the state or for the municipal needs, is in the ownership and in the use by the right of the inherited life possession or of the permanent use, the cessation of these rights shall be effected in accordance with the rules, stipulated by Articles 279-282 of the present Code. Article 284. Withdrawal of the Land Plot, Which Is Not Used in Conformity with Its Purpose The land plot may be withdrawn from the owner in the cases, when it is purposed for agricultural production or for the housing or the other kind of construction, but is not used for the corresponding purpose in the course of three years, unless a longer term has been stipulated by the law. Within this period shall not be included the time, which is necessary for the development of the land plot, as well as the time, during which the land plot could not have been put to its purported use because of the natural calamities or of the other circumstances, precluding such use. Article 285. Withdrawal of the Land Plot, Used with the Violation of the Legislation The land plot may be withdrawn from the owner, if the use of the land plot proceeds with a crude violation of the rules for the rational use of the land, laid down by the land legislation, in particular, if the land plot is not used in conformity with its intended purpose, or if its use causes an essential fall in the fertility of the farming lands or seriously deteriorates the ecological situation. Article 286. The Order of Redemption of the Land Plot in View of Its Improper Use 1. The state power body or the local self-government body, authorized to adopt decisions on the withdrawal of land plots on the grounds, stipulated by Articles 284 and 285 of the present Code, as well as the procedure for an obligatory advance warning of the land plot owners on the violations, committed by them, shall be defined by the law. 2. If the owner of the land plot notifies in written form the body, which has adopted the decision on the withdrawal of the land plot, about his consent to execute this decision, the land plot shall be subject to the sale at an open auction. 3. If the owner of the land plot does not agree with the decision on the withdrawal of the land plot from him, the body, which has passed the decision on the withdrawal of the land plot, may file the claim for the sale of the land plot with the court. Article 287. Termination of the Rights to the Land Plot, Belonging to the Persons, Who Are Not Its Owners The termination of the rights to the land plot, belonging to the lease-holders and to the other persons, who are not its owners, for the reason of an improper use of the land plot by these persons, shall be effected on the grounds and in conformity with the order, established by the land legislation. Chapter 18. The Right of Ownership and the Other Rights of Estate to the Living Quarters Article 288. The Ownership of the Living Quarters 1. The owner shall exercise his rights of the possession, the use and the disposal of the living quarters in his ownership in conformity with their intended purpose. 2. The living quarters shall be intended for the citizens' residence. The citizen-the owner of the living quarters may use them for his own residence and for the residence of the members of his family. The living quarters may be given by their owner in rent for residence on the ground of a contract. 3. The accommodation in the dwelling houses of various kinds of industrial production shall not be admitted. The accommodation by the owner in the living quarters he owns of the enterprises, institutions and organizations shall be admitted only after the said quarters have been turned from the living into the non-living ones. The transfer of the quarters from the living into the non-living ones shall be effected in conformity with the procedure, defined by the housing legislation. Article 289. The Flat as an Object of the Right of Ownership To the owner of the flat in an apartment house, alongside the quarters he owns, occupied by his flat, shall also belong a share in the right of the ownership to the common property of the house (Article 290). Article 290. The Common Property of the Owners of Flats in an Apartment House 1. The owners of flats in an apartment house shall own by the right of the common share ownership the common quarters of the house, the house's load-carrying structures, the mechanical and electrical equipment, the plumbing fixtures and the other equipment outside or within the flat, servicing more than one flat. 2. The owner of the flat shall not have the right to alienate his share in the right of the ownership to the common property of the apartment house, or to perform other actions, entailing the transfer of this share apart from the right of the ownership to the flat. Article 291. The Partnership of the Housing Owners 1. To provide for the exploitation of the apartment house, the use of the flats and of their common property, the owners of flats shall set up the partnerships of the owners of flats (of the housing). 2. The partnership of the owners of flats shall be the non-profit organization, set up and operating in conformity with the Law on the Partnerships of the Owners of Flats. Article 292. The Rights of the Family Members of the Owners of the Living Quarters 1. The family members of the owner, residing in the living quarters he owns, shall have the right to use these quarters on the terms, stipulated by the housing legislation. Members with dispositive capacity of the family of an owner living in housing premises belonging to the owner shall bear joint and several liability with the owner for the obligations arising from the use of the housing premises. 2. The transfer of the right of the ownership to the dwelling house or to the flat to the other person shall not be the ground for the cessation of the right of the use of the living quarters by the family members of the former owner, unless otherwise established by law; 3. The family members of the owner of the living quarters may claim the elimination of the violations of their rights to the living quarters on the part of any persons, including on the part of the owner of the living quarters. 4. Alienation of housing premises in which there live members of the family of an owner that are minors or lack or have limited dispositive capacity, if in this case there are affected the rights or legal interests of the indicated persons, shall be permitted with the consent of an agency of guardianship or curatorship. Article 293. Cessation of the Right of the Ownership to the Mismanaged Living Quarters If the owner of the living quarters uses them other than for their intended purpose, systematically violates the rights and interests of the neighbors or mismanages the housing by allowing its destruction, the local self-government body shall warn the owner about the need to eliminate the said violations, and if these violations entail the destruction of the living quarters - it shall also fix an approximate term for the owner to perform the repairs of the quarters. If the owner after the warning continues to violate the rights and interests of the neighbors or to use the living quarters for other than their intended purpose, or does not perform the necessary repairs without serious grounds, the court, upon the claim of the local self-government body, shall have the right to adopt the decision on the sale of such living quarters at an open auction with the subsequent payment to the owner of the means, derived from the sale, minus the expenses, involved in the execution of the court decision. Chapter 19. The Right of Economic Management and the Right of Operation Management Article 294. The Right of Economic Management The state or the municipal unitary enterprise, which owns the property by the right of economic management, shall possess, use and dispose of this property within the limits, defined in conformity with the present Code. Article 295. The Rights of the Owner with Respect to the Property in Economic Management 1. The owner of the property in economic management, in conformity with the law, shall resolve the issues, involved in the setting up of the enterprise, in defining the object and the goals of its activity, in its reorganization and liquidation; he shall appoint the director (the head) of the enterprise and shall exert control over the use in conformity with the stipulated purpose and over the maintenance of the property, assigned to it. The owner shall have the right to obtain a part of the profit, derived from the use of the property in the economic management of the enterprise. 2. The enterprise shall not have the right to sell the immovable property, belonging to it by the right of economic management, to give it in rent, to mortgage it, to contribute it as an investment into the authorized (joint) capital of the economic companies and the partnerships, or to dispose of it in any other way without the consent of the owner. The enterprise shall dispose of the rest of the property, belonging to it, independently, with the exception of the cases, established by the law or by the other legal acts. Article 296. The Right of Operation Management 1. The state enterprises, as well as the institutions, shall exert with respect to the property, assigned to them, within the range, established by the law, and in conformity with the goals of their activity, the orders of the owner and the purpose of the property, the rights of its possession, use and disposal. 2. The owner of the property, assigned to the state enterprise or institution, shall have the right to withdraw the property, which is superfluous, unused or used other than for the stipulated purpose, and to dispose of it at his own discretion. Article 297. Disposal of the Property of the State Enterprise 1. The state enterprise shall have the right to alienate or to dispose in another way of the property, assigned to it, only with the consent of the owner of this property. The state enterprise shall independently realize the products it manufactures, unless otherwise established by the law or by the other legal acts. 2. The order for the distribution of the incomes of the state enterprise shall be defined by the owner of its property. Article 298. Disposal of the Property of the Institution 1. The institution shall not have the right to alienate or to dispose in any other way of the property, assigned to it, and also of the property it has acquired at the expense of the means, allocated to it by an estimate. 2. If, in conformity with the constituent documents, the institution has been granted the right to engage in a profitable activity, the incomes, derived from such an activity, and the property, acquired at the expense of these incomes, shall be independently disposed of by the institution and shall be registered on a separate balance. Article 299. The Acquisition and the Termination of the Right of Economic Management and of the Right of Operation Management 1. The right of economic management or the right of operation management of the property, with respect to which the owner has adopted the decision to assign it to a unitary enterprise or to an institution, shall arise with the given enterprise or institution from the moment of the transfer of this property, unless otherwise established by the law and by the other legal acts, or by the owner's decision. 2. The fruits, products and incomes from the use of the property in the economic or in the operation management, as well as the property, which the unitary enterprise or the institution has acquired by a contract or on the other grounds, shall pass into the economic or into the operation management of the enterprise or of the institution in conformity with the order, established by the present Code, by the other laws and the other legal acts for the acquisition of the right of ownership. 3. The right of economic management and the right of operation management shall be terminated on the grounds and in conformity with the order, stipulated by the present Code, by the other laws and the other legal acts for the termination of the right of ownership, and also in the case of the lawful withdrawal of the property from the enterprise or from the institution by the owner's decision. Article 300. Preservation of the Rights to the Property When the Enterprise or the Institution Is Transferred to Another Owner 1. When the right of the ownership to the state or to the municipal enterprise as a property complex is transferred to another owner of the state or of the municipal property, such an enterprise shall preserve the right of economic management to the property, belonging to it. 2. When the right of the ownership to the institution is transferred to another person, this institution shall preserve the right of operation management with respect to the property, belonging to it. Chapter 20. Protection of the Right of Ownership and of the Other Rights of Estate Article 301. Reclamation of the Property from the Other Person's Adverse Possession The owner shall have the right to reclaim his property from the other person's adverse possession. Article 302. Reclamation of the Property from the Bona Fide Acquirer 1. If the property has been purchased for a price from the person, who had no right to alienate it, of which the acquirer has been unaware and could not have been aware (the bona fide acquirer, or the acquirer in good faith), the owner shall have the right to reclaim this property from the acquirer, if the said property was lost by the owner or by the person, to whom the owner has passed the property into possession, or if it was stolen from the one or from the other, or if it has gone out of their possession in another way contrary to their will. 2. If the property has been acquired gratuitously from the person, who had no right to alienate it, the owner shall have the right to reclaim the property in any case. 3. The money, and also the securities to bearer shall not be reclaimed from the bona fide acquirer. Article 303. Settlements in the Reclamation of the Property from the Adverse Possession In reclaiming the property from the other person's adverse possession, the owner shall also have the right to claim from the person, who has known, or should have known, that his possession is adverse (the possessor in bad faith), the return or the compensation of all the incomes, which he has derived, or should have derived, over the entire period of the possession; and from the bona fide possessor - the return or the compensation of all the incomes, which he has derived, or should have derived from the moment, when he has learned, or should have learned, about the adversity of the possession or when he has received the summons by the owner's claim for the return of the property. The possessor, both in good and in bad faith, shall in his turn have the right to claim that the owner recompense the necessary outlays for the property he has made over that period of time, for which the incomes from the property are due to the owner. The bona fide possessor shall have the right to retain the improvements he has made in his own possession, if they can be set apart without damaging the property. If such separation of the improvements is impossible, the bona fide possessor shall have the right to claim the compensation of the outlays for the improvements he has made, but not in excess of the amount of the increment in the property's cost. Article 304. Protection of the Owner's Rights from the Violations, Not Involved in the Deprivation of the Possession The owner shall have the right to claim that all violations of his right be eliminated, even though these violations have not entailed the deprivation of the possession. Article 305. Protection of the Rights of the Possessor, Who Is Not the Owner The rights, stipulated by Articles 301-304 of the present Code, shall also belong to the person, who, even though he is not the owner but possesses the property by the right of the inherited life possession, of the economic management, of the operation management or on the other grounds, stipulated by the law or by the contract. This person shall have the right to the protection of his possession also against the owner. Article 306. The Consequences of the Termination of the Right of Ownership by Force of the Law If the Russian Federation passes the law, terminating the right of ownership, the losses, inflicted upon the owner as a result of the adoption of this act, including the cost of the property, shall be recompensed by the state. The disputes on the compensation for the losses shall be resolved by the court.

SECTION III
THE GENERAL PART OF THE LAW OF OBLIGATION

Subsection 1
THE GENERAL PROVISIONS ON OBLIGATION

Chapter 21. The Concept and the Aspects of an Obligation

Article 307. The Concept of an Obligation and the Grounds for It to Arise

1. By force of an obligation, one person (the debtor) shall be obliged to perform in favour of another person (the creditor) a certain action, such as: to transfer the property, to perform a job, to pay the money, etc., or to abstain from a certain action, while the creditor shall have the right to claim that the debtor discharge his obligation. 2. Obligations shall arise from an agreement, from the infliction of a damage, or on the other grounds, indicated in the present Code. Article 308. The Parties to an Obligation 1. One or several persons simultaneously may take part in the obligation in the capacity of each of its parties. The invalidity of the creditor's claims against one of the persons, participating in the obligation on the side of the debtor, the same as the expiry of the term of the limitation of actions by the claim against such a person, shall not of themselves have a bearing on his claims against the rest of these persons. 2. If each of the parties by the contract shall bear a duty in favour of the other party, it shall be regarded as the debtor of the other party by what it is obliged to do in its favour, and simultaneously as its creditor by what it has the right to claim from it. 3. The obligation shall not create the duties for the persons, who do not participate in it in the capacity of the parties (for the third persons). In the cases, stipulated by the law, by the other legal acts or by an agreement between the parties, the obligation may create for the third persons the rights with respect to one or to both parties of the obligation. Chapter 22. The Discharge of Obligations Article 309. The General Provisions Obligations shall be discharged in the proper way in conformity with the terms of the obligation and with the requirements of the law and of the other legal acts, and in the absence of such terms and requirements - in conformity with the customs of the business turnover or with the other habitually presented demands. Article 310. Inadmissibly of the Unilateral Refusal to Discharge the Obligation The unilateral refusal to discharge the obligation and the unilateral amendment of its terms shall not be admitted, with the exception of the law-stipulated cases. The unilateral refusal to discharge the obligation, connected with its parties' performing the business activity, and the unilateral amendment of the terms of such an obligation shall also be admissible in the cases, stipulated by the contract, unless otherwise following from the law or from the substance of the obligation. Article 311. Discharge of the Obligation by Parts The creditor shall have the right to accept the discharge of the obligation by parts, unless otherwise stipulated by the law, by the other legal acts and by the terms of the obligation, and does not follow from the customs of the business turnover or from the substance of the obligation.

Article 312. Discharge of the Obligation to the Proper Person

Unless otherwise stipulated by the agreement between the parties and follows from the customs of the business turnover, or from the substance of the obligation, the debtor shall have the right, while discharging the obligation, to demand proofs of the fact that the discharge is accepted by the creditor himself or by the person he has authorized for this purpose, and shall take the risk of the consequences of his failure to present such a demand.

Article 313. Discharge of the Obligation by the Third Person

1. The discharge of the obligation may be imposed by the debtor upon the third person, unless the debtor's duty to discharge the obligation in person follows from the law, from the other legal acts, from the terms of the obligation or from its substance. In this case the creditor shall be obliged to accept the discharge, offered by the third person instead of by the debtor. 2. The third person, undergoing the threat of losing his right to the property of the debtor (the right of the lease, of the mortgage, etc.) as a result of the creditor's turning the penalty onto this property, may at his own expense satisfy the creditor's claim without obtaining the debtor's consent. In this case, the rights of the creditor by the obligation shall pass to the third person in conformity with Articles 382-387 of the present Code.

Article 314. The Term of the Discharge of the Obligation

1. If the obligation stipulates, or allows to stipulate the day of its discharge or the period of time, within which it shall be discharged, the obligation shall be subject to discharge on this particular day or, correspondingly, at any moment within this period. 2. In the cases, when the obligation does not stipulate the deadline for its discharge and does not contain the terms, making it possible to define this deadline, it shall be discharged within a reasonable term after the inception of the obligation. The obligation, which has not been discharged within a reasonable term, the same as the obligation, the term of whose discharge has been defined by the moment of demand, shall be discharged by the debtor within seven days from the day of the creditor's presenting the claim for its discharge, unless the duty of the discharge within a different term follows from the law, from the other legal acts, from the provisions of the obligation, from the customs of the business turnover, or from the substance of the obligation.

Article 315. Advanced Discharge of the Obligation

The debtor shall have the right to discharge the obligation in advance of the deadline, unless otherwise stipulated by the law, by the other legal acts or by the terms of the obligation or follows from its substance. However, an advanced discharge of the obligations, involved in the performance by its parties of the business activity, shall be admitted only in the cases, when the possibility to discharge the obligation before the fixed date has been stipulated by the law, by the other legal acts or by the terms of the obligation, or follows from the customs of the business turnover or from the substance of the obligation. Article 316. The Place of Discharge of the Obligation Unless the place of the discharge has been defined by the law, by the other legal acts or by the agreement or follows from the customs of the business turnover or from the substance of the obligation, the discharge shall be effected: - by the obligation to transfer the land plot, the building, the structure or the other immovable property - at the place of location of the property; - by the obligation to transfer the commodity or the other property, envisaging its shipment - at the place of the ceding the property to the first shipper for its being forwarded to the creditor; - by the other obligations of the businessman to transfer the commodity or the other property - at the place of the manufacture or of the storage of the property, if this place has been known to the creditor at the moment of the inception of the obligation; - by the pecuniary obligation - at the place of residence of the creditor at the moment of the inception of the obligation, and if the creditor is a legal entity - at the place of its location at the moment of the inception of the obligation; if the creditor by the moment of the discharge of the obligation has changed the place of his residence or the place of his stay and has informed about this the debtor - at the new place of the creditor's residence or stay, with referring the expenses, involved in the change of the place of discharge, onto the creditor's account; - by all the other obligations - at the place of residence of the debtor, and in case the debtor is a legal entity - at the place of its location. Article 317. The Currency of the Pecuniary Obligations 1. The pecuniary obligations shall be expressed in roubles (Article 140). 2. In the pecuniary obligation it may be stipulated that it shall be liable to the payment in roubles in the amount, equivalent to the definite amount in the foreign currency, or in the agreed monetary units (ECU, the "special borrowing rights", etc.). In this case, the amount liable to the payment in roubles shall be defined in conformity with the official exchange rate of the corresponding currency or of the conventional monetary units by the day of the payment, unless the other exchange rate or the other day of its formulation has been established by the law or by the parties' agreement. 3. The use of the foreign currency and also of the payment documents in the foreign currency on the territory of the Russian Federation by obligations shall only be admitted in the cases, in the order and on the terms, defined by the law or established in conformity with the procedure, laid down by it. Article 318. The Increase of the Amounts, Paid Out for the Maintenance of the Citizen The amount, paid out by the direct pecuniary obligation for the maintenance of the citizen: to recompense for the harm, inflicted to the life or to the health, by the contract for a life maintenance, and in the other cases - shall be indexed taking into account the level of the inflation in the procedure and cases stipulated by law. Article 319. Priority for Satisfaction of Claims under the Monetary Obligation The amount of the effected payment, insufficient for the discharge of the pecuniary obligation in full, in the absence of another agreement, shall first of all cover the creditor's expenses, involved in the enforcement of the discharge, then - the interest, and in the remaining part - the basic amount of the debt. Article 320. Discharge of the Alternative Obligation The debtor, who is obliged to transfer to the creditor this or that property, or to perform one of the two or of several actions, shall have the right of choice, unless otherwise following from the law, from the other legal acts or from the terms of the obligation. Article 321. Discharge of the Obligation, in Which Several Creditors or Several Debtors Participate If several creditors or several debtors take part in the obligation, each of the creditors shall have the right to claim the discharge, and each of the debtors shall be obliged to discharge the obligation in an equal share with the others, unless otherwise following from the law, from the other legal acts, or from the terms of the obligation. Article 322. Joint Obligations 1. The joint duty (the liability), or the joint claim shall arise, if the joint nature of the duty or of the claim has been stipulated by the contract or has been established by the law, in particular, in the case of the indivisibility of the object of the obligation. 2. The duties of several debtors by the obligation, involved in the business activity, the same as the claims of several creditors in such an obligation, shall be joint ones, unless otherwise stipulated by the law, by the other legal acts, or by the terms of the obligation. Article 323. The Creditor's Rights in the Joint Duty 1. In case of the debtors' joint duty, the creditor shall have the right to claim the discharge both from all the debtors jointly, and also from any one of them taken apart, and both in full and in the part of the debt. 2. The creditor, who has not been fully satisfied by one of the joint debtors, shall have the right to claim the rest from the joint debtors. The joint debtors shall stay obligated until the moment, when the obligation has been discharged in full. Article 324. Objections to the Creditor's Claims in the Joint Duty In the case of the joint duty, the debtor shall not have the right to put forward against the creditor's claims the objections, which are based on such relations of the other debtors with the creditor, in which the said debtor does not participate.

Article 325. Discharge of the Joint Duty by One of the Debtors

1. The discharge of the joint duty in full by one of the debtors shall absolve the rest of the debtors from the discharge toward the creditor. 2. Unless otherwise following from the relations between the joint debtors: 1) the debtor, who has discharged the joint duty, shall have the right of the claim of regress to the rest of the debtors in equal shares, less his own share; 2) that which has not been paid by one of the joint debtors to the debtor, who has discharged the joint duty, shall fall in equal shares on this debtor and on the rest of the debtors. 3. The rules of the present Article shall be applied correspondingly to the termination of the joint obligation by offsetting the claim of regress, filed by one of the debtors. Article 326. The Joint Claims 1. In the case of the joint claims, any of the joint creditors shall have the right to present to the debtor the claim in the full volume. Before the claim has been presented by one of the joint creditors, the debtor shall have the right to discharge the obligation toward any one of them at his own discretion. 2. The debtor shall not have the right to put forward the objections against the claim of one of the creditors, that are based on such relations of the debtor with the other joint creditor, in which the given creditor does not take part. 3. The discharge of the obligations in full toward one of the creditors shall absolve the debtor from the discharge toward the other creditors. 4. The joint creditor, who has accepted the discharge from the debtor, shall be obliged to recompense what is due to the other creditors in equal shares, unless otherwise following from the relationships between them. Article 327. Discharge of the Obligation by Placing the Debt on a Deposit 1. The debtor shall have the right to place the money or the securities he owes on the notary's deposit, and in the law-established cases - on the court's deposit, if the obligation cannot be discharged by the debtor on account of: 1) the absence of the creditor or of the person, whom he has authorized to accept the discharge of the obligation, at the place, where the obligation shall be discharged; 2) the creditor's legal incapacity and his having no substitute; 3) an obvious absence of any certainty about who is the creditor by the obligation, in particular, in connection with the dispute on this issue arising between the creditor and the other persons; 4) the creditor's avoidance of accepting the discharge of the obligation or any other delay on his part. 2. The placing of the sum of money or of the securities on the notary's or on the court's deposit shall be regarded as the discharge of the obligation. The notary or the court, on whose deposit the money or the securities have been placed, shall notify about this the creditor. Article 328. The Recourse Discharge of Obligations 1. The recourse discharge shall be recognized as the discharge of the obligation by one of the parties, which in conformity with the agreement has been stipulated by the discharge of its obligations by the other party. 2. In case of the obliged party's failure to discharge the obligations, stipulated by the agreement, or of the existence of the circumstances, obviously testifying to the fact that such discharge will not be effected within the fixed term, the party, onto which the recourse discharge has been imposed, shall have the right to suspend the discharge of its obligation or to refuse to discharge this obligation, and to claim the compensation of the losses. If the obligation, stipulated by the agreement, has not been discharged in the full volume, the party, onto which the recourse discharge has been imposed, shall have the right to suspend the discharge of its obligation or to refuse to discharge it in the part, corresponding to the above-said underdischarge. 3. If the recourse discharge of the obligation has been effected, despite the fact that the other party has not discharged its obligation, stipulated by the agreement, this party shall be obliged to effect such discharge. 4. The rules, stipulated by Items 2 and 3 of the present Article, shall be applied, unless otherwise stipulated by the law.

Chapter 23. Providing for the Discharge of Obligations

_ 1. The General Provisions

Article 329. The Ways of Providing for the Discharge of Obligations

1. The discharge of obligations may be provided for by the forfeit, the pledge, the retention of the debtor's property, the surety, the bank guarantee, the advance and also in the other ways, stipulated by the law or by the agreement.
2. The invalidity of the agreement on providing for the discharge of the obligation shall not entail the invalidity of this obligation (the principal obligation).
3. The invalidity of the principal obligation shall entail the invalidity of the obligation, providing for it, unless otherwise established by the law.

_ 2. The Forfeit

Article 330. The Concept of the Forfeit

1. The forfeit (the fine, the penalty) shall be recognized as the sum of money, defined by the law or by the agreement, which the debtor is obliged to pay to the creditor in case of his non-discharge, or an improper discharge, of the obligation, in particular, in the case of the delay of the discharge. By the claim for the payment of the forfeit, the creditor shall not be obliged to prove that the losses have actually been inflicted upon him.
2. The creditor shall not have the right to claim the payment of the forfeit, if the debtor is not responsible for the non-discharge or an improper discharge of the obligation.

Article 331. The Form of the Agreement on the Forfeit

The agreement on the forfeit shall be made out in written form, irrespective of the form of the principal obligation. The non-observance of the written form shall entail the invalidity of the agreement on the forfeit.

Article 332. The Legal Forfeit

1. The creditor shall have the right to claim the payment of the forfeit, defined by the law (the legal forfeit), irrespective of whether the obligation for its payment has been stipulated by the agreement between the parties. 2. The amount of the legal forfeit may be increased by the agreement between the parties, unless it is prohibited by the law.

Article 333. The Reduction of the Forfeit

If the forfeit, liable to the payment, is obviously out of proportion compared with the consequences of the violation of the obligation, the court shall have the right to reduce the forfeit. The rules of the present Article shall not infringe upon the debtor's right to the reduction of the volume of his liability on the ground of Article 404 of the present Code and upon the creditor's right to the compensation of the losses in the cases, stipulated by Article 394 of the present Code.

_ 3. The Pledge

Article 334. The Concept and the Grounds for the Pledge to Arise

1. By force of the law, the creditor by the obligation, guaranteed against by the pledge (the pledgee), shall have the right of priority before the other creditors of the person, to whom this property belongs (the pledger), in the case of the debtor's non-discharge of this obligation, to be satisfied from the cost of the pledged property after the deductions, established by the law. The pledgee shall have the right to receive, on the same principle, satisfaction from the insurance compensation for the loss or for the damage of the pledged property, regardless of the fact, in whose favour it has been insured, unless the loss or the damage has taken place for the reasons, for which the pledgee shall be answerable. 2. The pledge of the land plots, the enterprises, the buildings, the structures, the flats and of the other immovable property (the mortgage) shall be regulated by the Law on the Mortgage. The general rules on the pledge, contained in the present Code, shall be applied to the mortgage in the cases, for which no other rules have been laid down by the present Code or by the Law on the Mortgage. 3. The pledge shall arise by force of an agreement. It shall also arise on the ground of the law in the case, when the circumstances, indicated in it, occur, if the law has stipulated, what kind of the property and for securing against the discharge of what kind of obligation shall be recognized as that in pledge. The rules of the present Code on the pledge, arising by force of an agreement, shall be correspondingly applied to the pledge, arising on the ground of the law, unless otherwise stipulated by the law.

Article 335. The Pledger

1. Both the debtor himself and the third person may come out in the capacity of the pledger. 2. The pledger of the thing may be its owner or the person, having with respect to it the right of economic management. The person, to whom the thing belongs by the right of economic management, shall have the right to pawn it without the consent of the owner in the cases, stipulated by Item 2 of Article 295 of the present Code. 3. The pledger of the right may be the person, to whom the pledged right belongs. The pledge of the right of lease or of the other right to the other person's thing shall not be admitted without the consent of its owner or of the person, to whom the right of its economic management belongs, if by the law or by the agreement the alienation of this right without the consent of the said persons has been prohibited.

Article 336. The Object of Pledge

1. The object of pledge shall be any property, including the things and the property rights (the claims), with the exception of the property, withdrawn from the circulation, of the claims, inseparably linked with the creditor's personality, in particular, the claims for the alimony, for the compensation for the harm, inflicted to the life or to the health, and of the other rights, whose ceding to the other persons is prohibited by the law. 2. The pledge of the individual kinds of property, in particular, of the property of the citizens, onto which no penalty shall be turned, may be prohibited or restricted by the law.

Article 337. The Claim, Secured Against by the Pledge

Unless otherwise stipulated by the agreement, the pledge shall secure the claim in the volume, which it possesses by the moment of its satisfaction, in particular, the interest, the forfeit, the compensation of the losses, caused by the delay in the discharge, and also the compensation of the necessary outlays, made by the pledgee for keeping the pledged thing, as well as the expenses, involved in the exaction.

Article 338. The Pledge Without and With the Transfer of the Pledged Property to the Pledgee 1. The pledged property shall remain in the custody of the pledger, unless otherwise stipulated by the agreement. The property, on which the mortgage has been imposed, and also the pawned commodities, which are in circulation, shall not be transferred to the pledgee. 2. The object of pledge may be left with the pledger under the lock and seal of the pledgee. The object of pledge may be left with the pledger with putting upon it the signs, testifying to the pledge (the firm pledge). 3. The object of pledge, transferred by the pledger into a temporary possession or use to the third person, shall be regarded as left with the pledger. 4. In the pledge of the property right, certified by the security, the latter shall be transferred to the pledgee or given into the notary's deposit, unless otherwise stipulated by the agreement. Article 339. The Contract on the Pledge, Its Form and Registration 1. Indicated in the contract on the pledge shall be the object of pledge and its estimate, substance and amount, and the term of discharging the obligation, secured against by the pledge. It shall also contain the indication, in the custody of which party the pledged property is. 2. The agreement on the pledge shall be made out in written form. The agreement on the mortgage, as well as the contract on the pledge of the movable property or of the rights to this property as the security against the obligations by the contract, which shall be notarially certified, shall be subject to the notary's certification. 3. The agreement on the mortgage shall be registered in conformity with the procedure, laid down for the registration of the deals with the corresponding property. 4. The non-observance of the rules, contained in Items 2 and 3 of the present Article, shall entail the invalidity of the agreement on the pledge.

Article 340. The Property, to Which the Pledgee's Rights Shall Be Extended

1. The rights of the pledgee (the right of pledge) to the thing, which is the object of pledge, shall be extended to its accessories, unless otherwise stipulated by the agreement. To the fruits, products and incomes, obtained as a result of the use of the pledged property, the right of pledge shall be extended in the law-stipulated cases. 2. In the mortgage of an enterprise or of another property complex as a whole, the right of pledge shall be extended to all the property, included into its composition, both movable and immovable, including the right of claim and the exclusive rights, among them those that have been acquired during the period of the mortgage, unless otherwise stipulated by the law or by the agreement. 3. The mortgage of a building or of a structure shall be admitted only with the simultaneous mortgage by the same contract of the land plot, on which this building or this structure stands, or of the part of this land plot, functionally providing for the mortgaged object, or of the right of the lease of this land plot or of the corresponding part thereof, belonging to the pledger. 4. In the mortgage of the land plot, the right of mortgage shall not be extended to the buildings and the structures, which have been, or are being constructed on the given land plot by the mortgager, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract. In the absence of the relevant term in the contract, in case the penalty is turned onto the mortgaged land plot, the mortgager shall retain the right to a limited use (the servitude) of that part of the plot, which is necessary for the use of the building or of the structure in conformity with their intended purpose. The terms for the use of this part of the land plot shall be defined by the agreement, concluded between the mortgager and the mortgagee, and in case a dispute arises - by the court. 5. If the mortgage has been established over the land plot, where the buildings or the structures are situated, which belong not to the mortgager, but to another person, in case the mortgagee turns the penalty onto this plot and it is sold at an open auction, the rights and duties, possessed with respect to this person by the mortgager, shall pass to the acquirer of the land plot. 6. The contract on the pledge, and with respect to the pledge, arising on the ground of the law - the law, may stipulate the pledge of the things and of the property rights, which the pledger will acquire in the future.

Article 341. Arising of the Right of Pledge

1. The right of pledge shall arise from the moment of concluding the contract of pledge, and with respect to the pledge of the property, subject to the transfer to the pledgee - from the moment of the transfer of this property, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract of pledge. 2. The right of pledge for the commodities in circulation shall arise in conformity with the rules of Item 2 of Article 357 of the present Code. Article 342. The Subsequent Pledge 1. If the property in pledge becomes the object of yet another pledge as a security against other claims (the subsequent pledge), the claims of the subsequent pledgee shall be satisfied from the cost of this property after the claims of the previous pledgees. 2. The subsequent pledge shall be admitted, unless it is prohibited by the previous contracts of pledge. 3. The pledger shall be obliged to supply information on all the existing pledges of the given property, stipulated by Item 1 of Article 339 of the present Code, to every one of the subsequent pledgees, and shall be answerable for the losses, caused to the pledgees by his non-discharge of this obligation.

Article 343. The Content and the Security of the Pledged Property

1. The pledger or the pledgee, depending on in whose custody the pledged property is (Article 338), shall be obliged, unless otherwise stipulated by the law or by the contract: 1) to insure at the expense of the pledger the pledged property in its full cost against the risks of the loss and damage, and if the full cost of the property exceeds the amount of the claim, secured against by the pledge - for the amount not less than that of the claim; 2) to take measures, necessary to guarantee the security of the pledged property, including those involved in its protection against the encroachments and claims on the part of the third persons; 3) to immediately notify the other party about the arising of a threat of the loss or the damage of the pledged property. 2. The pledgee and the pledger shall both have the right to check by the documents and by the fact upon the existence, the quantity, the state and the storage conditions of the pledged property, which is in the custody of the other party. 3. In case of a crude violation by the pledgee of the obligations, indicated in Item 1 of the present Article, which creates a threat of the loss or the damage of the pledged property, the pledger shall have the right to demand that the pledge be terminated in advance.

Article 344. The Consequences of the Loss or the Damage of the Pledged Property

1. The pledger shall take the risks of an accidental perish or an accidental damage of the pledged property, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract of pledge. 2. The pledgee shall be answerable for the full or the partial loss or damage of the object of pledge, transferred to him, unless he proves that he may be relieved of the responsibility in conformity with Article 401 of the present Code. The pledgee shall be answerable for the loss of the object of pledge in the amount of its actual cost, and for its damage - in the amount of the sum, by which this cost has been reduced, regardless of the sum, by which the object of pledge was estimated at the moment of its transfer to the pledgee. If as a result of the damage of the object of pledge it has changed so much that it cannot be any more used for its intended purpose, the pledger shall have the right to reject it and to claim the compensation for its loss. The contract may also stipulate the pledgee's obligation to recompense to the pledger the other losses, inflicted upon him by the loss or the damage of the object of pledge. The pledger, who is the debtor by the obligation, secured against by the pledge, shall have the right to offset his claim against the pledgee for the compensation of the losses, caused to him by the loss or by the damage of the object of pledge, when discharging the obligation, secured against by the pledge.

Article 345. The Replacement and Restoration of the Object of Pledge

1. The replacement of the object of pledge shall be admitted with the consent of the pledgee, unless otherwise stipulated by the law or by the contract. 2. If the object of pledge has perished or has been damaged, or if the right of ownership to it or the right of its economic management has been terminated on the grounds, established by the law, the pledger shall have the right to restore the object of pledge or to replace it with the other property of an equal value within a reasonable term, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract.

Article 346. The Use and Disposal of the Object of Pledge

1. The pledger shall have the right, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract or following from the substance of the pledge, to use the object of pledge in conformity with its intended purpose, including deriving from it the fruits and incomes. 2. Unless otherwise stipulated by the law or by the contract or following from the substance of the pledge, the pledger shall have the right to alienate the object of pledge, to give it in rent or into a gratuitous use to another person, or to dispose of it in any other way with the pledgee's consent. An agreement, restricting the pledger's right to bequeath the pledged property, shall be insignificant. 3. The pledgee shall have the right to use the object of pledge, put into his custody, only in the cases, stipulated by the contract, and shall regularly present a report on its use to the pledger. By the contract, upon the pledgee may be imposed the duty to derive the fruits and incomes from the object of pledge for the purpose of discharging the principal obligation or in the interest of the pledger.

Article 347. The Pledgee's Protection of His Rights to the Object of Pledge

1. The pledgee, in whose custody the pledged property is or should have been, shall have the right to claim it from the other person's illegal possession, including from that of the pledger (Articles 301, 302 and 305). 2. In the cases, when by the terms of the contract the pledgee has been granted the right to use the object of pledge, transferred to him, he may demand from the other persons, including from the pledger, that all violations of his right be removed, even though these violations have not been connected with the deprivation of the possession (Articles 304 and 305).

Article 348. The Grounds for Turning the Penalty onto the Pledged Property

1. The penalty may be turned onto the pledged property in order to satisfy the pledgee's (the creditor's) claims in case of the non-discharge or of an improper discharge by the debtor of the obligation, secured against by the pledge, because of the circumstances, for which he is answerable. 2. The claim for turning the penalty onto the pledged property may be rejected, if the violation, committed by the debtor with respect to the obligation, secured against by the pledge, is utterly insignificant, and for this reason, the amount of the pledger's claims is obviously out of all proportion with the cost of the pledged property.

Article 349. Procedure for Turning the Penalty onto the Pledged Property

1. The pledgee's (the creditor's) claims shall be satisfied from the cost of the pledged immovable property by the court decision. The satisfaction of the pledgee's claim at the expense of the pledged immovable property without turning to the court shall be admitted on the grounds of a notarially certified agreement of the pledgee with the pledger, concluded between them after the arising of the grounds for turning the penalty onto the object of pledge. This agreement may be recognized by the court as invalid upon the claim of the person, whose rights have been violated by such an agreement. 2. The pledgee's rights shall be satisfied at the expense of the pledged movable property by the court decision, unless otherwise stipulated by the agreement of the pledger with the pledgee. However, the penalty shall be turned onto the object of pledge, transferred to the pledgee, in conformity with the procedure, established by the contract of pledge, unless the law has laid down a different procedure. 3. The penalty shall be turned onto the object of pledge only by the court decision in the cases, when: 1) the consent or the permit of the other person or of the other body has been required for the conclusion of the contract; 2) the object of pledge is the property, presenting a considerable historical, artistic or another kind of cultural value for society; 3) the pledger is absent and it is impossible to identify the place of his stay.

Article 350. Realization of the Pledged Property

1. The realization (the sale) of the pledged property, onto which, in conformity with Article 349 of the present Code, the penalty has been turned, shall be effected by way of selling it at an open auction in the order, established by the procedural legislation, unless otherwise laid down by the law.
2. Upon the request of the pledger, the court shall have the right, in its decision on turning the penalty onto the pledged property, to postpone its sale at an open auction for a term of up to one year. The delay shall not concern the parties' rights and duties by the obligation, secured against by the pledge of this property, and shall not absolve the debtor from recompensing the creditor's losses and the forfeit, both of which have mounted over the period of delay.
3. The initial selling price of the pledged property, from which the bidding starts, shall be fixed by the court decision in the cases, when the penalty has been turned onto the property through the court, or by an agreement, concluded between the pledgee and the pledger - in the rest of cases. The pledged property shall be sold to the person, who offers the highest price at the auction.
4. In case the auction is declared as having failed, the pledgee shall have the right, by an agreement with the pledger, to acquire the pledged property and to offset the selling price by the amount of his claims, secured against by the pledge. To such an agreement, the rules of the purchase and sale shall be applied. In case the repeatedly held auction is declared as having failed, too, the pledgee shall have the right to keep the object of pledge to himself, while appraising its cost at an amount, which is not over 10 per cent lower than its initial selling price at the repeatedly held auction. If the pledgee has not availed himself of the right to keep the object of pledge to himself within one month from the day of declaring the repeated auction as having failed, the contract of pledge shall be terminated.
5. If the amount, derived from the realization of the pledged property, proves to be insufficient to cover the pledgee's claim, he shall have the right, in the absence of any other instruction in the law or in the contract, to obtain the underderived amount from the other property of the debtor, while not enjoying the right of priority, based on the pledge. 6. If the amount, derived from the realization of the pledged property, exceeds the size of the pledgee's claim, secured against by the pledge, the difference shall be returned to the pledger.
7. The debtor and the pledger, who is the third person, shall have the right, at any time before the sale of the object of pledge, to terminate the turning onto it of the penalty and its realization by discharging the obligation, secured against by the pledge, or that part thereof, whose discharge has been delayed. An agreement, restricting this right, shall be regarded as insignificant.

Article 351. Advanced Discharge of the Obligation, Secured Against by the Pledge and Turning of the Obligation onto the Pledged Property

1. The pledgee shall have the right to demand an advanced discharge of the obligation, secured against by the pledge, in the following cases: 1) if the object of pledge has been withdrawn from the custody of the pledger, with whom it has been left, other than in conformity with the terms of the contract of pledge; 2) if the pledger has violated the rules on the replacement of the object of pledge (Article 345); 3) if the object of pledge has been lost because of the circumstances, for which the pledger is not answerable in case the pledger has not availed himself of the right, stipulated by Item 2, Article 345 of the present Code. 2. The pledgee shall have the right to claim an advanced discharge of the pledge, secured against by the pledge, and if his claim is not satisfied, to turn the penalty onto the object of pledge in the following cases: 1) if the pledger has violated the rules on the subsequent pledge (Article 342); 2) if the pledger has not discharged the duties, stipulated by Subitems 1 and 2 of Item 1 and by Item 2, Article 343 of the present Code; 3) if the pledger has violated the rules on the disposal of the pledged property (Item 2 of Article 346).

Article 352. Termination of the Pledge

1. The pledge shall be terminated: 1) with the termination of the obligation, secured against by the pledge; 2) upon the demand of the pledger in the presence of the circumstances, stipulated by Item 3, Article 343 of the present Code; 3) in case of the perish of the pledged thing or of the termination of the pledged right, unless the pledger has availed himself of the right, stipulated by Item 2, Article 345 of the present Code; 4) in case of the sale of the pledged property at an open auction, and also in case of its realization proving to be impossible (Item 4 of Article 350). 2. About the termination of the mortgage, a note shall be made in the register, into which the mortgage contract has been entered. 3. Upon the termination of the pledge as a result of the discharge of the obligation, secured against by the pledge, or upon the pledger's claim (Item 3 of Article 343), the pledgee, in whose custody the pledged property has been kept, shall immediately return it to the pledger.

Article 353. Maintaining the Pledge in Force When the Right to the Pledged Property Is Transferred to Another Person

1. If the right of ownership to the pledged property, or the right of the economic management of this property is transferred from the pledger to another person as a result of a pecuniary or gratuitous alienation of this property or by way of the universal legal succession, the right of pledge shall be maintained in force. The legal successor of the pledger shall occupy the place of the pledger and shall discharge all his duties, unless otherwise stipulated by the agreement with the pledgee. 2. If the property of the pledger, which is the object of pledge, has passed, by way of the legal succession, to several persons, each one of the legal successors (acquirers of the property) shall bear the consequences, following from the non-discharge of the obligation, secured against by the pledge, in proportion to that part of the said property, which has passed to him. However, in case the object of pledge is indivisible or remains in the common ownership of the legal successors, they shall become joint pledgers.

Article 354. The Consequences of the Forcible Withdrawal of the Pledged Property

1. If the pledger's right of ownership to the property, which is the object of pledge, is terminated on the grounds and in the way, established by the law, as a result of the withdrawal (redemption) for the state or for the municipal needs, of the requisition or of the nationalization, and if the pledger is given the other property or the corresponding compensation, the right of pledge shall be extended to the new property, given instead of the old property, or the pledgee shall correspondingly acquire the right of priority in the satisfaction of his claim from the amount of the compensation due to the pledger. The pledgee shall also have the right to claim an advanced discharge of the obligation, secured against by the pledge. 2. In the cases, when the property, which is the object of pledge, is withdrawn from the pledger in conformity with the law-established order on the ground that another person is in actual fact the owner of this property (Article 301), or as a sanction for committing a crime or for another violation of the law (Article 243), the pledge with respect to this property shall be terminated. In these cases, the pledger shall have the right to claim an advanced discharge of the obligation, secured against by the pledge.

Article 355. The Cession of the Rights by the Contract of Pledge

The pledgee shall have the right to transfer his rights by the contract of pledge to another person, while observing the rules on the transfer of rights by the cession of the claim (Articles 382-390). The cession by the pledgee of his rights by the contract of pledge to another person shall be valid, if the rights of claim against the debtor by the principal obligation, secured against by the pledge, have also been ceded to the same person. Unless otherwise proved, the cession of the rights by the contract of mortgage shall also imply the cession of the rights by the obligation, secured against by the mortgage.

Article 356. Transfer of the Debt by the Obligation, Secured Against by the Pledge

In case of the transfer of the obligation, secured against by the pledge, to another person, the pledge shall be terminated, if the pledger has not given his consent to the creditor to be answerable for the new debtor. Article 357. The Pledge of Commodities in Circulation 1. The pledge of commodities in circulation shall be recognized as the pledge of commodities with leaving them in the pledger's custody and with granting the latter the right to modify the composition and the natural form of the pledged property (the commodity stocks, the raw and other materials, the semi-finished and finished products, etc.), provided that their total cost does not become less than that indicated in the contract of pledge. The reduction of the cost of the pledged commodities in circulation shall be admitted in proportion to the discharged share of the obligation, secured against by the pledge, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract. 2. The commodities in circulation, alienated by the pledger, shall cease to be the object of pledge from the moment of their passing into the ownership or into the economic or the operation management of the acquirer, while the commodities, acquired by the pledger, which have been indicated in the contract of pledge, shall become the object of pledge from the moment, when the right of their ownership or of their economic management arises with the pledger. 3. The pledger of the commodities in circulation shall be obliged to keep a register for entering the pledges, into which he shall make entries on the terms of the pledge of the commodities and on all the operations, entailing the change of the composition or of the natural form of the pledged commodities, including their processing, by the date of the last operation. 4. In case the pledger violates the terms of the pledge of commodities in circulation, the pledgee shall have the right to hold up the operations with them by way of putting upon them his signs and seals until the elimination of the violation.

Article 358. Pawning of Things at the Pawn-Shop

1. The movable property, intended for personal use, may be accepted as a security against a short-term credit by way of the business activity of specialized organizations - the pawn-shops. 2. The contract on pawning things at the pawn-shop shall be legalized by issuing by the pawn-shop of a pawn-ticket. 3. The pawned things shall be passed to the pawn-shop. The pawn-shop shall be obliged to insure the things in favour of the pawner at its own expense in the full amount of their estimated cost, made in conformity with the prices of things of the same category and standard, usually fixed in trade by the moment of their being accepted in pawn. The pawn-shop shall not have the right to use and to dispose of the things in pawn. 4. The pawn-shop shall bear responsibility for the loss and the damage of the pawned things, unless it proves that the loss and the damage have occurred because of a force-majeure. 5. In case the credit, secured against by the pawn of things at the pawn-shop, has not been repaid within the fixed term, the pawn-shop shall have the right, on the ground of the notary's executive endorsement, and after the expiry of one month's extra term, to sell this property in the order, laid down for the realization of the pledged property (Items 3, 4, 6 and 7 of Article 350). After this, the claims of the pawn- shop against the pawner (the debtor) shall be regarded as satisfied, even if the amount, derived from the realization of the pawned property, is insufficient to cover them in full. 6. The rules for the citizens' crediting by the pawn-shops under the pledge of things, belonging to the citizens, shall be laid down by the law and by the present Code. 7. The terms of the contract on the pawn of things at the pawn-shop, restricting the rights of the pledger as compared with the rights, granted to him by the present Code and by the other laws, shall be insignificant. Instead of such terms, the corresponding provisions of the law shall be applied.

_ 4. The Retention

Article 359. The Grounds for the Retention

1. The creditor, in whose custody is the thing, subject to the transfer to the debtor or to the person, named by the debtor, shall have the right, in case the debtor fails to discharge in time the obligation on the payment for this thing or on the compensation to the creditor of the expenses and of the other losses he has borne in connection with it, to retain it until the corresponding obligation is discharged. By way of the thing's retention may also be secured the claims, which, while not being connected with the payment for the thing or with the compensation of the expenses and of the other losses, have nevertheless arisen from the obligation, whose parties are acting as businessmen. 2. The creditor may retain the thing in his custody, despite the fact that after this thing has passed into the creditor's possession, the rights to it have been acquired by the third person. 3. The rules of the present Article shall be applied, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract.

Article 360. Satisfaction of Claims at the Expense of the Retained Property

The claims of the creditor, who is retaining the thing, shall be satisfied from its cost in the volume and in the order, stipulated for the satisfaction of the claims, secured against by the pledge.

_ 5. The Surety

Article 361. The Contract of Surety

By the contract of surety, the surety shall be obliged to the creditor of the other person to be answerable for the latter's discharge of his obligation in full or in part. The contract of surety may also be concluded to provide security for an obligation, which will arise in the future.

Article 362. The Form of the Contract of Surety

The contract of surety shall be legalized in written form. The non-observance of the written form shall entail the invalidity of the contract of surety.

Article 363. Responsibility of the Surety

1. In case of the failure to discharge, or of an improper discharge by the debtor, of the obligation, secured by the surety, the surety and the debtor shall be jointly answerable to the creditor, unless the surety's subsidiary liability is stipulated by the law or by the contract of surety. 2. The surety shall be answerable to the creditor in the same volume as the debtor, including the payment of the interest, the compensation of the court expenses, involved in the exaction of the debt and of the other losses, borne by the creditor, which have been caused by the debtor's non-discharge or improper discharge of the obligation, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract of surety. 3. The persons, who have provided a joint surety, shall be jointly answerable to the creditor, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract of surety.

Article 364. The Right of the Surety to Object to the Creditor's Claim

The surety shall have the right to put forward against the creditor's claim the objections, which could have been put forward by the debtor, unless otherwise following from the contract of surety. The surety shall not lose the right to these objections even in case the debtor has renounced them or has recognized his debt.

Article 365. The Rights of the Surety, Who Has Discharged the Obligation

1. To the surety, who has discharged the obligation, shall pass the creditor's rights by this obligation and also the rights, which have belonged to the creditor as the pledgee, in the volume, in which the surety has satisfied the creditor's claim. The surety shall also have the right to claim that the debtor pay the interest on the amount of money, paid up to the creditor, and recompense the other losses, which he has borne in connection with the liability for the debtor. 2. After the surety has discharged the obligation, the creditor shall be obliged to pass to the surety the documents, certifying the claim against the debtor, and to transfer to him the rights, securing this claim. 3. The rules, established by the present Article, shall be applied, unless otherwise stipulated by the law, by the other legal acts or by the contract, concluded by the surety with the debtor, or unless otherwise following from the relationships between them.

Article 366. Notification of the Surety on the Debtor's Discharge of the Obligation

The debtor, who has discharged the obligation, secured against by the surety, shall immediately notify about it the surety. Otherwise, the surety, who in his turn has discharged the obligation, shall have the right to exact from the creditor what he has groundlessly obtained, or to file the claim of regress against the debtor. In the latter case, the debtor shall have the right to exact from the creditor only what has been groundlessly obtained.

Article 367. Termination of the Obligation

1. The surety shall be terminated with the termination of the secured obligation, and also in case of the amendment of this obligation, entailing an increase of the liability, or the other unfavourable consequences for the surety without the latter's consent. 2. The surety shall be terminated as a result of the transfer to another person of the debt by the obligation, secured by the surety, unless the surety has given his consent to the creditor to be answerable for the new debtor. 3. The surety shall be terminated, if the creditor has refused to accept the proper discharge, offered by the debtor or by the surety. 4. The surety shall be terminated after the expiry of the term, indicated in the contract of surety, for which it has been issued. In case such term has not been stipulated, the surety shall be terminated, if the creditor does not file the claim against the debtor in the course of one year from the date of the expiry of the term, fixed for the discharge of the secured obligation. If the term of the discharge of the principal obligation has not been stipulated and cannot be defined, or if it has been defined by the moment of the demand, the surety shall be terminated, unless the creditor files the claim against the surety in the course of two years from the date, when the contract of surety was concluded.

_ 6. The Bank Guarantee

Article 368. The Concept of the Bank Guarantee

By force of the bank guarantee, the bank, the other credit institution or the insurance company (the guarantor) shall issue, upon the request of the other person (the principal) a written obligation to pay to the creditor (the beneficiary), in conformity with the terms of the obligation, given by the guarantor, a certain amount of money upon the beneficiary's presenting the written claim on its payment.

Article 369. Security by the Bank Guarantee of the Principal's Obligation

1. The bank guarantee shall provide for the proper discharge by the principal of his obligation to the beneficiary (the principal obligation).
2. The principal shall pay out to the guarantor a reward for the issue of the bank guarantee.

Article 370. Independence of the Bank Guarantee from the Principal Obligation

The obligation of the guarantor to the beneficiary, stipulated by the bank guarantee, shall not depend in the relationships between them upon that principal obligation, to provide for whose discharge it has been issued, even if the guarantee contains a reference to this obligation.

Article 371. Irrevocability of the Bank Guarantee

The bank guarantee shall not be revoked by the guarantor, unless otherwise stipulated in it.

Article 372. Untransferability of the Rights by the Bank Guarantee

The right of claim against the guarantor, possessed by the beneficiary by the bank guarantee, shall not be transferred to the other person, unless otherwise stipulated in the guarantee. Article 373. The Coming of the Bank Guarantee in Force The bank guarantee shall come in force from the date of its issue, unless otherwise stipulated in it. Article 374. Presentation of the Claim by the Bank Guarantee 1. The beneficiary's claim for the payment of the sum of money by the bank guarantee shall be presented to the guarantor in written form, with the documents, indicated in the guarantee, enclosed to it. The beneficiary shall point out, either in the claim itself or in the enclosed documents, in what consists the principal's violation of the principal obligation, to secure which the guarantee was issued. 2. The beneficiary's claim shall be presented to the guarantor before the expiry of the term, defined in the guarantee, for which it has been issued. Article 375. The Guarantor's Obligations in Considering the Beneficiary's Claim 1. On receiving the beneficiary's claim, the guarantor shall without delay notify about it the principal and shall pass to him the copies of the claim with all the related documents. 2. The guarantor shall be obliged to examine the beneficiary's claim and the enclosed documents within a reasonable term, displaying a reasonable solicitude in order to establish, whether or not the claim and the enclosed documents correspond to the terms of the guarantee.

Article 376. The Guarantor's Refusal to Satisfy the Beneficiary's Claim

1. The guarantor shall refuse to satisfy the beneficiary's claim, if this claim or the documents enclosed to it do not correspond to the terms of the guarantee or if they are presented to the guarantor after the expiry of the term, fixed in the guarantee. The guarantor shall be obliged to immediately notify the beneficiary about the refusal to satisfy his claim. 2. If the guarantor has learned before the satisfaction of the beneficiary's claim that the principal obligation, secured against by the bank guarantee, has already been discharged in full or in the corresponding part, that it has been terminated on the other grounds or has been invalidated, he shall be obliged to immediately notify about this the beneficiary and the principal. The repeated beneficiary's claim, received by the guarantor after such a notification, shall be liable to satisfaction by the guarantor.

Article 377. The Limits of the Guarantor's Obligation

1. The guarantor's obligation to the beneficiary, stipulated by the bank guarantee, shall be limited by the payment of the sum of money, for which the guarantee was issued. 2. The guarantor's responsibility to the beneficiary for his non-discharge or improper discharge of the obligation by the guarantee shall not be limited to the sum of money, for which the guarantee was issued, unless otherwise stipulated in the guarantee.

Article 378. Termination of the Bank Guarantee

1. The guarantor's obligation to the beneficiary by the guarantee shall be terminated: 1) by the payment to the beneficiary of the sum of money, for which the guarantee was issued; 2) after the expiry of the term, fixed in the guarantee, for which it was issued; 3) as a result of the beneficiary's renouncement of his rights by the guarantee and his return of the guarantee to the guarantor; 4) as a result of the beneficiary's renouncement of his rights by the guarantee by way of his handing in of a written application on relieving the guarantor of his obligations. The termination of the guarantor's obligation on the grounds, pointed out in Subitems 1, 2 and 4 of the present Item, shall not depend on whether or not the guarantee has been returned to him. 2. The guarantor, who has learned about the termination of the guarantee, shall be obliged to immediately notify about it the principal.

Article 379. The Guarantor's Claims of Regress to the Principal

1. The guarantor's right to claim by way of regress that the principal recompense the sums of money, paid to the beneficiary by the bank guarantee, shall be defined by the agreement, concluded between the guarantor and the principal, for the discharge of which the guarantee was issued. 2. The guarantor shall not have the right to claim that the principal return the sums of money, paid to the beneficiary other than in correspondence with the terms of the guarantee, or for the violation of the guarantor's obligation to the beneficiary, unless otherwise stipulated by the agreement, concluded between the guarantor and the principal.

_ 7. The Advance

Article 380. The Concept of the Advance. The Form of an Agreement on the Advance

1. The advance shall be recognized as the sum of money, issued by one of the contracting parties to offset the payments to the other party due from it, as a proof that the contract has been concluded and that its discharge has been secured against.
2. The agreement on the advance, regardless of the sum of money involved, shall be effected in written form.
3. In case of the doubt about whether the sum of money, paid to offset the payments, due from the party by the contract, is the advance, in particular, as a result of the non-abidance by the rule, laid down by Item 2 of the present Article, this sum of money shall be regarded as paid up by way of an advance, unless proved otherwise.

Article 381. The Consequences of the Termination and of the Non-Discharge of the Obligation, Secured Against by the Advance

1. If the obligation is terminated before the start of its discharge by an agreement between the parties or as a result of its discharge being impossible (Article 416), the advance shall be returned.
2. If the responsibility for the non-performance of the contract lies with the party, which has given the advance, it shall be left with the other party. If the responsibility for the non-performance of the contract lies with the party, which has received the advance, it shall be obliged to pay to the other party the double amount of the advance. In addition, the party, responsible for the non-execution of the contract, shall be obliged to recompense to the other party the losses, offsetting the amount of the advance, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract.

Chapter 24. The Substitution of Persons in an Obligation

_ 1. The Transfer of the Creditor's Rights to Another Person

Article 382. The Grounds and the Order of the Transfer of the Creditor's Rights to Another Person

1. The right (the claim), belonging to the creditor on the grounds of an obligation, may be transferred by him to another person by the deal (the cession of the claim), or may pass to another person on the legal grounds. The rules on the transfer of the creditor's rights to another person shall not be applied to the claims of regress.
2. To effect the transfer to another person, the consent of the debtor shall not be required, unless otherwise stipulated by the law or by the contract.
3. If the debtor has not been notified in written form on the effected transfer of the creditor's rights to another person, the new creditor shall bear the risk of the unfavourable consequences, which may arise for him as a result of this. In this case, the discharge of the obligation to the primary creditor shall be recognized as the discharge to the proper creditor.

Article 383. The Rights, Which May not Be Passed to the Other Persons

The transfer to the other person of the rights, inseparably linked with the creditor's personality, in particular, with the claims for the alimony and for the compensation of the harm, caused to the life or to the health, shall not be admitted.

Article 384. The Scope of the Creditor's Rights, Transferred to the Other Person

Unless otherwise stipulated by the law or by the contract, the right of the primary creditor shall be passed to the new creditor in the volume and on the terms, which have existed by the moment of the transfer of the right. In particular, to the new creditor shall pass the rights, guaranteeing the discharge of the obligations, and also the other rights, involved in the claim, including the right to the unpaid interest.

Article 385. The Proofs of the Rights of the New Creditor

1. The debtor shall have the right not to discharge the obligation to the new creditor, until the proofs of the transfer of the claim to this person have been presented to him.
2. The creditor, who has ceded the claim to the other person, shall be obliged to pass to him the documents, certifying the right of the claim, and to supply to him the information, which is important for the discharge of the claim.

Article 386. The Debtor's Objections to the New Creditor's Claim

The debtor shall have the right to put forward objections against the new creditor's claims, which he has had to the primary creditor by the moment of receiving the notification about the transfer of the rights by the obligation to the new creditor.

Article 387. The Transfer of the Creditor's Rights to the Other Person on the Grounds of the Law

The creditor's rights by the obligation shall pass to the other person on the grounds of the law and of the occurrence of the circumstances, pointed out in it:
- as a consequence of the universal legal succession in the creditor's rights; - by the court decision on the transfer of the creditor's rights to the other person, when the possibility of such transfer is stipulated by the law;
- as a consequence of the discharge of the debtor's obligation by his surety or by the pledger, who is not the debtor by this obligation;
- in the subrogation to the insurer of the creditor's rights with respect to the debtor, responsible for the occurrence of the insurance case;
- in the other law-stipulated cases.

Article 388. The Terms for Ceding the Claim

1. The creditor's ceding of the claim to the other person shall be admitted, unless it contradicts the law, the other legal acts or the contract.
2. The cession of the claim by the obligation, in which the creditor's personality is of essential importance for the debtor, shall not be admitted without the debtor's consent.

Article 389. The Form of Ceding the Claim

1. The cession of the claim, based on the deal, performed in the simple written or in the notarial form, shall be effected in the corresponding written form.
2. The cession of the claim by the deal, requiring the state registration, shall be registered in conformity with the order, established for the registration of this deal, unless otherwise established by the law.
3. The cession of the claim by the order security shall be effected by way of making an endorsement upon this security (Item 3 of Article 146).

Article 390. Responsibility of the Creditor, Who Has Ceded the Claim

The primary creditor, who has ceded the claim, shall be answerable to the new creditor for the invalidity of the claim, transferred to the latter, but shall not be answerable for the non-satisfaction of this claim by the debtor, with the exception of the cases, when the primary creditor has assumed upon himself the surety for the debtor to the new creditor.

_ 2. The Transfer of the Debt

Article 391. The Terms and the Form of the Transfer of the Debt

1. The transfer by the debtor of his debt to the other person shall be admitted only with the creditor's consent. 2. To the form of the transfer of the debt shall be correspondingly applied the rules, contained in Items 1 and 2, Article 389 of the present Code. Article 392. Objections of the New Debtor Against the Creditor's Claim The new debtor shall have the right to put forward objections against the creditor's claims, based on the relationships between the creditor and the primary debtor.

Chapter 25. Responsibility for the Violation of Obligations

Article 393. The Debtor's Obligation to Recompense the Losses

1. The debtor shall be obliged to recompense to the creditor the losses, caused to him by the non-discharge or by an improper discharge of the obligations.
2. The losses shall be defined in conformity with the rules, stipulated by Article 15 of the present Code.
3. Unless otherwise stipulated by the law, by the other legal acts or by the agreement, when defining the losses, the prices shall be taken into account, which existed in the place, where the obligation should have been discharged, on the date of the debtor's voluntary satisfaction of the creditor's claims, and if the claim has not been voluntarily satisfied - on the date of its presentation. Proceeding from the circumstances, the court may satisfy the claim for the compensation of the losses, taking into account the prices, which existed on the day of its adopting the decision.
4. When defining the lost profit, the measures, taken by the creditor to derive it, and the preparations, made for the same purpose, shall be considered.

Article 394. The Losses and the Forfeit

1. If for the non-discharge or an improper discharge of the obligation the forfeit has been ruled, the losses shall be recompensed in the part, which has not been covered by the forfeit. The law or the agreement may stipulate the cases: when only the forfeit, but not the losses shall be exacted; when the losses may be exacted in full above the forfeit; when, according to the creditor's choice, either the forfeit or the losses may be exacted. 2. In the cases, when a limited responsibility for the non-discharge or an improper discharge of the obligation has been established (Article 400), the losses, liable to compensation in the part, not covered by the forfeit, or above it, or instead of it, may be exacted up to the limit, fixed by such a restriction.

Article 395. Responsibility for the Non-Discharge of the Pecuniary Obligation

1. For the use of the other person's money as a result of its illegal retention, of the avoidance of its return or of another kind of delay in its payment, or as a result of its ungroundless receipt or saving at the expense of the other person, the interest on the total amount of these means shall be due. The interest rate shall be defined by the discount rate of the bank interest, existing by the date of the discharge of the pecuniary obligation or of the corresponding part thereof at the place of the creditor's residence, and if the creditor is a legal entity - at the place of its location. If the debt is exacted through the court, the court may satisfy the creditor's claim, proceeding from the discount rate of the bank interest on the date of filing the claim or on the date of its adopting the decision. These rules shall be applied, unless the other interest rate has been fixed by the law or by the agreement.
2. If the losses, caused to the creditor by an illegal use of his money, exceed the amount of the interest, due to him on the ground of Item 1 of the present Article, he shall have the right to claim that the debtor recompense him the losses in the part, exceeding this amount.
3. The interest for the use of the other person's means shall be exacted by the date of payment of the amount of these means to the creditor, unless the law, the other legal acts or the contract have fixed a shorter term for the calculation of the interest.

Article 396. Responsibility and the Discharge of Obligations in Kind

1. The payment of the forfeit and the compensation of the losses in case of an improper discharge of the obligation shall not absolve the debtor from the discharge of the obligations in kind, unless otherwise stipulated by the law or by the contract.
2. The compensation of the losses in case of the non-discharge of the obligation and the payment of the forfeit for its non-discharge shall absolve the debtor from the discharge of the obligation in kind, unless otherwise stipulated by the law or by the contract.
3. The creditor's refusal to accept the discharge, which as a consequence of the delay has lost all interest for him (Item 2 of Article 405), and also the payment of the forfeit, imposed by way of compensation (Article 409), shall absolve the debtor from the discharge of the obligation in kind.

Article 397. Discharge of the Obligation at the Debtor's Expense

In case of the non-discharge by the debtor of the obligation to manufacture and transfer the thing into the ownership, into the economic or into the operation management, or into the use of the creditor, or to perform for him a certain job, or to render him a service, the creditor shall have the right, within a reasonable term and for a reasonable pay, to commission the third persons with the performance of the obligation, or to perform it through his own effort, unless otherwise following from the law, the other legal acts or the contract, or from the substance of the obligation, and to claim that the debtor recompense the necessary expenses and the other losses he has borne.

Article 398. The Consequences of the Non-discharge of the Obligation to Transfer an Individually-definite Thing

In case of the non-discharge of the obligation to transfer an individually-definite thing into the ownership, into the economic or the operation management, or into the gratuitous use of the creditor, the latter shall have the right to claim the forcible withdrawal of this thing from the debtor and its transfer to the creditor on the terms, stipulated by the obligation. This right shall cease to exist, if the thing has already been transferred to the third person, possessing the right of ownership, of economic or of operation management. If the thing has not yet been transferred, the right of priority shall belong to that creditor, with respect to whom the obligation has arisen at an earlier date, and if this is impossible to establish - to that creditor, who has filed the claim at an earlier date. Instead of the claim for the transfer to him of the thing, which is the object of the obligation, the creditor shall have the right to claim the compensation of his losses.

Article 399. The Subsidiary Liability

1. Before presenting the claims against the person, who, in conformity with the law, with the other legal acts or with the terms of the obligation, is bearing liability in addition to the liability of the other person, who is the principal debtor (the subsidiary liability), the creditor shall be obliged to present the claim against the principal debtor. If the principal debtor has refused to satisfy the claim of the creditor, or if the creditor has not received from him, within a reasonable term, a response to the presented claim, this claim may be presented against the person, bearing the subsidiary liability.
2. The creditor shall have no right to claim the satisfaction of his claim against the principal debtor from the person, bearing the subsidiary liability, if this claim may be satisfied by offsetting the claim of regress to the principal debtor, or by an indisputable recovery of the means involved from the principal debtor.
3. The person, bearing the subsidiary liability, shall be obliged, before satisfying the claim, presented against him by the creditor, to warn about it the principal debtor, and if the claim has been filed against such a person - to draw the principal debtor into the court case. Otherwise, the principal debtor shall have the right to put forward against the claim of regress of the person, bearing the subsidiary liability, the objections, which he has had against the creditor.

Article 400. Limitation of the Scope of Liability by Obligations

1. By the individual kinds of obligations and by those obligations, which are related to a definite type of activity, the right to the full compensation of the losses may be limited by the law (the limited responsibility). 2. The agreement on limiting the scope of the debtor's responsibility by the contract of affiliation or by another kind of contract, in which the creditor is the citizen, coming out in the capacity of the consumer, shall be insignificant, if the scope of responsibility for the given kind of obligations or for the given violation has been defined by the law and if the agreement has been concluded before the setting in of the circumstances, entailing the responsibility for the non-discharge or for an improper discharge of the obligation. Article 401. The Grounds of Responsibility for the Violation of the Obligation 1. The person, who has not discharged the obligation or who has discharged it in an improper way, shall bear responsibility for this, if it has happened through his fault (an ill intention or carelessness on his part), with the exception of the cases, when the other grounds of the responsibility have been stipulated by the law or by the contract. The person shall be recognized as not guilty, if, taking into account the extent of the care and caution, which has been expected from him in the face of the nature and the terms of the circulation, he has taken all the necessary measures for properly discharging the obligation. 2. The absence of the guilt shall be proven by the person, who has violated the obligation. 3. Unless otherwise stipulated by the law or by the contract, the person, who has failed to discharge, or has discharged in an improper way, the obligation, while performing the business activity, shall bear responsibility, unless he proves that the proper discharge has been impossible because of a force-majeure, i.e., because of the extraordinary circumstances, which it was impossible to avert under the given conditions. To such kind of circumstances shall not be referred, in particular, the violations of obligations on the part of the debtor's counter-agents, or the absence on the market of commodities, indispensable for the discharge, or the absence of the necessary means at the debtor's disposal. 4. An agreement on eliminating or limiting the liability for an intentional violation of the obligation, concluded at an earlier date, shall be insignificant.

Article 402. The Debtor's Responsibility for His Employees

The actions of the debtor's employees, involved in the discharge of his obligation, shall be regarded as those of the debtor himself. The debtor shall be answerable for these actions, if they have caused the non-discharge or an improper discharge of the obligation.

Article 403. The Debtor's Responsibility for the Actions of the Third Persons

The debtor shall be answerable for an improper discharge of the obligation by the third persons, on whom the discharge of the obligation has been imposed, unless it has been laid down by the law that the responsibility shall be borne by the third person, who has been an immediate discharger.

Article 404. The Creditor's Guilt

1. If the non-discharge or an improper discharge of the obligation has occurred through the fault of both parties, the court shall correspondingly reduce the scope of the debtor's responsibility. The court shall also have the right to reduce the scope of the debtor's responsibility, if the creditor has intentionally or through carelessness contributed to the increase of the losses, caused by the non-discharge or by an improper discharge, or if he has not taken reasonable measures to reduce them.
2. The rules of Item 1 of the present Article shall also be correspondingly applied in the cases, when the debtor, by force of the law or of the contract, bears responsibility for the non-discharge or for an improper discharge of the obligation regardless of whether he is, or is not, at fault.

Article 405. The Debtor's Delay

1. The debtor, who has failed to discharge the obligation on time, shall be answerable to the creditor for the losses, inflicted by the delay, and also for the consequences of the discharge having accidentally become impossible during the period of the delay.
2. If, because of the debtor's delay, the discharge has lost all interest for the creditor, he shall have the right to refuse to accept the discharge and to claim the compensation of the involved losses. 3. The debtor shall not be regarded as guilty of the delay during the period of time, when the obligation could not have been discharged because of the creditor's delay.

Article 406. The Creditor's Delay

1. The creditor shall be regarded as guilty of the delay, if he has refused to accept the proper discharge, offered to him by the debtor, or if he has not performed the actions, stipulated by the law, by the other legal acts, or by the contract, or those stemming from the customs of the business turnover or from the substance of the obligation, before the performance of which the debtor could not have discharged his obligation. The creditor shall also be regarded as guilty of the delay in the cases, pointed out in Item 2 of Article 408 of the present Code.
2. The creditor's delay shall give to the debtor the right to the compensation of losses, caused to him by the said delay, unless the creditor proves that the delay has occurred through the circumstances, for which neither he himself, nor the persons, to whom, by force of the law, of the other legal acts or of the creditor's commission, the acceptance of the discharge has been entrusted, are answerable. 3. The debtor shall not be obliged to pay the interest by the pecuniary obligation over the period of the creditor's delay.

Chapter 26. The Termination of Obligations

Article 407. The Grounds for the Termination of Obligations

1. The obligation shall be terminated in full or in part on the grounds, stipulated by the present Code, by the other laws and the other legal acts, or by the contract. 2. The termination of the obligation upon the claim of one of the parties shall be admitted only in the cases, stipulated by the law or by the contract.

Article 408. The Termination of the Obligation by the Discharge

1. The proper discharge shall terminate the obligation. 2. While accepting the discharge, the creditor shall be obliged, upon the debtor's claim, to give him a receipt for accepting the discharge in full or in the corresponding part thereof. If the debtor has issued to the creditor a promissory document to certify the obligation, the creditor, while accepting the discharge, shall be obliged to return it, and in case it is impossible to return the said document, he shall be obliged to indicate this in the receipt he issues. The receipt may be replaced by an inscription made on the returned document. The debtor's custody of the promissory document shall certify the termination of the obligation, unless otherwise proved. If the creditor refuses to issue the receipt, to return to the debtor the promissory document, or to indicate in the receipt that it is impossible to return it, the debtor shall have the right to delay the discharge. In these cases, the creditor shall be regarded as having delayed it.

Article 409. The Indemnity

By an agreement between the parties, the obligation may be terminated by way of paying an indemnity instead of the discharge (the payment of money, the transfer of the property, etc.). The amount, the term and the procedure for paying the indemnity shall be established by the parties.

Article 410. Termination of the Obligation by an Offset

The obligation shall be terminated in full or in part by offsetting a similar claim of regress, whose deadline has arrived or has not been fixed, or has been defined by the moment of the demand. For the offset, the application from one of the parties shall be sufficient.

Article 411. The Cases of the Offset Being Inadmissible

Inadmissible shall be the offset of the claims: - if, by the application of the other party, the term of the limitation of actions shall be applicable to the given claim, and the said term has expired; - for the compensation of the harm, inflicted to the life or to the health; - on the exaction of the alimony; - for the life maintenance; - in the other cases, stipulated by the law or by the contract.

Article 412. The Offset in the Cession of the Claim

In case of the cession of the claim, the debtor shall have the right to offset against the claim of the new creditor his own claim of regress against the primary creditor. The offset shall be effected, if the claim has arisen on the grounds, which have existed by the moment of the debtor's receipt of the notification about the cession of the claim, and if the deadline of the claim has set in before its receipt or if this deadline has not been indicated or defined by the moment of the demand.

Article 413. Termination of the Obligation by the Debtor and the Creditor Coinciding in One Person

The obligation shall be terminated in case the debtor and the creditor coincide in a single person.

Article 414. Termination of the Obligation by the Novation

1. The obligation shall be terminated by an agreement between the parties on replacing the primary obligation, which has existed between them, with another obligation between the same persons, stipulating a different object or a different way of the discharge (the novation). 2. The novation shall not be admissible with respect to the obligations on the compensation for the harm, inflicted to the life or to the health, and also with respect to those on the alimony. 3. The novation shall terminate the additional liabilities, connected with the primary obligation, unless otherwise stipulated by the agreement between the parties.

Article 415. Forgiving the Debt

The obligation shall be terminated by the creditor's absolving the debtor from the obligations, borne by him, if this does not violate the rights of the other persons with respect to the creditor's property.

Article 416. Termination of the Obligation Because of the Impossibility to Discharge It

1. The obligation shall be terminated because of the impossibility to discharge it, caused by the circumstance, for which neither of the parties is answerable.
2. In case of the impossibility for the debtor to discharge the obligation because of the faulty actions of the creditor, the latter shall not have the right to claim the return of what he has discharged by the obligation.

Article 417. Termination of the Obligation on the Grounds of an Act, Issued by the State Body

1. If as a result of an act, issued by the state body, the discharge of the obligation has become impossible in full or in part, the obligation shall be terminated in full or in the corresponding part. The parties, which have suffered losses as a result of this, shall have the right to claim their compensation in conformity with Articles 13 and 16 of the present Code.
2. In case the act, issued by the state body, on whose grounds the obligation has been terminated, is recognized as invalid in conformity with the established procedure, the obligation shall be restored, unless otherwise following from the agreement between the parties or from the substance of the obligation and unless its discharge has lost all interest for the creditor.

Article 418. Termination of the Obligation with the Citizen's Death

1. The obligation shall be terminated with the death of the debtor, if it cannot be discharged without the debtor's personal participation, or if it is indissolubly linked with the debtor's personality in any other way. 2. The obligation shall be terminated with the death of the creditor, if its discharge is intended personally for the creditor, or if the obligation is indissolubly linked with the creditor's personality in any other way.

Article 419. Termination of the Obligation with the Liquidation of the Legal Entity

The obligation shall be terminated with the liquidation of the legal entity (the debtor or the creditor), with the exception of the cases, when the law or the other legal acts impose the discharge of the obligation of the liquidated legal entity upon the other person (by the claims for the compensation of the harm, caused to the life or to the health, etc.).

Subsection 2
THE GENERAL PROVISIONS ON THE CONTRACT

Chapter 27. The Concept and the Terms of the Contract

Article 420. The Concept of the Contract

1. The contract shall be recognized as the agreement, concluded by two or by several persons on the institution, modification or termination of the civil rights and duties.
2. Toward the contracts shall be applied the rules on bilateral and multilateral deals, stipulated by Chapter 9 of the present Code.
3. Toward the obligations, arising from the contract, shall be applied the general provisions on obligations (Articles 307-419), unless otherwise stipulated by the rules of the present Chapter and the rules on the individual kinds of contracts, contained in the present Code.
4. Toward the contracts, concluded by more than two parties, the general provisions on the contract shall be applied, unless this contradicts the multilateral nature of such contracts.

Article 421. The Freedom of the Contract

1. The citizens and the legal entities shall be free to conclude contracts. Compulsion to conclude contracts shall be inadmissible, with the exception of the cases, when the duty to conclude the contract has been stipulated by the present Code, by the law or by a voluntarily assumed obligation.
2. The parties shall have the right to conclude a contract, both stipulated and unstipulated by the law or by the other legal acts.
3. The parties shall have the right to conclude a contract, in which are contained the elements of different contracts, stipulated by the law or by the other legal acts (the mixed contract). Toward the relationships between the parties in the mixed contract shall be applied in the corresponding parts the rules on the contracts, whose elements are contained in the mixed contract, unless otherwise following from the agreement between the parties or from the substance of the mixed contract.
4. The contract terms (provisions) shall be defined at the discretion of the parties, with the exception of the cases, when the content of the corresponding term (provision) has been stipulated by the law or by the other legal acts (Article 422). In the cases, when the contract provision has been stipulated by the norm, applied so far as it has not been otherwise stipulated by the agreement between the parties (the dispositive norm), the parties may by their own agreement exclude its application, or may introduce the provision, distinct from that, which has been stipulated by it. In the absence of such an agreement, the contract provision shall be defined by the dispositive norm.
5. Unless the contract provision has been defined by the parties or by the dispositive norm, the corresponding provisions shall be defined by the customs of the business turnover, applicable to the relationships between the parties.

Article 422. The Contract and the Law

1. The contract shall be obliged to correspond to the rules, obligatory for the parties, which have been laid down by the law and by the other legal acts (the imperative norms), operating at the moment of its conclusion.
2. If after the conclusion of the contract the law has been passed, laying down the rules, obligatory for the parties, which differ from those in operation when the contract was concluded, the provisions of the concluded contract shall stay in force, with the exception of the cases, when the law decrees that its action shall be extended to the relationships that have arisen from the contracts, concluded at an earlier date.

Article 423. The Pecuniary and the Gratuitous Contracts

1. The contract, by which the party shall receive a pay or a different kind of the regress remuneration for the discharge of its duties, shall be a pecuniary one.
2. The contract shall be recognized as gratuitous, if by it one party assumes an obligation to provide something to the other party without receiving from it a pay or another kind of the regress remuneration.
3. The contract shall be supposed to be a pecuniary one, unless otherwise following from the law, from the other legal acts, or from the content or the substance of the contract.

Article 424. The Price

1. The performance of the contract shall be paid by the price, fixed by an agreement between the parties. In the law-stipulated cases, the prices (the tariffs, estimates, rates, etc.) shall be applied, fixed or regulated by the specially authorized state bodies. 2. Change in price after the conclusion of the contract shall be admitted in cases and on the terms, provided for by the contract, law, or in the procedure established by law. 3. In the cases, when the price in the pecuniary contract has not been stipulated and cannot be defined proceeding from the contract terms, the performance of the contract shall be remunerated by the price, which is usually paid under the comparable circumstances for the similar kind of commodities, works or services.

Article 425. The Operation of the Contract

1. The contract shall come in force and shall become obligatory for the parties from the moment of its conclusion.
2. The parties shall have the right to establish that the terms (provisions) of the contract, concluded by them, shall be applied to their relations, which have arisen before the conclusion of the contract.
3. The law or the contract may stipulate that the end of the term of operation of the contract entails the termination of the parties' obligations by the contract. The contract, in which such a term is absent, shall be recognized as operating until the moment, when the parties complete the performance of the obligation, defined in it.
4. The expiry of the term of operation of the contract shall not absolve the parties from the responsibility for its violation.

Article 426. The Public Contract

1. The public contract shall be recognized as a contract, concluded by a commercial organization and establishing its duties by the sale of commodities, by the performance of works and by rendering services, which such an organization shall effect in conformity with the nature of its activity with respect to anybody, who turns to it (in the sphere of the retail trade, the passenger traffic in the public transport vehicles, the communications services, the supply of electric energy, the medical services, the hotel accommodation, etc.). The commercial organization shall have no right to show preference to some persons as compared with the others as concerns the conclusion of a public contract, with the exception of the cases, stipulated by the law and by the other legal acts.
2. The price of commodities, works and services, as well as the other terms of the public contract shall be equal for all the consumers, with the exception of the cases, when the law and the other legal acts admit the granting of privileges for the individual consumer categories.
3. Refusal on the part of the commercial organization to conclude a public contract, if it can provide to the consumer the corresponding commodities and services and to perform for him the corresponding works, shall not be admitted. If the commercial organization ungroundlessly avoids the conclusion of a public contract, the provisions, stipulated by Item 4 of Article 445 of the present Code, shall be applied.
4. In the law-stipulated cases, the Government of the Russian Federation may issue the rules, obligatory for the parties in concluding and performing public contracts (the standard contracts, the provisions, etc.).
5. The terms of the public contract, not corresponding to the requirements, laid down in Items 2 and 4 of the present Article, shall be insignificant.

Article 427. The Model Contract Rules

1. It may be stipulated in the contract that its individual terms are defined by the model terms, elaborated for the corresponding type of the contracts and published in the press.
2. In the case, when the contract contains no reference to the model terms, such model terms shall be applied toward the relationships between the parties as the customs of the business turnover, if they comply with the requirements, laid down by Article 5 and by Item 5, Article 421 of the present Code.
3. The model terms may be exposed in the form of a model contract or of another document, containing these terms.

Article 428. The Contract of Affiliation

1. The contract of affiliation shall be recognized as the contract, whose terms have been defined by one of the parties in the official lists or in the other standard forms and could have been accepted by the other party only by way of its joining the offered contract as a whole.
2. The party, which has joined the contract, shall have the right to demand that the contract be dissolved or amended, if the contract of affiliation, while not contradicting the law and the other legal acts, deprives this party of the rights, which are usually granted by the contracts of the given kind, if it excludes or limits the responsibility of the other party for the violation of the obligations or contains the other terms, clearly onerous for the affiliated party, which it would have rejected, proceeding from its own reasonably interpreted interests, could it have taken part in defining the contract terms.
3. In the face of the circumstances, stipulated in Item 2 of the present Article, the demand about the dissolution or the amendment of the contract, put forward by the party, which has joined the contract in connection with the performance of its business activity, shall not be liable to satisfaction, if the affiliated party has known, or should have known, on what terms it was concluding the contract.

Article 429. The Preliminary Contract

1. By the preliminary contract, the parties shall assume an obligation to conclude in the future a contract on the transfer of the property, on the performance of works or on rendering services (the basic contract) on the terms, stipulated by the preliminary contract.
2. The preliminary contract shall be concluded in the form, established for the basic contract, and if the form of the basic contract has not been established, in written form. The non-observance of the rules on the form of the preliminary contract shall entail its insignificance.
3. The preliminary contract shall contain the terms, making it possible to identify the object, and also the other essential terms of the basic contract.
4. In the preliminary contract shall be pointed out the term, within which the parties are obliged to conclude the basic contract. If such term has not been defined in the preliminary contract, the basic contract shall be subject to conclusion in the course of one year from the moment of concluding the preliminary contract.
5. In the cases, when the party, which has concluded the preliminary contract, is avoiding the conclusion of the basic contract, shall be applied the provisions, stipulated by Item 4, Article 445 of the present Code.
6. The obligations, stipulated by the preliminary contract, shall be terminated, if before the expiry of the term, within which the parties have been obliged to conclude the basic contract, it is not concluded, or if one of the parties does not forward to the other party an offer to conclude this contract.

Article 430. The Contract in Favour of the Third Person

1. The contract in favour of the third person shall be recognized as a contract, in which the parties have laid down that the debtor shall be obliged to discharge the obligation not to the creditor, but to the third person, who is, or is not mentioned in the contract and who shall have the right to claim from the debtor that he discharge the obligation in his favour. 2. Unless otherwise stipulated by the law, by the other legal acts or by the contract, from the moment of the third person expressing to the debtor his intention to avail himself of his right by the contract, the parties shall not have the right to dissolve or to amend the contract, concluded by them, without the consent of the third person. 3. The debtor by the contract shall have the right to put forward the objections against the claims of the third person, which he could have put forward against the creditor. 4. In the case, when the third person has renounced the right, granted to him by the contract, the creditor may avail himself of this right, unless this contradicts the law, the other legal acts or the contract.

Article 431. The Interpretation of the Contract

While interpreting the terms of the contract, the court shall take into account the literal meaning of the words and expressions, contained in it. The literal meaning of the terms of the contract in case of its being vague shall be identified by way of comparison with the other terms and with the meaning of the contract as a whole. If the rules, contained in the first part of the present Article, do not make it possible to identify the content of the contract, the actual common will of the parties shall be found out with account for the purpose of the contract. All the corresponding circumstances, including the negotiations and the correspondence, preceding the conclusion of the contract, the habitual practices in the relationships between the parties, the customs of the business turnover and the subsequent behaviour of the parties shall be taken into account.

Chapter 28. The Conclusion of the Contract

Article 432. The Basic Provisions on the Conclusion of a Contract

1. The contract shall be regarded as concluded, if an agreement has been achieved between the parties on all its essential terms, in the form proper for the similar kind of contracts. As essential shall be recognized the terms, dealing with the object of the contract, the terms, defined as essential or indispensable for the given kind of contracts in the law or in the other legal acts, and also all the terms, about which, by the statement of one of the parties, an accord shall be reached. 2. The contract shall be concluded by way of forwarding the offer (the proposal to conclude the contract) by one of the parties and of its acceptance (the acceptance of the offer) by the other party.

Article 433. The Moment of the Conclusion of the Contract

1. The contract shall be recognized as concluded at the moment, when the person, who has forwarded the offer, has obtained its acceptance. 2. If in conformity with the law, the transfer of the property is also required for the conclusion of the contract, it shall be regarded as concluded from the moment of the transfer of the corresponding property (Article 224). 3. The contract, subject to the state registration, shall be regarded as concluded from the moment of its registration, unless otherwise stipulated by the law.

Article 434. The Form of the Contract

1. The contract may be concluded in any form, stipulated for making the deals, unless the law stipulates a definite form for the given kind of contracts. If the parties have agreed to conclude the contract in a definite form, it shall be regarded as concluded after the agreed form has been rendered to it, even if the law does not require such form for the given kind of contracts. 2. The contract in written form shall be concluded by compiling one document, signed by the parties, and also by way of exchanging the documents by mail, telegraph, teletype, telephone, by the electronic or any other type of the means of communication, which makes it possible to establish for certain that the document comes from the party by the contract. 3. The written form of the contract shall be regarded as observed, if the written offer to conclude the contract has been accepted in conformity with the order, stipulated by Item 3, Article 438 of the present Code.

Article 435. The Offer

1. The offer shall be recognized as the proposal, addressed to one or to several concrete persons, which is sufficiently comprehensive and which expresses the intention of the person, who has made the proposal, to regard himself as having concluded the contract with the addressee, who will accept the proposal. The offer shall contain the essential terms of the contract. 2. The offer shall commit the person, who has forwarded it, from the moment of its receipt by the addressee. If the notification about the recall of the offer comes in before, or simultaneously with the offer, the offer shall be regarded as not received.

Article 436. The Irrevocability of the Offer

The offer, received by the addressee, shall not be revoked in the course of the term, fixed for its acceptance, unless otherwise stipulated in the offer itself or follows from the substance of the proposal, or from the setting, in which it has been made.

Article 437. The Invitation to Make the Offers. The Public Offer

1. The advertisements and the other proposals, addressed to an indefinite circle of persons, shall be regarded as an invitation to make the offers, unless directly pointed out otherwise in the proposal. 2. The proposal, containing all the essential terms of the contract, in which is seen the will of the person, who is making the proposal, to conclude the contract on the terms, indicated in the proposal, with any responding person, shall be recognized as an offer (the public offer).

Article 438. The Acceptance

1. The acceptance shall be recognized as the response of the person, to whom the offer has been addressed, about its being accepted. The acceptance shall be full and unconditional.
2. The silence shall not be regarded as the acceptance, unless otherwise following from the law, from the custom of the business turnover, or from the former business relations between the parties.
3. The performance by the person, who has received an offer, of the actions, involved in complying with the terms of the contract, pointed out in the offer (the dispatch of commodities, the rendering of services, the performance of works, the payment of the corresponding amount of money, etc.), shall be regarded as the acceptance, unless otherwise stipulated by the law or by the other legal acts, or pointed out in the offer.

Article 439. Recall of the Offer

If the notification about the recall of the offer has come to the person, who has forwarded the offer, before the acceptance or simultaneously with it, the acceptance shall be regarded as not obtained.

Article 440. Conclusion of the Contract on the Ground of the Offer, Fixing the Term of Acceptance

When the term of acceptance has been fixed in the offer, the contract shall be regarded as concluded, if the acceptance has been obtained by the person, who has forwarded the offer, within the term, stipulated in it.

Article 441. Conclusion of the Contract on the Ground of the Offer, Not Fixing the Term of Acceptance

1. When in the written offer no term of acceptance has been stipulated, the contract shall be regarded as concluded, if the acceptance has been obtained by the person, who has forwarded the offer, before the expiry of the term, fixed by the law or by the other legal acts, and if such term has not been fixed - in the course of the normally required time. 2. When the offer has been made orally and no term of acceptance has been indicated, the contract shall be regarded as concluded, if the other party immediately declared its acceptance.

Article 442. The Acceptance, Obtained with a Delay

In the cases, when the duly forwarded notification about the acceptance is received with a delay, the acceptance shall not be regarded as belated, unless the party, which has forwarded the offer, immediately notifies the other party about the arrival of the acceptance with a delay. If the party, which has forwarded the offer, immediately notifies the other party about the obtaining of its acceptance, which has come in with a delay, the contract shall be regarded as concluded.

Article 443. The Acceptance on the Other Terms

The answer, indicating the consent to conclude the contract on the terms other than those indicated in the offer, shall not be regarded as the acceptance. Such an answer shall be recognized as the refusal of the acceptance and at the same time as a new offer.

Article 444. The Place of the Conclusion of the Contract

If no place of its conclusion has been indicated in the contract, it shall be recognized as concluded at the place of residence of the citizen or at the place of location of the legal entity, who (which) has forwarded the offer.

Article 445. The Obligatory Conclusion of the Contract

1. In the cases, when in conformity with the present Code or with the other laws, the conclusion of the contract is obligatory for the party, to which the offer (the draft contract) has been forwarded, this party shall forward to the other party the notification about the acceptance, or about the refusal of the acceptance, or about the acceptance of the offer on different terms (the records on the differences by the draft contract) within 30 days from the date, when the offer was received. The party, which has forwarded the offer and which has received from the party, for which the conclusion of the contract is obligatory, the notification about its acceptance on different terms (the records on the differences by the draft contract), shall have the right to pass the differences, which have arisen during the conclusion of the contract, for consideration to the court within 30 days from the day of receiving such a notification or from the day of the expiry of the term of acceptance. 2. In the cases, when in conformity with the present Code or with the other legal acts, the conclusion of the contract is obligatory for the party, which has forwarded the offer (the draft contract), and when within 30 days the records on the differences by the draft contract are forwarded to it, this party shall be obliged to notify the other party, within 30 days from the receipt of the records on the differences, about the acceptance of the contract in its own version, or about the rejection of the records on the differences. In the case of the records on the differences being rejected, or of the non-receipt of the notification about the results of their examination within the stipulated term, the party, which has forwarded the records of the differences, shall have the right to pass the differences that have arisen during the conclusion of the contract, for consideration to the court. 3. The rules on the term, stipulated by Items 1 and 2 of the present Article, shall be applied, unless the other term has been stipulated by the law or by the other legal acts, or has been agreed upon between the parties. 4. If the party, for which, in conformity with the present Code or with the other laws, the conclusion of the contract is obligatory, avoids its conclusion, the other party shall have the right to turn to the court with a claim for compelling it to conclude the contract. The party, groundlessly avoiding the conclusion of the contract, shall be obliged to recompense to the other party the losses, thus inflicted upon it.

Article 446. The Pre-Contract Disputes

In the cases, when the differences, arising during the conclusion of the contract, are passed for consideration to the court on the ground of Article 445 of the present Code or by an agreement between the parties, the terms of the contract, by which the parties have displayed differences, shall be defined in conformity with the court decision.

Article 447. Conclusion of the Contract by a Tender

1. The contract, unless otherwise following from its substance, shall be concluded by way of holding a tender. In this case, the contract shall be concluded with the person, who has won it.
2. In the capacity of the organizer of the tender shall come out the owner of the thing, or the possessor of the right of ownership, or a specialized organization. The latter shall act on the ground of the contract with the owner of the thing or with the possessor of the right of ownership, and shall come out on their behalf or on its own behalf.
3. In the cases, pointed out in the present Code or in the other law, the contracts on the sale of the thing or of the right of ownership may be concluded only by way of holding a sale.
4. The sale shall be held in the form of an auction or of a tender. The winner of the bidding at an auction shall be recognized as the person, who has offered the highest price, and at the tender - the person, who, as has been concluded by the tender commission, appointed in advance by the organizer of the tender, has offered the best terms. The form of the bidding shall be defined by the owner of the thing on sale or by the possessor of the realized right of ownership, unless otherwise stipulated by the law.
5. The auction and the tender, in which only one customer has participated, shall be recognized as having failed.
6. The rules, stipulated by Articles 448 and 449 of the present Code, shall be applied to the public auctions, held by way of execution of the court ruling, unless otherwise stipulated by the procedural legislation.

Article 448. The Organization and the Order of Holding the Sales

1. The auctions and tenders shall be open and closed. In an open auction and in an open tender anybody may take part. In a closed auction and in a closed tender only the persons, specially invited for this purpose, shall take part.
2. Unless otherwise stipulated by the law, the statement on the holding of the sale shall be made by its organizer not later than 30 days in advance. The statement shall in any case contain information on the time, the place and the form of the sale, on its object and procedure, including that involved in formalizing the participation in the sale, in the way of determining the winner in the bidding, and shall also name the starting price. If the object of the bidding is only the right to conclude a contract, the statement on the forthcoming auction shall contain the indication of the term, granted for this.
3. Unless otherwise stipulated by the law or by the statement on the holding of the sale, the organizer of an open auction, who has made the statement, shall have the right to refuse to hold the auction at any time, but not later than three days before the date of its holding, and in the case of the tender - not later than 30 days before its holding. In the cases, when the organizer of the open sale has refused to hold it with the violation of the fixed term, he shall be obliged to recompense to the participants the actual losses they have suffered. The organizer of the closed auction or of a closed tender shall be obliged to recompense to the invited participants their actual losses, regardless of fact, on what particular date after forwarding to them the notification the refusal to hold it followed.
4. The participants in the sale shall put in an advance in the amount, within the term and in conformity with the order, which have been pointed out in the notification about the holding of the sale. In case it has not taken place, the advance shall be liable to return. The advance shall also be returned to the persons, who, while having taken part in the bidding, have not won it. When concluding the contract with the person, who has won the bidding, the amount of the advance put in by him shall be offset against the discharge of obligations by the concluded contract.
5. The person, who has won the sale, and its organizer shall sign the records on the results of the bidding, which shall possess the power of a contract, on the day of the bidding. The winner of the sale shall lose the advance, put in by him, in case he tries to avoid the signing of the records. The organizer of the sale, who has avoided the signing of the records, shall be obliged to return the advance in the double amount, and also to recompense to the winner of the sale his losses, involved in his taking part in the bidding, in the part, exceeding the amount of the advance. If the object of the sale has been only the right to conclude a contract, such a contract shall be signed by the parties not later than within 20 days, or within another term, pointed out in the notification, after the end of the bidding and the formalization of the records. In case of one of the parties avoiding the signing of the contract, the other party shall have the right to file a claim with the court for a compulsory conclusion of the contract, and also for the compensation of the losses, caused by such an attempt to avoid its conclusion.

Article 449. The Consequences of Violation of the Rules for Holding the Sale

1. The sale, held with the violation of the rules, laid down by the law, may be recognized by the court as invalid upon the claim of the interested persons.
2. The recognizing of the bidding to be invalid shall entail the invalidity of the contract, concluded with the person, who has won it.

Chapter 29. The Amendment and the Cancellation of the Contract

Article 450. The Grounds for the Amendment and the Cancellation of the Contract

1. The amendment and the cancellation of the contract shall be possible only by an agreement between the parties, unless otherwise stipulated by the present Code, by the other legal acts or by the contract.
2. Upon the demand of one of the parties, the contract may be amended or cancelled by the court decision only:
1) in case of an essential violation of the contract by the other party;
2) in the other cases, stipulated by the present Code, by the other legal acts or by the contract. As an essential violation shall be recognized such violation of the contract by one of the parties, which entails for the other party the losses, to a considerable extent depriving it of what it could have counted upon when concluding the contract.
3. In case of the unilateral refusal to discharge the contract in full or in part, when such refusal is admitted by the law or by the agreement between the parties, the contract shall be correspondingly regarded as cancelled or as amended.

Article 451. The Amendment and the Cancellation of the Contract Because of an Essential Change of Circumstances

1. An essential change of the circumstances, from which the parties have proceeded when concluding the contract, shall be the ground for its amendment or cancellation, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract or following from its substance. The change of the circumstances shall be recognized as essential, if they have changed to such an extent that in case the parties could have wisely envisaged it, the contract would not have been concluded by them or would have been concluded on the essentially different terms.
2. If the parties have failed to reach an agreement on bringing the contract into correspondence with the essentially changed circumstances or on its cancellation, the contract may be cancelled, and on the grounds, stipulated by Item 4 of the present Article, it may be amended by the court upon the claim of the interested party in the face of the simultaneous existence of the following conditions:
1) at the moment of concluding the contract, the parties have proceeded from the fact that no such change of the circumstances will take place;
2) the change of the circumstances has been called forth by the causes, which the interested party could not overcome after they have arisen, while displaying the degree of care and circumspection, which have been expected from it by the nature of the contract and by the terms of the circulation;
3) the execution of the contract without amending its provisions would so much upset the balance of the property interests of the parties, corresponding to the contract, and would entail such a loss for the interested party that it would have been to a considerable extent deprived of what it could have counted upon when concluding the contract;
4) neither from the customs of the business turnover, nor from the substance of the contract does it follow that the risk, involved in the change of the circumstances, shall be borne by the interested party.
3. In case of the cancellation of the contract because of the essentially changed circumstances, the court shall, upon the claim of any one of the parties, define the consequences of the cancellation of the contract, proceeding from the need to justly distribute the expenses, borne by them in connection with the execution of this contract, between the parties.
4. The amendment of the contract in connection with an essential change of the circumstances shall be admitted by the court decision in extraordinary cases, when the cancellation of the contract contradicts the public interests, or if it entails the losses for the parties, considerably exceeding the expenses, necessary for the execution of the contract on the terms, amended by the court.

Article 452. The Procedure for the Amendment and the Cancellation of the Contract

1. The agreement on the amendment or on the cancellation of the contract shall be legalized in the same form as the contract itself, unless otherwise following from the law, from the other legal acts, from the contract or from the customs of the business turnover.
2. The claim for the amendment or for the cancellation of the contract may be filed by the party with the court only after it has received the refusal from the other party in response to its proposal to amend or to cancel the contract, or in case of its non-receipt of any response within the term, indicated in the proposal or fixed by the law or by the contract, and in the absence thereof - within a 30-day term.

Article 453. The Consequences of the Amendment and of the Cancellation of the Contract

1. In case of the amendment of the contract, the parties' obligations shall be preserved in the amended form.
2. In case of the cancellation of the contract, the parties' obligations shall be terminated.
3. In case of the amendment or of the cancellation of the contract, the obligations shall be regarded as amended or as terminated from the moment of the parties' concluding an agreement on the amendment or on the cancellation of the contract, unless otherwise following from the agreement or from the nature of the contract's amendment, and in case of the amendment or the cancellation of the contract by the court decision - from the moment of the enforcement of the court ruling on the amendment or on the cancellation of the contract.
4. The parties shall have no right to claim the return of what has been discharged by them by their obligations up to the moment of the amendment or the cancellation of the contract, unless otherwise stipulated by the law or by the agreement between the parties.
5. If an essential violation of the contract by one of the parties has served as the ground for the amendment or for the cancellation of the contract, the other party shall have the right to claim the compensation of the losses, inflicted upon it by the amendment or by the cancellation of the contract.


Part II
Section IV
Chapter 30
Purchase and Sale (Art. 454 - 566)
   _ 1.
General Provisions on Purchase and Sale
   _ 2.
Retail Sale
   _ 3.
Delivery of Goods
   _ 4.
Delivery of Goods for State Needs
   _ 5.
Sale of Agricultural Produce
   _ 6.
Power Supply
   _ 7.
The Sale of Real Estate
   _ 8.
The Sale of Enterprises
Chapter 31
Barter
Chapter 32
Donation
Chapter 33
Rent and Life Maintenance with Dependence
_ 1.
General Provisions on Rent and Life Maintenance with Dependence
_ 2.
Permanent Rent
_ 3.
Life Annuity
_ 4.
Life Maintenance with Dependency
Chapter 34
Lease
_ 1.
General Provisions on Lease
_ 2.
Hire
_ 3.
Lease of Transport Vehicles
__ 1.
Lease of a Transport Vehicle with the Provision of Services for Driving and Technical Operation
__ 2.
The Lease of a Transport Vehicle Without Driving and Technical Operation Services
_ 4.
The Lease of Buildings and Structures
_ 5.
The Lease of Enterprises
_ 6.
Financial Lease (Leasing)
Chapter 35
The Renting of Living Accommodation
Chapter 36
Gratuitous Use
Chapter 37
Contract of Hiring Work
_ 1.
General Provisions on Contract of Hiring Work
_ 2.
The Domestic Contract
_ 3.
The Building Contract
_ 4.
Contract for Design and Survey Works
_ 5.
Contract Works for State Needs
Chapter 38
Performance of Research and Development and Technological Works
Chapter 39
The Repayable Rendering of Services
Chapter 40
Carriage
Chapter 41
Transport Forwarding
Chapter 42
Loans and Credits
_ 1.
Loans
_ 2.
Credit
_ 3.
Credit Against Goods and Commercial Credit
Chapter 43
Financing Against the Assignment of a Monetary Claim
Chapter 44
Bank Deposit
Chapter 45
Bank Account
Chapter 46
Payments
_ 1.
General Provisions on Payments
_ 2.
Payments by Written Order
_ 3.
Payments by Letters of Credit
_ 4.
Payments for Collection
_ 5.
Payments by Cheques
Chapter 47
Storage
_ 1.
General Provisions on Storage
_ 2.
Warehousing
_ 3.
Special Kinds of Storage
Chapter 48
Insurance
Chapter 49
Agency
Chapter 50
Actions in the Interest of Other People Without Commission
Chapter 51
Commission
Chapter 52
Agency Service
Chapter 53
Trust of Estate
Chapter 54
The Commercial Concession
Chapter 55
Particular Partnership
Chapter 56
Public Promise of a Reward
Chapter 57
Public Competition
Chapter 58
Gaming and Betting
Chapter 59
Liabilities for Damage
_ 1.
General Provisions in the Redress of Injury
_ 2.
The Redress of the Injury Inflicted on the Life or Health of an Individual
_ 3.
The Redress of the Injury Inflicted by Defects in Goods, Works or Services
_ 4.
Compensation for the Moral Damage
Chapter 60
Obligations Due to Unjust Enrichment

PART II

SECTION IV
PARTICULAR KINDS OF OBLIGATIONS

Chapter 30. Purchase and Sale

_ 1. General Provisions on Purchase and Sale

Article 454. Contract of Sale

1. By contract of sale one party (the seller) shall undertake to convey a thing (commodity) to the ownership of the other party (buyer), while the buyer shall undertake to accept this commodity and pay a definite amount of money (price) therefor. 2. Provisions stipulated by this paragraph shall be applied to the purchase and sale of securities and currency values unless the law establishes special rules for their purchase and sale. 3. In cases provided for by this Code or any other law the specific aspects of purchase and sale of particular goods shall be determined by laws and other legal acts. 4. Provisions stipulated by this paragraph shall be applicable to the sale of property rights, unless the contrary follows from the content or nature of these rights. 5. Provisions specified by this paragraph shall be applicable to particular kinds of the contract of sale (retail sale, delivery of goods, delivery of goods for state needs, contracting, power supply, sale of real estate, sale of an enterprise), unless the contrary is provided for by the rules of this Code for these kinds of contracts. Article 455. The Condition of the Contract about Goods 1. Any things may be goods under the contract of sale due to the observance of the rules envisaged by Article 129 of this Code. 2. A contract may be concluded for the sale of goods to be on hand by the seller at the time of its conclusion, and also of goods which will be created or acquired by the seller in the future, unless otherwise stipulated by law or follows from the nature of goods. 3. The condition of the contract of sale shall be deemed to be agreed upon, if the contract makes it possible to determine the name and quantity of goods. Article 456. The Duties of the Seller for the Transfer of Goods 1. The seller shall be obliged to transfer to the buyer goods provided for by the contract of sale. 2. Unless otherwise stipulated by the contract of sale, the seller shall be obliged to transfer together with the thing its accessories, and also documents related to it (technical certificate, quality certificate, operations instructions, etc.), envisaged by law, other legal acts or contracts. Article 457. The Term of the Execution of the Duty to Transfer Goods 1. The term of the execution of the seller's duty to turn over goods to the buyer shall be determined by the contract of sale, and if the contract does not allow to determine this term, the term of the execution of this duty of the seller shall be determined by the rules stipulated by Article 314 of this Code. 2. The contract of sale shall be deemed to be concluded with the proviso of its performance by the strictly fixed date, if it follows succinctly from the contract that in case of breaking the term of its execution the buyer loses his interest in the contract. The seller shall have the right to perform such contract before the onset or after the expiry of the term fixed by it only with the buyer's consent. Article 458. The Time of the Discharge of the Seller's Duty to Hand over Goods 1. Unless otherwise stipulated by the contract of sale, the duty of the seller to hand over goods to the buyer shall be deemed to be exercised at the time of: the delivery of goods to the buyer or the person indicated by him, if the contract provides for the seller's duty to deliver goods; the placement of goods at the disposal of the buyer, if goods should be passed to the buyer or the person indicated by him in the place of location of goods. Goods shall be deemed to be placed at the buyer's disposal, when by the time specified by the contract goods are ready for the transfer in the proper place and the buyer is aware of the readiness of goods for such transfer in accordance with the contract's conditions. Goods shall not be deemed to be ready for transfer, if they have not been identified for the contract's purposes by marking or in any other way. 2. In cases when the contract of sale does not imply the seller's duty to deliver goods or turn them over to the buyer at the place of their location, the duty of the seller to turn them over the buyer shall be deemed to be performed at the time of handing over goods to the carrier or the communication organization for the delivery to the buyer, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract. Article 459. The Transfer of the Risk of Accidental Destruction of Goods 1. Unless otherwise stipulated by the contract of sale, the risk of accidental destruction of goods or accidental damage of goods shall be transferred to the buyer since the time when in keeping with law or the contract the seller is deemed to have performed his duty of handing over goods to the buyer. 2. The risk of accidental destruction of, or accidental damage to, goods sold when they are in transit shall be transferred to the buyer since the time of concluding the contract of sale, unless otherwise stipulated by such contract or the customs of business turnover. The condition of the contract to the effect that the risk of accidental destruction of, or accidental damage to, goods is transferred to the buyer since the time of the delivery of goods to the first carrier may be recognized by a court of law as invalid on the demand of the buyer, if at the time of concluding the contract the seller knew or should known that the goods had been lost or damaged and failed to inform the buyer about this. Article 460. The Duty of the Seller to Hand Over Goods Free from the Rights of Third Persons 1. The seller shall be obliged to give to the buyer goods free from any rights of third persons with the exception of the case when the buyer has agreed to accept goods encumbered with the rights of third persons. The seller's failure to discharge this duty shall entitle the buyer to demand a reduction of the price of goods or to cancel the contract of sale, if it is not proved that the buyer knew or should have known about the rights of third persons to these goods. 2. The rules, provided for by Item 1 of this Article, shall be applicable in that case as well when to the goods by the time of their transfer there had been claims from third persons, about which the seller had information if these claims were subsequently recognized as lawful in the established order. Article 461. The Liability of the Seller in Case of the Withdrawal of Goods from the Buyer 1. If goods are withdrawal from the buyer by third persons on the grounds that arose before the execution of the contract of sale, the seller shall be obliged to compensate the buyer's losses, unless he proves that the buyer knew or should have known about these grounds. 2. The agreement of the parties thereto about the release of the buyer of the liability in case third persons reclaim the acquired goods from the buyer or about its restriction shall be null and void.

Article 462. The Duties of the Buyer and the Seller in Case of Bringing an Action About the Withdrawal of Goods

If a third party brings an action for the withdrawal of goods on the ground that arose before the execution of the contract of sale, the buyer shall be obliged to draw the seller to the participation in the case, whereas the seller shall be obliged to join this case on the side of the buyer. The non-engagement by the buyer of the seller in the participation in the case shall absolve the seller from his liability to the buyer, if the seller proves that by taking part in the case he could prevent the withdrawal of sold goods from the buyer. The seller who was involved by the buyer in the case but who failed to take part in it shall be deprived of the right to prove that the buyer conducted the case incorrectly.

Article 463. The Consequences of the Non-execution of the Duty to Hand Over Goods

1. If the seller refuses to give to the buyer the sold goods, the buyer shall have the right to waive the execution of the contract of sale. 2. If the seller refuses to give an individually definite thing, the buyer shall have the right to lay claims to the seller, provided for by Article 398 of this Code.

Article 464. The Consequences of the Non-execution of the Duty to Pass Accessories and Documents Relating to Goods

If the seller fails to pass or refuses to pass to the buyer accessories or documents relating to goods, which he should give in keeping with law, other legal acts or with the contract of sale (Item 2 of Article 456), the buyer shall have the right to fix the reasonable period of time for their transfer. In case when the accessories and documents relating to goods have not been given by the seller in the said period of time, the buyer shall have the right to waive goods, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract.

Article 465. The Quantity of Goods 1. The quantity if goods subject to the transfer to the buyer shall be provided for by the contract of sale in corresponding units of measurement or in money terms. The condition of the quantity of goods may be agreed upon by fixing in the contract the order of its estimation. 2. If the contract of sale does not make it possible to estimate the quantity of goods subject to transfer, the contract shall not be deemed to be concluded. Article 466. The Consequences of the Breach of the Condition for the Quantity of Goods 1. If the seller has passed to the buyer in breach of the contract of sale the less or quantity of goods than that specified in the contract, the buyer shall have the right to demand the missing quantity of goods or to waive the given goods and the payment for them, but the goods have been paid for, to demand the return of the paid sum of money. 2. If the seller has passed to the buyer goods in the quantity exceeding that specified in the contract of sale, the buyer shall be obliged to inform the seller about this in the procedure, provided for by Item 1 of Article 483 of this Code. If the seller has failed to dispose of the corresponding part of goods within the reasonable period of time, after the receipt of the buyer's information, the buyer shall have the right to accept all the goods, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract. 3. If the buyer accepts goods in the quantity exceeding that indicated in the contract of sale (Item 2 of this Article), the additionally accepted goods shall be paid for at the price specified for the goods accepted in conformity with the contract, unless the agreement between the parties thereto has fixed a different price. Article 467. Assortment of Goods 1. If under the contract of sale goods are subject to transfer in a definite correlation according to kinds, models, size, colour and other properties (assortment), the seller shall be obliged to transfer goods in the assortment agreed upon by the parties thereto. 2. If assortment has not been determined in the contract of sale and the latter has not established the procedure for its definition, but it follows from the substance of the obligation that goods should be transferred to the buyer in assortment on the basis of the buyer's needs which were known to the seller at the time of concluding the contract or to refuse to execute this contract. Article 468. The Consequences of Breaking the Condition of Goods Assortment 1. In case of the transfer of goods, stipulated by the contract of sale, in assortment inconsistent with the contract, the buyer shall have the right to refuse to accept them and pay for them, but if they have been paid for, to demand the return of the paid sum of money. 2. If alongside with goods whose assortment corresponds to the contract of sale the seller has given to the buyer goods with the breach of the assortment condition, the buyer shall have the right: to accept goods fitting with the assortment condition and to refuse to accept the rest of them; to waive all the given goods; to demand that goods which are at variance with the assortment condition should be replaced by goods in the assortment stipulated by the contract; to accept all the given goods. 3. In case of the refusal from the goods whose assortment differs from the condition of the contract of sale or in case of making a claim for the replacement of goods inconsistent with the assortment condition, the buyer shall have the right to refuse to pay for these goods, but if they have been paid for, to demand the refund of the paid sum of money. 4. Goods running at variance with the assortment condition of the contract of sale shall be deemed to be accepted, unless the buyer informs the seller about his refusal to take goods within the reasonable period after their receipt. 5. If the buyer has not refused to accept goods whose assortment runs counter to the contract of sale, he shall be obliged to pay for them at the price agreed upon with the seller. In case where the seller has not taken the necessary measures of adjusting the price within the reasonable period, the buyer shall pay for goods at the price which at the time of concluding a contract under comparable circumstances has been usually charged for similar goods. 6. The rules of this Article shall be applied, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract of sale. Article 469. The Quality of Goods 1. The seller shall be obliged to transfer to the buyer goods whose quality corresponds to the contract of sale. 2. In the absence of quality terms in the contract of sale the seller shall be obliged to hand over to the customs goods suitable for the purposes for which goods of this sort are usually used. If the seller was informed by the buyer about the concrete purposes of the acquisition of goods during the conclusion of the relevant contract, the seller shall be obliged to transfer to the buyer goods suitable for use in conformity with these purposes. 3. In case goods are sold according to sample and/or description the seller shall be obliged to hand over goods which correspond to the sample and/or their description. 4. If by a law or in a procedure established by a law for mandatory requirements for the quality of saleable goods, the seller engaged in business shall be obliged to transfer to the buyer goods which meet these mandatory requirements. Under the agreement between the seller and the buyer the former may hand over to the latter goods meeting the higher requirements for quality as compared with the mandatory requirements stipulated by a law or in a procedure established by a law. Article 470. The Guarantee of the Quality of Goods 1. Goods which the seller is obliged to hand over to the buyer shall correspond to the requirements, stipulated by Article 469 of this Code, at the time of their transfer to the buyer, unless the contract of sale provides for a different time of defining the compliance of goods with these requirements and within the reasonable period goods shall be suitable for the purposes for which goods of this sort are usually used. 2. In case where the contract of sale provides for the submission by the seller of the guarantee of the quality of goods, the seller shall be obliged to transfer to the buyer goods which should meet the requirements, stipulated by Article 469 of this Code, during the time fixed by the contract (guarantee period). 3. The guarantee of the quality of goods shall also extend to all the complementary parts, unless otherwise provided for by the contract of sale. Article 471. The Reckoning of the Guarantee Period 1. The guarantee period shall start to run since the time of transfer of goods to the buyer (Article 457), unless otherwise stipulated by the contract of sale. 2. If the buyer is deprived of the possibility to use goods, for which the contract has provided the guarantee period, due to the circumstances under the control of the seller, the guarantee period shall not run until the removal of relevant circumstances by the seller. Unless otherwise stipulated by the contract of sale, the guarantee period shall be prolonged for the time during which goods could not be used because of the discovered shortcomings, provide the seller is informed about the defects of goods in the order established by Article 483 of this Code. 3. Unless otherwise stipulated by the contract of sale, the warranty period for complementary parts shall be deemed to be equal to the guarantee period for the basic item and shall begin to run simultaneously with the guarantee period for the basic item. 4. A guarantee period shall be established for goods (complementary parts), in which defects (Article 476) have been discovered during the guarantee period. This guarantee period shall be of the same duration that applies to the replaced goods, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract of sale. Article 472. The Serviceable Life of Goods 1. By a law or in a procedure established by a law there may be stipulated the obligation to determine the period of time at the expiration of which the goods are considered unsuitable for use for their regular purpose (period of suitability). 2. Goods for which the serviceable life has been fixed shall be transferred by the seller to the buyer with all allowance for their use by designation before the expiry of the serviceable life, unless otherwise stipulated by the agreement. Article 473. The Reckoning of the Serviceable Life of Goods The serviceable life of goods shall be determined by the period of time, calculated since the day of their manufacture, during which goods are fit for use, or by the date before which goods are fit for use. Article 474. Quality Inspection 1. Quality inspection may be provided for by the law, other legal acts and the mandatory requirements of state standards or by the contract of sale. Procedure for quality inspection shall be introduced by the law, other legal acts, the mandatory requirements of state standards or by the contract. In cases there inspection procedure is established by the law, other legal acts and the mandatory requirements of state standards, the procedure of quality inspection of goods, determined by the contract, shall comply with these requirements. 2. If procedure for quality inspection is not introduced in keeping with Item 1 of this Article, the inspection of the quality of goods shall be carried out in accordance with the customs of the volume of business or with other commonly used terms of the quality inspection of goods subject to transfer under the contract of sale. 3. If the law, other legal acts, the mandatory requirements of state standards or the contract of sale provide for the duty of the seller to inspect the quality of goods to be transferred to the buyer (testing, analysis, inspection, etc.), the seller shall present to the buyer proof of quality inspection. 4. Procedure, and also other terms of the quality inspection of goods, carried out both by the seller and the buyer, shall be the same.

Article 475. The Consequences of the Transfer of Goods of Improper Quality

1. Unless defects of goods were specified by the seller, the buyer to whom substandard goods have been handed over shall have the right to demand from the seller at his option: - a proportionate reduction in the purchase price; - gratuitous removal of defects in goods within the reasonable period of time; - compensation of his expenses incurred in the removal of the defects of goods. 2. If the requirements for the quality of goods have been breached substantially (discovery of irremovable defects, defects which cannot be removed without disproportionate costs or costs of time, recurrent defects or newly emerged defects after their removal, and of other similar shortcomings), the buyer shall have the right to act at his option: to refuse to fulfil the contract of sale and to demand the sum of money paid for the goods; to demand the substitution of proper goods corresponding to the contract for the goods of improper quality. 3. Claims for the removal of defects or for the substitution of goods, referred to in Items 1 and 2 of this Article, may be made by the buyer, unless the contrary follows from the nature of goods or the substance of the obligation. 4. In the event of the improper quality of some part of goods that make up the set (Article 479) the buyer shall have the right to exercise, in respect of this part of goods, the rights, envisaged by Items 1 and 2 of this Article. 5. The rules, provided for by this Article, shall be applicable, unless the present Code or any other law establishes the contrary.

Article 476. Defects of Goods for Which the Seller Is Responsible

1. The seller shall be responsible for the defects of goods, if the buyer proves that they had arisen before they were transferred to him or for the reasons that emerged before this occurrence.
2. The seller shall bear responsibility for the defects of the goods to which he accorded the guarantee of quality, unless he proves that these defects arose after the goods had been handed over the buyer in consequence of the breach by the buyer of the rules of using goods or of their storage, or in consequence of the actions of third persons or force majeure.

Article 477. Time-limits of Discovery of Defects in Transferred Goods

1. Unless otherwise stipulated by the law or the contract of sale, the buyer shall have the right to make claims associated with defects of goods, provided they have been discovered in the time-limits fixed by this Article. 2. If no guarantee period or serviceable life is established for goods claims for defects in goods may be made by the buyer, provided that the defects of goods sold have been discovered in the reasonable period of time, but within two years since the day of transfer of goods to the buyer or within the longer period of time, when it is fixed by the law or the contract of sale. The time-limit for the discovery of shortcomings in goods subject to carriage or dispatch by post shall be reckoned since the day of the delivery of goods to the place of their destination. 3. If a guarantee period has been fixed for goods, the buyer shall have the right to make claims associated with defects of goods upon the discovery of defects during the guarantee period. If a warranty period has been fixed for complementary parts in the contract of sale of lesser duration than for the basic unit, the buyer shall have the right to make claims for the defects in a complementary part upon their discovery during the guarantee period for the basic unit. If a guarantee period is fixed for a complementary part in the contract for longer duration than the guarantee period for the basic unit, the buyer shall have the right to make claims for defects of goods, if defects of the complementary part have been discovered during its guarantee period, regardless of the expiry of the guarantee period for the basic unit. 4. The buyer shall have the right to make claims for the defects of goods with serviceable life, if they have been discovered during their serviceable life. 5. In cases where the guarantee period stipulated by the contract makes up less than two years and defects in goods were discovered by the buyer upon the expiry of the guarantee period, but within two years since the day of the transfer of goods to the buyer, the seller shall bear responsibility, if the buyer proves that the defects of goods arose before they had been handed over to the buyer or for the reasons that emerged before this occurrence. Article 478. Complete Sets of Goods 1. The seller shall be obliged to hand over to the buyer goods corresponding to the terms of the contract of sale on completeness. 2. If the contract of sale has not defined the complete set of goods, the seller shall be obliged to hand over to the buyer goods whose completeness is determined by the customs of the volume of business or by other usually made claims. Article 479. A Set of Goods 1. If the contract of sale provides for the duty of the seller to hand over to the buyer a definite set of goods, the obligation shall be deemed to be fulfilled since the time of the transfer of all goods included in the set. 2. Unless otherwise stipulated by the contract of sale and unless the contrary follows from the substance of the obligation concerned, the seller shall be obliged to transfer at once to the buyer all the goods included in the set. Article 480. The Consequences of the Transfer of Incomplete Sets of Goods 1. If an incomplete set of goods is transferred (Article 478), the buyer shall have the right to demand from the seller at his option: - a proportionate reduction of the purchase price; - the completing of goods within the reasonable period of time. 2. If the seller has failed to fulfil the claims of the buyer for completing goods within the reasonable period of time, the buyer shall have the right at his option: to demand the substitution of complete goods for incomplete goods; to waive the execution of the contract of sale and demand the refund of the paid sum of money. 3. The consequences, envisaged by Items 1 and 2 of this Article, shall also be applied in case of the breach by the seller of his duty to hand over to the buyer a set of goods (Article 479), unless otherwise stipulated by the contract of sale and unless the contrary follows from the substance of the obligation. Article 481. Tare and Packaging 1. Unless otherwise stipulated by the contract of sale and unless the contrary follows from the substance of the obligation, the seller shall be obliged to hand over goods in tare and/or in packaging, except for goods which do not require tare and/or packaging in view of their character. 2. If the contract of sale has not determined the requirements for tare and packaging, goods shall be bagged and/or packaged by the usual method, and in the absence of such method by the method that ensures the safety of goods of such kind under the usual conditions of storage and transportation. 3. If the statutory order provides for mandatory requirements for tare and/or packaging, the seller engaged in business shall be obliged to hand over goods to the buyer in tare and/or in packaging meeting these mandatory requirements. Article 482. The Consequences of the Transfer of Goods Without Tare and/or Packaging or in Improper Tare and/or Packaging 1. In cases where goods subject to bagging and/or packaging are handed over to the buyer without tare and/or packaging, the buyer shall have the right to demand that the seller should bag and/or pack goods or to replace improper tare and/or packaging, unless the contrary follows from the contract, the substance of the obligation or the nature of goods. 2. In cases, provided for by Item 1 of this Article, the buyer shall have the right to make to the seller claims following from the transfer of goods of improper quality (Article 475) instead of the claims, referred to in this Item. Article 483. The Notification of the Seller about the Improper Execution of the Contract of Sale 1. The buyer shall be obliged to inform the seller about the breach of the term of the contract of sale on the quantity, assortment, quality, completeness, tare and/or package of goods within the period provided for by the law, other legal acts or the contract, and if such period has not been fixed, within the reasonable period after the breach of the corresponding term of the contract should have been discovered by proceeding from the character and designation of goods. 2. In case of non-fulfilment of the rule, envisaged by Item 1 of this Article, the seller shall have the right to refuse in full or in part from the satisfaction of the claims of the buyer on the transfer to him of the missing quantity of goods, on the replacement of goods that do not meet the terms of the contract of sale, on the quality and assortment of goods, on the removal of defects of goods, on completing goods or on the substitution of complete goods for incomplete goods, on the bagging and/or packing of goods or on the replacement of substandard tare and/or packaging of goods, if he proves that the non-fulfilment of his rule by the buyer has involved the impossibility of satisfying his claims or entails for the seller the incommensurable expenses as compared with those he would have incurred, has he been informed in due time about the breach of the contract. 3. If the seller knew or should known about the fact that the transferred goods did not correspond to the terms of the contract of sale, he shall not have the right to refer to the provisions, stipulated by Items 1 and 2 of this Article. Article 484. The Duty of the Buyer to Accept Goods 1. The buyer shall be obliged to accept goods given to him with the exception of cases where he has the right to demand that goods be replaced or to refuse to fulfil the contract of sale. 2. Unless otherwise stipulated by the law, other legal acts or the contract of sale, the buyer shall be obliged to perform actions which in keeping with the usual claims are needed on his part to ensure the transfer and receipt of relevant goods. 3. In cases where the buyer in contravention of the law, other legal acts or the contract of sale does not accept goods or refuses to accept them, the seller shall have the right to demand that the buyer should accept goods or refuse to fulfil the contract. Article 485. The Price of Goods 1. The buyer shall be obliged to pay for goods at the price, specified by the contract of sale at the price fixed in accordance with Item 3 of Article 424 of this Code unless the contract provides for the price and unless it may be estimated by proceeding from its terms, and also perform actions at his own expense, which in conformity with the law, other legal acts, the contract or the usual requirements are necessary for making payments. 2. When price is set depending on the weight of goods, it shall be estimated according to the net weight, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract of sale. 3. If the contract of sale provides that the price of goods is subject to change depending on the indices stipulating the price of goods (cost price, expenses, etc.), but at the same time does not determine the method of revision of prices, the price shall be estimated by proceeding from the correlation of these indices at the time of concluding the contract and transferring goods. In case the seller delays the fulfilment of the duty of handing over goods, the price shall be estimated from the correlation of these indices at the time of concluding the contract, and the contract does not provide for this, at the time fixed in keeping with Article 314 of this Code. The rules envisaged by this Item shall be applicable, unless otherwise stipulated by this Code, other law, other legal acts or the contract and unless the contrary follows from the substance of the obligation concerned. Article 486. The Payment for Goods 1. The buyer shall be obliged to pay for goods directly before or after the transfer of goods by the seller, unless otherwise stipulated by this Code, other laws, other legal acts or the contract of sale and unless the contrary follows from the substance of the obligation concerned. 2. If the contract of sale does not provide for payments for goods by instalment, the buyer shall be obliged to payment to the seller the full price for the transferred goods. 3. If the buyer does not pay for the goods transferred to him in keeping with the contract of sale, the seller shall have the right to demand the payment for goods and interest payment in accordance with Article 395 of this Code. 4. If the buyer refuses to accept goods and pay for them in contravention of the contract of sale, the seller shall have the right at his option to demand either the payment for goods or to refuse to fulfil the contract. 5. In cases where in keeping with the contract of sale the seller shall be obliged to hand over to the buyer the goods which have not been paid by the buyer and other goods, the seller shall have the right to suspend the transfer of these goods until the time when all the goods handed over earlier are paid in full, unless otherwise stipulated by the law, other legal acts or the contract. Article 487. The Tentative Payment for Goods 1. In cases where the contract of sale provides for the duty of the buyer to pay for goods in full or in part before the transfer by the seller of goods (tentative payment), the buyer shall make payment within the period provided for by the contract, and if such period is not envisaged by the contract, within the period, determined pursuant to Article 314 of this Code. 2. In case of default on the duty by the buyer to pay for goods use shall be made of the rules, envisaged by Article 328 of this Code. 3. If the seller who has received the sum of tentative payment fails to discharge the duty of transferring goods within the fixed period (Article 457), the buyer shall be obliged to demand the transfer of the paid goods or the refund of the sum of the tentative payment for goods which have not been handed over by the seller. 4. If the seller fails to perform the duty of transferring the tentatively paid goods and unless the contrary is stipulated by the contract of sale, interest shall be paid to the amount of the tentative payment pursuant to Article 395 of this Code since the day when under the contract the goods should have been handed over till the day of the transfer of goods to the buyer or the refund to him of the tentatively paid sum of money. The contract may provide for the duty of the seller to pay interest to the amount of the tentative payment since the day of the receipt of this sum from the buyer. Article 488. Payment for Goods Sold on Credit 1. If the contract of sale provides for the payment for goods over a definite period of time after they are handed over to the buyer (sale of goods on credit), the buyer shall effect the payment on due date envisaged by the contract, and if such date is not stipulated by the contract, on due date defined in keeping with Article 314 of this Code. 2. In case of default on the duty by the seller to transfer goods, use shall be made of the rules, provided for by Article 328 of this Code. 3. If the buyer who has received goods does not fulfil the duty of payment for them within the period fixed by contract of sale, the seller shall be obliged to demand payment for he transferred goods or the refund of the goods not paid for. 4. If the buyer fails to fulfil the duty of paying for the transferred goods in the period stipulated by the contract and unless the contrary is specified by this Code or the contract of sale, interest shall be paid to the amount of the overdue sum of money in keeping with Article 395 of this Code from the day when the goods should have been paid for to the day of payment for goods by the buyer. The contract may provide for the duty of the buyer to pay interest to the amount corresponding to the price of goods beginning with the day of the transfer of the goods by the seller. 5. Unless otherwise stipulated by the contract of sale, the goods sold on credit from the time of their transfer to the buyer and to their payment shall be recognized as held in pledge by the seller for the guaranteed execution by the buyer of his duty to make payment for the goods. Article 489. Payment for Goods by Instalment 1. The contract for sale of goods on credit with the proviso on the instalment of date shall be deemed to be concluded, if it indicated the price of goods, the procedure, period and amount of payments alongside with other essential terms of the contract of sale. 2. When the buyer fails to make a regular payment for the goods sold by instalment and transferred to him within the period stipulated by the contract, the seller shall have the right, unless otherwise provided for by the contract, to refuse execute the contract and demand the refund of the sold goods with the exception of cases where the sum of payments received from the buyer exceeds half of the price of the goods. 3. The rules envisaged by Items 2, 4 and 5 of Article 488 of this Code shall be applicable to the contract for sale on credit. Article 490. Insurance of Goods The contract of sale may provide for the duty of the seller or the buyer to insure goods. If the party duty-bound to ensure goods does not effect insurance in keeping with the contract terms, the other party shall have the right to ensure these goods and demand that the duty-bound party reimburse the expenses on insurance or refuse to execute the contract.

Article 491. The Preservation of the Right of Property for the Seller

In cases where the contract of sale provides that the right of property in the goods handed over to the buyer is preserved for the seller before the payment for the goods or the onset of other circumstances, the buyer shall not have the right to alienate the goods or dispose of them in any other way before the transfer of the right of ownership to him, unless otherwise stipulated by the law or the contract or unless the contrary follows from the designation and property of the goods. In cases where the transferred goods are not paid for within the period specified by the contract or where other circumstances emerge under which the right of property passes to the buyer, the seller shall have the right to demand the return of the goods to him, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract.

(Content of Part II)

_ 2. Retail Sale

Article 492. The Contract of Retail Sale

1. Under the contract of retail sale the seller engaged in the business of retail sales shall undertake to hand over to the buyer goods intended for personal, family, home and any other use unrelated with business activity.
2. The contract of retail sale shall be a public agreement (Article 426).
3. The laws on the protection of the consumers' rights and other legal acts, adopted in accordance with them, shall be applicable to the relations covered by the contract of retail sale with the participation of the buyer-individual but not regulated by this Code.

Article 493. The Form of the Contract of Retail Sale

Unless otherwise stipulated by the law or the contract of retail sale, including by the terms of law blanks or other standard forms, to which the buyer joins (Article 428), the contract of retail sale shall be deemed to be concluded in the proper form since the time of the issue by the seller to the buyer of a cash-desk ticket or a sale receipt, or any other document confirming payment for goods. The lack of said documents shall not deprive the buyer of the possibility of referring to testimony by witnesses in corroboration of the conclusion of the contract and its terms and conditions.

Article 494. The Public Offer of Goods

1. The offer of goods in advertisement, merchandise catalogues and descriptions of goods, referred to people at large, shall be recognized as a public offer (Item 2 of Article 437), if it contain all the essential terms and conditions of the retail sale contract. 2. The putting up of goods in places of sales (on counters, in windows, etc.), the demonstration of other samples or the presentation of information about goods sold (descriptions, catalogues, photographs of goods, etc.) in places of sales shall be recognized as a public offer, regardless of the fact whether the price or other essential terms and conditions of the retail sale contract, except for the case when the seller has clearly determined that relevant goods are not intended for sale. Article 495. The Presentation of Information about Goods to the Buyer 1. The seller shall be obliged to present to the buyer the requisite and trustworthy information about goods offered for sale, which corresponds to the requirements, established by the law, other legal acts and usually made in retail sale, for the substance and methods of presenting such information. 2. The buyer shall have the right, before the conclusion of a contract of retail sale, to inspect goods, demand the check-up of their properties or their demonstration, unless this is excluded due to the nature of goods and contradict the rules accepted in retail sale. 3. Unless the buyer is given the possibility of receiving forthwith in the place of sale information about goods, referred to in Items 1 and 2 of this Article, he shall be entitled to demand from the seller the compensation for the losses caused by the unwarranted evasion from the conclusion of the contract of retail sale (Item 4 of Article 445), and if the contract has been concluded, to refuse within the reasonable period of time from the execution of the contract, to demand the refund of the paid sum of money and the compensation for other losses. 4. The seller who has not offered to the buyer the possibility of receiving relevant information about goods shall also bear liability for the defects of goods which arose after their transfer to the buyer, if the proves that they had arisen in the absence of such information. Article 496. The Sale of Goods with the Proviso That the Buyer Accepts Them Within the Fixed Period of Time The contract of retail sale may be concluded with the proviso that the buyer accepts goods within the fixed period of time, fixed by the contract, during which these goods may not be sold to another buyer. Unless otherwise stipulated by the contract, the failure of the buyer to appear or the non-commission of other necessary actions for the acceptance of goods in the period of time fixed by the contract may be regarded by the seller as a ground for the refusal of the buyer to fulfil the contract. The seller's additional expenses on the secured transfer of goods to the buyer in the period of time fixed by the contract shall be included in the price of goods, unless otherwise stipulated by the law, other legal acts or the contract. Article 497. The Sale of Goods by Sample 1. A contract of retail sale may be concluded on the basis of the familiarization of the buyer with the sample of goods (its description, the merchandise catalogue, etc.) offered by the seller. 2. Unless otherwise stipulated by the law, other legal acts or the contract, the contract of retail sale by sample shall be deemed to be fulfilled since the time of the delivery of goods to the place indicated in the contract, but if the place of the transfer of goods has not been determined by the contract, since the time of the delivery of goods to the buyer in the place of residence of an individual or the place of location of a legal entity. 3. Before the transfer of goods the buyer shall have the right to refuse to fulfil the contract of retail sale, provided that the seller's necessary expenses incurred on the commission of actions for the fulfilment of the contract are compensated. Article 498. The Sale of Goods with the Use of Vending Machines 1. In cases where goods are sold with the use of vending machines, the owner of these machines shall be obliged to bring to the notice of buyers information about the seller by putting up on the machine the data on the name (firm's name) of the seller, the place of his location, the conditions of his work, and also on the actions to be committed by the buyer for the receipt of goods or by presenting to the buyer such data by any other method. 2. The contract of retail sale with the use of vending machines shall be deemed to be concluded since the time of the commission by the buyer of the actions necessary for the receipt of goods. 3. If paid goods are not handed over to the buyer, the seller shall be obliged, on the demand of the buyer, forthwith to hand over goods to him or to return the sum of money paid by him. 4. In cases where the vending machine is used for change, the acquisition of currency notes, the rules for retail sale shall be applied, unless the contrary follows from the substance of the obligation concerned.

Article 499. The Sale of Goods with the Proviso of Their Delivery to the Buyer

1. If the contract of retail sale has been concluded with the proviso of the delivery of goods to the buyer, the seller shall be obliged to deliver goods to the place indicated by the buyer within the period of time, fixed by the contract, and if the place of delivery of goods has not been indicated by the buyer, goods shall be delivered to the place of residence of the buying individual or the place of location of the buying legal entity. 2. The contract of retail sale shall be deemed to be executed since the time goods have been handed over to the buyer, and in the absence of the latter, to any other person who has produced the receipt or any other document testifying to the conclusion of the contract or to the completion of the delivery of goods, unless otherwise stipulated by the law, other legal acts or the contract and unless the contrary follows from the substance of the obligation concerned. 3. If the contract fails to fix the time of delivery of goods for handing over to the buyer, goods shall be delivered within the reasonable period of time after the receipt of the buyer's claim.

Article 500. The Price and Payment for Goods

1. The buyer shall be obliged to pay for goods at the price quoted by the seller at the time of concluding the retail sale contract, unless otherwise stipulated by the law or other legal acts or unless follow from the substance of the obligation concerned. 2. If the retail sale contract provides for the tentative payment for goods (Article 487), the non-payment by the buyer of goods in the period of time foxed by the contract shall be deemed to be the buyer's refusal to fulfil the contract, unless otherwise stipulated by the agreement of the parties thereto. 3. The rule envisaged by the first paragraph of Item 4 of Article 488 of this Code shall not be applied to the contracts of retail sale on credit, including to those with the proviso of payment by the buyer for goods by instalment. The buyer shall have the right to pay for goods at any time within the contractual period of instalment of date.

Article 501. The Contract of Hire and Sale

Under the contract the buyer shall be a hirer (leaseholder) of goods given to him (contract of hire and sale) prior to the transfer of ownership of goods to the buyer (Article 491). Unless otherwise stipulated by the contract, the buyer shall become the owner of goods since the time of payment for goods.

Article 502. Exchange of Goods

1. The buyer shall have the right, during 14 days since the time of the transfer of non-food products to him, if no longer period is declared by the seller, to exchange the bought products in the place of purchase and in other places, announced by the seller, for similar products of a different size, form, clearance, style, colour or complete set by making the necessary resettlement with the seller if there is a difference in price. If the seller has no goods at his disposal needed for exchange, the buyer shall have the right to return to the seller the acquired goods and receive the sum of money paid for them. The demand of the buyer for exchange or the return of goods shall be subject to satisfaction, unless goods have been in use, retained their consumer properties and there is evidence that they have been bought from the given seller. 2. The list of goods which are not subject to exchange or return according to the grounds, referred to in this Article, shall be determined in the order prescribed by the law or other legal acts. Article 503. The Right of the Buyer in Case of Sale to Him of Goods of Improper Quality 1. The buyer to whom goods of improper quality are sold, if its defects have not been specified by the seller, shall have the right to demand at his option: the replacement of substandard goods with goods of proper quality; appropriate reduction in the purchase price; compensation for the expenses incurred in the removal of defects of goods. The buyer shall have the right to demand the replacement of hi-tech or expensive goods in case of the substantial breach of requirements for their quality (Item 2 of Article 475). 2. In case of the discovery of defects of goods whose properties make it possible to remove them (food products, household chemical goods, etc.) the buyer shall have the right to replace such goods by goods of proper quality or a proportionate reduction in the purchase price. 3. In place of producing requirements, referred to in Items 1 and 2 of his Article the buyer shall have the right to refuse to execute the contract of retail sale and demand the return of the sum of money paid for goods. In this case the buyer shall return the received goods of improper quality on the demand of the seller and at his expense. In case of the return by the buyer of the sum of money paid for goods the seller shall have no right to withdraw from it the sum of money for which the value of goods fell due to the full or partial use of goods, the loss of vendibility or other similar circumstances. Article 504. Compensation for the Difference in Price When Goods Are Replaced, the Purchase Price Is Reduced and Goods of Improper Quality Are Returned 1. When substandard goods are replaced by goods of proper quality that correspond to the retail sale contract, the seller shall have no right to demand compensation for the difference between the price of goods specified by the contract and the price of goods existing at the time of the substitution of goods or of the delivery by the court of its decision on the replacement of goods. 2. In case of replacement of substandard goods by similar goods of proper quality but with different size, style, sort or other distinctive features, the difference between the price of the replaceable goods at the time of substitution and the price of goods handed over in place of substandard goods shall be subject to compensation. If the demand of the buyer has not been satisfied by the seller, the price of replaceable goods and the price of goods handed over in place of them shall be fixed at the time of the delivery by the court of its decision on the substitution of goods. 3. If a demand is made on an adequate reduction in the purchase price of goods, it is necessary to take into account the price of goods at the time of making a demand on their price reduction, and if the buyer's demand has not been satisfied of one's own accord, at the time of the delivery by the court of its decision on the proportionate reduction of the price. 4. If substandard goods are returned to the seller, the buyer shall have the right to demand compensation for the difference between the price of goods fixed by the retail sale contract and the price of appropriate goods at the time of the voluntary satisfaction of his demand, and if this demand has not been satisfied of his own accord, at the time of the delivery by the court of its decision.

Article 505. The Liability of the Seller and the Fulfillment of the Obligation in Kind

In case of default on the seller's obligation under the contract of retail sale, the compensation of losses and the payment of a penalty shall not absolve the seller from the obligation in kind.

(Content of Part II)

_ 3. Delivery of Goods

Article 506. Contract for Delivery

Under the contract for delivery the supplier-seller engaged in business shall undertake to transfer to the buyer goods produced or purchased by him within the fixed period or periods of time for use in business or for other purposes unrelated to personal, family, home or any other use.

Article 507. Settlement of Disagreements During the Conclusion of the Contract for Delivery

1. When during the conclusion of a contract for delivery disagreements arose between the parties over particular terms and conditions of the contract, the party which has offered to conclude the contract and received from the other party the proposal on the adjustment of these terms and conditions shall, during 30 days since the day of receipt of this proposal, unless a different date is fixed by law and agreed upon between the parties, take measures on the coordination of the relevant terms and conditions of the contract or notify in writing the other party about the refusal to conclude it. 2. The party which has received the proposal under the corresponding terms and conditions of the contract but has not taken measures to coordinate the terms and conditions of the contract for delivery and has not notified the other party about the refusal to conclude the contract on due date, provided for by Item 1 of this Article, shall be obliged to compensate the losses caused by the evasion from the coordination of the terms and conditions of the contract.

Article 508. Periods of Delivery of Goods

1. In case where the parties provide for the delivery of goods during the validity term of the contract for delivery by individual consignments and where the periods of delivery of individual batches (periods of delivery) have not be defined, goods shall be delivered by even shipments monthly, unless the contrary follows from the law, other legal acts, the substance of obligations and the customs of business turnover. 2. The contract for delivery may establish a schedule of shipments of goods (by decade, day, hour, etc.) in addition to the definition of periods of delivery of goods. 3. Prior delivery of goods may be made with the consent of the buyer. Goods supplied short of the term and accepted by the buyer shall be counted towards the quantity of goods subject to delivery in the next period.

Article 509. The Procedure for Delivery of Goods

1. Goods shall be delivered by the supplier by means of shipment (transfer) of goods to the buyer who is a party to the contract for delivery or to the person indicated in the contract as a consignee. 2. In case where the contract for delivery provides for the right of the buyer to give to the supplier directions on the shipment (transfer) of goods to consignees (shipment warrants), goods shall be shipped (transferred) by the supplier to the consignees, referred to in the shipment warrant. The consent of the shipment warrant and the date of its sending by the buyer to the supplier shall be determined by the contract. If the contract does not provide the time of sending a shipment warrant, the latter shall be sent to the supplier within 30 days before the onset of the period of delivery. 3. The non-submission of a shipment warrant by the buyer within the fixed period of time shall entitle the supplier either to renounce the execution of the contract for delivery or to demand that the buyer pay for goods. Moreover, the supplier shall have the right to claim damages caused in connection with the non-submission of the shipment warrant. Article 510. Delivery of Goods 1. Delivery of goods shall be made by the supplier by means of their shipment by transport vehicles, provided for by the contract for delivery and on the contractual terms and conditions. In cases where the contract fails to determine which type of transportation facility and on which conditions goods are to be delivered, the right of choosing the type of transportation facility or of defining the conditions of the delivery of goods shall belong to the supplier, unless the contrary follows from the law, other legal acts and the substance of the obligation concerned or the customs of business turnover. 2. The contract for delivery may provide for the receipt of goods by the buyer (consignee) in the place of location of the supplier (sampling of goods). If the term of sample is not provided by the contract, the sampling of goods shall be carried out by the buyer (consignee) within the reasonable period of time after the receipt of the supplier's notification about the readiness of goods. Article 511. The Replenishment of Short Delivery of Goods 1. The supplier who has a shortage of delivery of goods in a particular period of delivery shall be obliged to replenish the short delivered goods in the next period (periods) within the validity term of the contract for delivery, unless otherwise provided for by the contract. 2. In case where goods are shipped by the supplier to several consignees, referred to in the contract for delivery or the shipment warrant of the buyer, goods delivered to one consignee over and the quantity envisaged by the contract or the shipment warrant shall not be counted towards the short delivery of goods to other consignees, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract. 3. By notifying the supplier the buyer shall have the right to accept goods whose delivery has been overdue, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract for delivery. Goods delivered before the supplier receives the notification concerned, the buyer shall be obliged to accept and pay for them. Article 512. Assortment of Goods in Case of Replenishing Short Deliveries 1. Assortment of the short delivered goods subject to replenishment shall be determined by the agreement of the parties. In the absence of such agreement the supplier shall be obliged to replenish the short delivered quantity of goods in the assortment established for the period in which the goods were short delivered. 2. The delivery of goods of one name in the greater quantity than the contract for delivery provides shall not be counted towards the cover of the short delivered goods of another name which form the same assortment and shall be subject to replenishment, except for the cases where such delivery was made with the preliminary written consent of the buyer. Article 513. The Acceptance of Goods by the Buyer 1. The buyer (consignee) shall be obliged to perform all the necessary actions which ensure the acceptance of goods delivered in keeping with the contract for delivery. 2. Goods received by the buyer (consignee) shall be examined by him within the period of time, stipulated by the law, other legal acts, the contract for delivery or the customs of the business turnover. The buyer (consignee) shall be obliged to check the quantity and quality of accepted goods within the same period of time in the order, prescribed by the law, other legal acts, the contract or the customs of business turnover, and to inform the supplier forthwith in writing about the discovered discrepancies or defects of goods. 3. If the buyer (consignee) receives the delivered goods from a transport organization, he shall be obliged to check the compliance of these goods with information referred to in transport and accompanying documents, and also to accept these goods from the transport organization with the observance of the rules stipulated by the laws and other legal acts regulating the activity of transportation facilities. Article 514. Safekeeping of Goods Which Have Not Been Accepted by the Buyer 1. When in keeping with the law, other legal acts or the contract for delivery the buyer (consignee) refuses to accept the goods delivered by the supplier, he shall be obliged to ensure the safety of these goods (safekeeping) and inform the supplier immediately. 2. The supplier shall be obliged to take away the goods accepted by the customs for safekeeping or to dispose of them within the reasonable period of time. If the supplier fails to dispose of these goods within this period, the buyer shall have the right to sell goods or return them to the supplier. 3. The requisite expenses incurred by buyer in connection with the acceptance of goods for safekeeping, the sale of goods or their return to the seller shall be liable to compensation by the supplier. In this case, the proceeds from the sale of goods shall be transferred to the supplier minus the amount due to the buyer. 4. In cases where the buyer does not accept goods from the supplier without the grounds, established by the law, other legal acts or the contract, or refuses to accept them, the supplier shall have the right to demand from the buyer the payment for the goods. Article 515. The Sampling of Goods 1. When the contract for delivery provides for the sampling of goods by the buyer (consignee) in the place of location of the supplier (Item 2 of Article 510), the buyer shall be obliged to inspect the transferred goods in the place of their transfer, unless otherwise stipulated by the law, other legal acts or unless the contrary follows from the substance of the obligation concerned. 2. The non-sampling of goods by the buyer (consignee) within the period of time specified by the contract for delivery, and in the absence of the contract within the reasonable period of time after the receipt of the supplier's notification about the readiness of goods shall entitle the supplier to refuse to fulfil the contract or to demand that the buyer pay for goods. Article 516. Payment for Delivered Goods 1. The buyer shall pay for delivered goods with the observance of the procedure and form of payments stipulated by the contract for delivery. If the agreement between the parties thereto fails to determine the procedure and form of payments, payments shall be effected by means of payment orders. 2. If the contract for delivery provides for the payment for goods to be made by the recipient (payer) and the latter has refused without any foundation to pay for goods or failed to pay for them within the period of time stipulated by the contract, the supplier shall have the right to demand that the buyer pay for the delivered goods. 3. In case where the contract for delivery provides for the shipment of goods in parts forming the set, the payment for goods by the buyer shall be effected after the shipment (sampling) of the last part forming the set, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract. Article 517. Tare and Packaging Unless the contrary is stipulated by the contract for delivery, the buyer (consignee) shall be obliged to return to the supplier reusable tare and means of packaging of the delivered goods in the order and in the terms stipulated by the law, other legal acts and by the obligatory rules adopted in accordance with or by the contract. Other tare, and also the packaging of goods shall be returned to the supplier only in cases provided for by the contract. Article 518. The Consequences of the Delivery of Goods of Improper Quality 1. The buyer (consignee) to whom goods of improper quality have been supplied shall have the right to make claims to the supplier as stipulated by Article 475 of this Code, except for the case when the supplier who has received the notification of the buyer about the defects of the delivered goods shall without delay substitute goods of proper quality for the delivered goods. 2. The buyer (consignee) who sells the delivered goods by retail shall have the right to demand within the reasonable period of time the substitution for the goods of improper quality, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract for delivery. Article 519. The Consequences of the Delivery of Incomplete Goods 1. The buyer (consignee) to whom goods have been supplied with the breach of the terms and conditions of the contract for delivery, of the requirements of the law and other legal acts or of the usual requirements for completeness shall have the right to make to the supplier claims stipulated by Article 480 of this Code, except for the case when the supplier who has received the buyer's notification about the incomplete set of the delivered goods shall make goods complete without delay or replace these by complete goods. 2. The buyer (consignee) who sells goods by retail shall have the right to demand the replacement within the reasonable period of time of incomplete goods returned by the consumer by complete goods, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract of delivery. Article 520. The Rights of the Buyer in Case of Short Delivery of Goods, the Non-fulfilment of the Requirements for the Removal of Defects of Goods or of Completing Goods 1. If the supplier has failed to deliver the quantity of goods, stipulated by the contract for delivery, or has not fulfilled the buyer's claim for the replacement of substandard goods or for completing goods within the fixed period of time, the buyer shall have the right to acquire short delivered goods from other persons and to charge all the necessary and reasonable expenses to the supplier for their acquisition. The expenses of the buyer on the acquisition of goods from other persons in cases of their short delivery by the supplier or of the non-fulfillment of the buyer's claims for the removal of defects of goods or for completing goods shall be reckoned according to the rules, provided for by Item 1 of Article 524 of this Code. 2. The buyer (consignee) shall have the right to refuse to pay for substandard and incomplete goods, and if such goods have been paid for, to demand to refund of the paid sums of money pending the removal of defects and the completion of goods or of their replacement.

Article 521. Penalty for Short Delivery or Delay in Delivery of Goods

The penalty established by the law or the contract for delivery for short delivery or delay in delivery of goods shall be recovered from the supplier until the actual execution of the obligation within the limits of his duty to replenish the short delivered quantity of goods in subsequent periods of delivery, unless a different procedure for the payment of penalty is established by the law or the contract. Article 522. Cancellation of Similar Liabilities under Several Contracts for Delivery 1. In cases where goods of the same name are delivered by the supplier to the buyer at once under several contracts for delivery and the quantity of delivered goods is insufficient for the cancellation of the supplier's liabilities under all contracts, the delivered goods shall be counted towards the execution of the contract to be indicated by the supplier when he delivers goods or immediately after this delivery. 2. If the buyer has paid to the supplier for the goods of the same name, received under several contracts for delivery and the sum of payment is insufficient for the cancellation of the buyer's liabilities under all contracts, the paid sum of money shall be counted towards the execution of the contract, indicated by the buyer when goods are paid for or without delay after payment. 3. If the supplier or the buyer have not availed of the rights granted to them by Items 1 and 2 of this Article, the execution of the liability shall be counted towards the cancellation of the liabilities under the contract, where period of execution commenced earlier. If the period of the execution of the liabilities under several contracts has commenced simultaneously, the granted execution shall be counted in proportion towards the cancellation of the liabilities under all contracts. Article 523. Unilateral Waiver of the Execution of the Contract for Delivery 1. Unilateral waiver of the execution of the contract for delivery (in full or in part) or unilateral change of this contract shall be allowed in case of the substantial infringement of the contract by one of the parties thereto (the fourth paragraph of Item 2 of Article 450). 2. The infringement of the contract for delivery by the supplier may be substantial in cases of: the delivery of goods of improper quality with defects which cannot be removed in the period acceptable for the buyer; the repeated breach of the terms of delivery of goods. 3. The infringement of the contract for delivery by the buyer may be substantial in cases of: repeated breach of the terms of payment for goods; repeated non-sampling of goods. 4. The contract for delivery shall be deemed to be altered or dissolved since the time of receipt by one party of the notification of the other party about the unilateral waiver to execute the contract in full or in part, unless a different term of cancelling or modifying the contract is provided by the notification or defined by the agreement of the parties.

Article 524. The Reckoning of Losses in Case of the Cancellation of the Contract

1. If within the reasonable period of time after the cancellation of the contract due to the infringement of the obligation by the seller the buyer bought goods from another person at higher but reasonable price instead of goods specified by the contract, the buyer may make to the seller his claim for the compensation of losses in the form of the difference between the contractual price and the price under the deal made instead. 2. If within the reasonable period of time after the cancellation of the contract owing to the infringement of the obligation by the buyer the seller has sold goods to another person under the reasonable but lower price than that stipulated by the contract, the seller may make to the buyer his claim for the compensation of losses in the form of the difference between the contractual price and the price under the dial made instead. 3. If after the cancellation of the contract on the grounds, provided for by Items 1 and 2 of this Article, no transaction has been made instead of the dissolved contract, and the current price is available for these goods, the party may make his claim for the compensation of losses in the form of the difference between the price specified by the contract and the current price existing at the time of the dissolution of the contract. The price that is usually charged under the comparable circumstances for similar goods in the place where goods should be transferred shall be recognized as a current price. If there is no current price in this place, use may be made of the current price that was used in another place, which may serve as a reasonable replacement, with due account of the difference in the expenses on the transportation of goods. 4. The satisfaction of the requirements, provided for by Items 1, 2 and 3 of this Article, shall not release the party, which has not fulfilled or fulfilled the obligation in improper way from the compensation of other losses caused by the other party, on the basis of Article 15 of this Code.

(Content of Part II)

_ 4. Delivery of Goods for State Needs

Article 525. The Grounds for the Delivery of Goods for State Needs

1. Goods shall be delivered to meet state needs on the basis of a state contract for the delivery of goods for state needs, and also in keeping with the contracts for delivery of goods, concluded in accordance with the state contract (Item 2 of Article 530). State needs shall be recognized to mean the statutory needs of the Russian Federation or the subjects of the Russian Federation, which are met from the budget resources and the extra-budgetary sources of financing. 2. The rules for the contract for delivery (Articles 506-523) shall be applicable to the relations involved in the delivery of goods for state needs, unless otherwise stipulated by the rules of this Code. The laws on the delivery of goods for state needs shall be applicable to the relations involved in the delivery of goods for state needs in the part that is not regulated by this paragraph. Article 526. The State Contract for the Delivery of Goods for State Needs Under the state contract for the delivery of goods for state needs (hereinafter referred to as the state contract) the supplier (executor) shall undertake to transfer goods to the state customer or to another person according to his direction, whereas the state customer shall undertake to pay for the delivered goods. Article 527. The Grounds for the Conclusion of State Contracts 1. A state contract shall be concluded on the basis of the order of a state customer for the delivery of goods to meet state needs, accepted by the supplier (executor). The conclusion of a state contract shall be mandatory for the state customer who has placed the order accepted by the supplier (executor). 2. The conclusion of a state contract shall be compulsory for the supplier (executor) only in cases established by law and provided that the state customer should compensate all the losses which can be caused to supplier (executor) in connection with the fulfilment of the state contract. 3. The condition of compensation of losses, envisaged by Item 2 of this Article, shall not be applied to the governmental enterprises not subject to privatization. 4. If an order for the delivery of goods for state needs is placed by bidding, the conclusion of the state contract with the supplier (executor), declared to be the tender winner, shall be compulsory for a state customer. Article 528. Procedure for the Conclusion of State Contracts 1. A state contract shall be drafted by a state customer and sent to the supplier (executor), unless otherwise stipulated by the agreement between them. 2. The party which has received the draft of a state contract shall sign it within 30 days and return one copy of the state contract to the other party, while in the presence of disagreements on the terms and conditions of the state contract shall draw up minutes of disagreements during this period and send it together with the signed state contract to the other contract party or shall notify it about the refusal to conclude the state contract. 3. The party which has received the state contract with the minutes of disagreements shall be obliged within 30 days to consider disagreements, take measures to adjust them with the other party and inform this party about the acceptance of the state contract in its wording or about the rejection of the minutes of disagreements. In case of rejection of the minutes of disagreements or upon the expiry of this period of time, the non-adjusted disagreements under the state contract, the conclusion of which is mandatory for one of the parties, may be transferred by the other party for the consideration by a court of law within 30 days. 4. In case where a state contract is concluded according to the results of the bidding for placing an order for the delivery of goods for state needs, the state contract shall be concluded within 30 days since the day of the bidding. 5. If the party for which the conclusion of a state contract is obligatory evades from its conclusion, the other party shall have the right to apply to a court of law with the demand of compelling this party to conclude the state contract. Article 529. The Conclusion of a Contract for Delivery of Goods for State Needs 1. If a state contract provides for the delivery of goods by the supplier (executor) to the buyer, defined by the state customer, under the contracts for the delivery of goods for state needs, the state customer shall notify within 30 days since the day of signing the state contract the supplier (executor) and the buyer about the attachment of the buyer to the supplier (executor). The notification about the attachment of the buyer to the supplier (executor), issued by the state customer in keeping with the state contract, shall be a ground for the conclusion of a contract for the delivery of goods for state needs. 2. The supplier (executor) shall be obliged to send the draft of the contract for the delivery of goods for state needs to the buyer, indicated in the notification about the attachment, within 30 days since the day of the receipt of the notification from the state customer, unless a different procedure for drafting a contract is stipulated by the state contract or unless the draft of the contract is submitted by the buyer. 3. The party which has received the draft contract for the delivery of goods for state needs shall sign it and return one copy to the other party within 30 days since the day of the receipt of the draft and in the presence of disagreements over the contract terms shall draw up during this time minutes of the disagreements and send them to the other party together with the signed contract. 4. The party which has received the signed draft contract for the delivery of goods for state needs with the minutes of disagreements shall, during 30 days, consider the disagreements, take measures to coordinate the terms and conditions of the contract with the other part and inform the other party about the acceptance of the contract in its wording or about the rejection of the minutes of the disagreements. non-adjusted disagreements may be transferred by the interested party for the consideration by the court within 30 days. 5. If the supplier (executor) evades from the conclusion of the contract for the delivery of goods for state needs, the buyer shall have the right to apply to a court of law with the demand for compelling the supplier (executor) to conclude a contract on the terms of the contract drafted by the buyer. Article 530. The Buyer's Refusal to Conclude a Contract for the Delivery of Goods for State Needs 1. The buyer shall have the right to refuse wholly or partially from goods, indicated in the notification about attachment, and from the conclusion of a contract for their delivery. In this case, the supplier (executor) shall forthwith notify the state customer and demand that he notify about the attachment to another buyer. 2. Within 30 days since the day of the receipt of the notification of the supplier (executor), the state customer shall issue a notification about the attachment of another buyer to him or send to the supplier (executor) a shipment warrant with an indication of the consignee of goods, or state its consent to accept and pay for goods. 3. In case of default on the state customer's duties, provided for by Item 2 of this Article, the supplier (executor) shall have the right either to demand that the state customer should accept and pay for goods or to sell goods at its discretion with the charge of reasonable expenses incurred in their sale to the state customer. Article 531. The Execution of the State Contract 1. In cases where in keeping with terms and conditions of the state contract goods are delivered directly to the state customer or according to its direction (shipment warrant) to another person (consignee), the relations between the parties in the performance of the state contract shall be regulated by the rules stipulated by Articles 506-523 of this Code. 2. In cases where goods are delivered for state needs by the consignee, indicated in the shipment warrant, the goods shall be paid for by the state customer, unless a different procedure for payments is envisaged by the state contract. Article 532. Payment for Goods Under the Contract for the Delivery of Goods for State Needs In case of the delivery of goods to the buyers under the contracts for the delivery of goods for state needs payment for goods shall be made by the buyers at the prices estimated in accordance with the state contract, unless a different procedure determining prices and payments is stipulated by the state contract. When the buyer pays for goods under the contract for the delivery of goods for state needs, the state customer shall be recognized as a guarantor of this obligation of the buyer (Articles 361-367). Article 533. Compensation for Losses Caused in Connection with the Execution or Dissolution of a State Contract 1. Unless otherwise stipulated by the laws on the delivery of goods for state needs or by a state contract, the losses caused to the supplier (executor) in connection with the execution of the state contract (Item 2 of Article 527) shall be liable to compensation by the state customer within 30 days since the day of the transfer of goods in conformity with the state contract. 2. In case where the losses caused to the supplier (executor) in connection with the performance of a state contract are not compensated in accordance with the state contract, the supplier (executor) shall have the right to refuse to perform the state contract and demand the compensation of the losses caused by the dissolution of the state contract. 3. When a state contract is dissolved on the grounds referred to in Item 2 of this Article, the supplier shall have the right to refuse to execute the contract for the delivery of goods for state needs. The losses caused to the buyer by such refusal of the supplier shall be compensated by the customer.

Article 534. The Rejection by the State Customer of Goods Delivered Under the State Contract

In cases provided for by law the state customer shall have the right to reject wholly or partially the goods whose delivery is stipulated by the state contract, provided that the losses caused by such rejection are compensated to the supplier. If the rejection by the state customer of the goods whose delivery is provided for by the state contract has involved the cancellation or charge of the contract for the delivery of goods for state needs, the losses caused to the buyer by such cancellation or change shall be compensated by the state customer.

(Content of Part II)

_ 5. Sale of Agricultural Produce

Article 535. Contract of Sale of Agricultural Produce

1. Under the contract of sale of agricultural produce the agricultural producer shall undertakes to transfer the farm products he has grown or produced to the purveyor, the person who purchases such products for processing or sale. 2. The rules for the contract for delivery (Articles 506-524) shall be applicable to the relations covered by the contract of and not regulated by the rules of this paragraph, while in cases of the delivery of goods for state needs the rules for the contract sale of agricultural produce for delivery (Articles 525-534) shall be applicable. Article 536. The Duties of the Purveyor 1. Unless otherwise stipulated by the contract of contracting, the purveyor shall be obliged to accept farm products from the producer in the place of their location and to ensure their delivery. 2. In case where farm products are accepted in the place of location of the purveyor or in any other place indicated by it, the purveyor shall have no right to refuse to accept farm products which correspond to the terms and conditions of the contract of contracting and which have been transferred to the purveyor in the period of time, specified by the contract. 3. The contract of contracting may provide for the duty of the purveyor processing farm products to return to the producer the waste of this processing on its demand with payment at the price fixed by the contract. Article 537. The Duty of the Producer of Farm Products The producer of farm products shall be obliged to transfer to the purveyor the grown or produced farm products in the quantity and assortment, envisaged by the contract of contracting.

Article 538. The Liability of the Producer of Farm Products

The producer of farm products which has failed to fulfil its obligation or has fulfilled it improperly shall bear liability in the presence of its fault.

(Content of Part II)

_ 6. Power Supply

Article 539. The Contract of Power Supply

1. Under the contract of power supply the energy supplying organization shall undertake to transmit power to the user (consumer) through the connected up network, while the user shall undertake to pay for accepted power, and also to observe the conditions of its consumption, provided for by the contract, and to ensure the safety of the operation of its electrical networks and the working order of the devices and equipment use by it and related to the consumption of power. 2. A contract of power supply shall be concluded with the user, if the latter has at its disposal a power receiving device meeting the technical requirements and connected up to the networks of the energy supplying organization and other requisite equipment, and also if the user guarantees the accounting of the consumption of power. 3. The laws ad other legal acts on power supply, and also the mandatory rules adopted in conformity with them, shall be applicable to the relations covered by the contract of power supply and regulated by this Code. 4. The rules of this paragraph shall be applicable to the relations under an agreement for supply with electric power unless otherwise established by a law or other legal acts. Article 540. The Conclusion and Prolongation of the Contract of Power Supply 1. In cases where the individual acts as a user of power for domestic consumption under the contract of power supply, this contract shall be deemed to be concluded since the time of the fixed actual linking up of the user to the attached network in the statutory order. Unless otherwise stipulated by the agreement of the parties, such contract shall be deemed to be concluded for an indefinite period of time and may be altered or dissolved on the grounds, stipulated by Article 546 of this Code. 2. The contract of power supply, concluded for an indefinite period of time, shall be deemed to be prolonged for the same period and on the same conditions, if before the expiry of its validity term neither party states about its termination or alteration or the conclusion of a new contract. 3. If one of the parties to the contract has tabled the proposal on the conclusion of a new contract before the expiry of its validity term, the relations between the parties shall be regulated by the contract concluded earlier before a new contract is to be concluded. Article 541. The Quantity of Power 1. The energy supplying organization shall be obliged to transmit power to the user through the attached network in the quantity provided for by the contract of power supply and with the observance of the conditions of transmission to be agreed upon by the parties. The quantity of power transmitted to the subscriber and the used up by him shall be estimated in accordance with the data of accounting of its actual consumption. 2. The contract of power supply may provide for the right of the user to change the quantity of received power, fixed by the contract, provided the compensation of the expenses incurred by the energy supplying organization in connection with the transmission of power in the quantity which is not stipulated by the contract 3. In case where the individual using power for domestic consumption acts as a user under the contract of power supply, he shall have the right to use power in the quantity needed by him. Article 542. The Quality of Power 1. The quality of power transmitted shall correspond to the requirements made by state standards and other compulsory rules or envisaged by the contract of power supply. 2. If the energy supplying organization breaks the requirements for the quality of power, the user shall have the right to refuse to pay for such power. In this case, the energy supplying organization shall have the right to demand that the user should compensate the cost of the power which the user has saved groundlessly in consequence of the use of this power (Item 2 of Article 1105). Article 543. The Duties of the Buyer to Maintain and Operate Networks, Instruments and Equipment 1. The user shall be obliged to ensure proper technical condition and safety of the operated electric power networks, instruments and equipment, to observe the conditions of power consumption, and also immediately inform the energy supplying organization about accidents, fires and troubles in energy recording instruments and about other infringements arising during the use of energy. 2. In case where the individual using power for domestic consumption acts as a user under the contract of power supply, the duty of ensuring proper technical condition and safety of electric power networks, and also of energy recording instruments shall be discharged by the energy supplying organization, unless otherwise stipulated by the law and other legal acts. 3. Requirements for the technical condition and operation of electric power networks, instruments and equipment, and also the procedure for control over their work shall be defined by the law, other legal acts or the agreement between the parties. Article 544. Payment for Power 1. The user shall pay for the quantity of power, actually accepted by him, in line with the data of power recording, unless otherwise stipulated by the law, other legal acts or the agreement of the parties. 2. Procedure for payments for energy shall be determined by the law, other legal acts or by the agreement between the parties. Article 545. The Subuser The user may transmit power, accepted by it from the energy supplying organization through the attached network, to another person (subuser) only with the consent of the energy supplying organization. Article 546. The Modification and Cancellation of the Contract of Power Supply 1. In case where the individual using power for domestic consumption acts as a user under the contract of power supply, he shall have the right to cancel the contract unilaterally, provided he informs the energy supplying organization about this and pays in full for the used power. In case where the legal entity acts as a user under the contract of power supply, the energy supplying organization shall have the right to refuse to fulfil the contract unilaterally on the grounds provided for by Article 523 of this Code, except for the cases established by the law or other legal acts. 2. An interval in the supply of power, the termination or restriction of the supply of power shall be allowed by agreement between the parties, except for the cases where the unsatisfactory condition of the user's power plant, certified by the state power supervision body, endangers the levels and safety of individuals. The energy supplying organization shall warn the user about the interruption, termination or restriction of the supply of power. The termination or restriction of the supply of power without the consent of a subscriber that is a juridical person but with the relevant notification thereof shall be permissible in a procedure established by a law or other legal acts in the case of violation by the said subscriber of the obligations in the payment for the power. 3. An interval in the supply of power, the termination or restriction of the supply of power without agreement with the user and without its appropriate warning shall be allowed whenever it is necessary to take urgent measures of preventing or abolishing the accidents provided the latter immediately informs the user about this. Article 547. Liability Under the Contract of Power Supply 1. In cases of default on the obligations or of improper execution of the obligations under the contract of power supply, the defaulting party shall be obliged to compensate the real damage caused by this (Item 2 of Article 15). 2. If a result of the regulation of the conditions of power consumption on the basis of the law or other legal acts an interval has been made in the supply of the user with power, the energy supplying organization shall bear liability for default on the contractual obligations or for their improper fulfilment in the presence of its fault.

Article 548. The Application of the Rules for Power Supply to Other Contracts

1. The rules envisaged by Articles 539-547 of this Code shall be applicable to the relations connected with the supply of thermal power through the attached network, unless otherwise stipulated by the law or other legal acts. 2. The rules for the contract of power supply (Article 539-547) shall be applied to the relations involved in the supply of gas, oil and oil products, water and other goods, unless otherwise stipulated by the law, other legal acts or unless the contrary follows from the substance of the obligation concerned.

(Content of Part II)

_ 7. The Sale of Real Estate

Article 549. The Contract of Sale of Real Estate

1. Under the contract of sale of real estate the seller shall undertake to transfer into the buyer's ownership a land plot, a building or structure, an apartment or other real estate (Article 130). 2. The rules, provided for by this paragraph, shall be applied to the sale of enterprises inasmuch as the contrary is stipulated by the rules for the contract of sale of the enterprise (Articles 559-566). Article 550. The Form of the Contract of Sale of Real Estate The contract of sale of real estate shall be concluded in writing by drawing up one document to be signed by the parties thereto (Item 2 of Article 434). The non-observance of the form of a contract of sale of real estate shall invalidate it. Article 551. State Registration of the Transfer the Title to Real Estate 1. The transfer of the title to real estate under the contract of sale of real estate to the buyer shall be subject to state registration. 2. Before the state registration of the transfer of the title to property the execution of the contract of sale of real estate by the parties shall not be a ground for the change of their relations with third persons. 3. In case where one of the parties evades the state registration of the transfer of the title to real estate, the court shall have the right at the request of the other party to pass a decision on the state registration of the transfer of the title to property. The party which groundlessly evades the state registration of the transfer of the title to property shall be obliged to compensate the losses of the other party, caused by the delayed registration. Article 552. The Rights to the Land Plot in Case of Sale of the Building, Structure or Other Immovables Located on It 1. Under the contract of sale of the building, structure or other immovables the buyer shall receive together with the transferred title to such real estate that part of the land plot which is occupied with this real estate and is necessary for its use. 2. In case where the seller is the owner of the land plot on which the sold real estate is to be found, the buyer shall receive the right of property or the right of lease or any other right to the corresponding part of the land plot, specified by the contract of sale of real estate. If the contract fails to define the right to the corresponding land plot, transferred to the buyer of real estate, the right to that part of the land plot that is occupied with immovables and is necessary for their use shall pass to the buyer. 3. The sale of immovables located on the land plot which does not belong to the seller by right of ownership shall be allowed without the consent of the owner of this land plot, unless this contradicts the terms of the use of such land plot, established by the law or the contract. In case of sale of such real estate the buyer shall acquire the right to the use of the corresponding part of the land plot on the same conditions as the seller of the real estate does. Article 553. The Rights to Real Estate in Case of Sale of a Land Plot In cases where the land plot on which the building, structure or other immovables owned by the seller are to be found is sold, without its transfer into the ownership of the buyer of this real estate, the seller shall retain the right of using the part of the land plot which is occupied with immovables and is necessary for their use on the terms to be defined by the contract of sale. If the terms of the use of the corresponding part of the land plot has not been defined by the contract of its sale, the seller shall retain the right of the restricted use (servitude) of that part of the land plot which is occupied with immovables and is necessary for their use in keeping with their purpose. Article 554. The Definition of the Subject-matter in the Contract of Sale of Real Estate The contract of sale of real estate shall indicate the data that make it possible to ascertain real estate subject to the transfer to the buyer under the contract, including the data which determine the location of real estate on the corresponding land plot or within other real estate. In the absence of these data in the contract the condition on the real estate subject to transfer shall be deemed not to be agreed upon by the parties thereto and the corresponding contract shall be deemed not to be concluded. Article 555. Price in the Contract of Sale of Real Estate 1. The contract of sale of real estate provide for the price of this estate. In the absence in the contract of the price clause, agreed upon by the parties thereto in written form, the contract of sale of real estate shall be deemed not to be concluded. In this case, the rules for fixing price, envisaged by Item 3 of Article 424 of this Code shall not be applied. 2. Unless otherwise stipulated by the law or the contract of sale of real estate, the price fixed in it for the building, structure or other real estate to be found on the land plot shall include the price of the corresponding part of the land plot, transferred with this real estate or the right to it. 3. In cases where the price of real estate in the contract of sale of real estate is fixed per unit of its square or per other indicator of its size, the total price of such real estate subject to payment shall be estimated by proceeding from the actual size of the real estate transferred to the buyer. Article 556. The Transfer of Real Estate 1. Real estate shall be transferred by the seller and accepted by the buyer on the basis of the deed of conveyance or other document on its transfer. Unless otherwise stipulated by the law or the contract, the obligation of the seller to transfer real estate to the buyer shall be deemed to be executed after this real estate is handed in to the buyer and after the parties sign the respective document on the transfer. The evasion by one of the parties from the signing of the document on the transfer of real estate on the terms and conditions of the contract shall be deemed to imply the refusal of the seller to discharge the duty of transferring real estate and that of the buyer to fulfil the duty of accepting such estate. 2. The acceptance by the buyer of real estate which does not comply with the terms and conditions of the contract of sale of real estate, including in case when such non-conformity is specified in the document on the transfer of real estate, shall not be a ground for the release of the seller from the liability for improper performance of the contract. Article 557. The Consequences of the Transfer of Real Estate of Inadequate Quality In case of the transfer by the seller to the buyer of real estate of inadequate quality, which does not comply with the terms and conditions of the contract of sale of real estate on its quality, the rules of Article 475 of this Code shall be applied, exception being made for the provisions dealing with the right of the buyer to demand the substitution of goods conforming to the contract for goods of improper quality.

Article 558. Specific Aspects of the Sale of Living Accommodation

1. The list of the persons who retain the statutory right of using the living accommodation after it was acquired by the buyer with an indication of their right to use the dwelling being sold shall be a substantial condition of the contract of sale of a dwelling house or apartment, part of the dwelling house or the apartment. 2. The contract of sale of a dwelling house or apartment, part of the dwelling house or the apartment shall be subject to state registration and shall be deemed to be concluded since the time of such registration.

(Content of Part II)

_ 8. The Sale of Enterprises

Article 559. The Contract of Sale of the Enterprise

1. Under the contract of sale of the enterprise the seller shall undertake to transfer into the buyer's ownership the enterprise as a whole as a property complex (Article 132) with the exception of the rights and duties which the seller has no right to hand over to other persons. 2. The rights to the firm's name, trademark, service mark and other means of individualization of the seller and its goods, works or services, and also the rights to the use of such means of individualization belonging to it on the basis of a license shall pass to the buyer, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract. 3. The rights of the seller, received by it on the basis of the permit (license) for the engagement in the respective activity, shall not belong to the transfer to the buyer, unless otherwise stipulated by the law or other legal acts. The transfer to the buyer of the enterprise's obligations which it is impossible to execute in the absence of such permit (license) for it shall not absolve the seller from the corresponding obligations to the creditors. For default on such obligations the seller and the buyer shall bear joint and several liability to the creditors. Article 560. The Form and the State Registration of the Contract of Sale of the Enterprise 1. The contract of sale of the enterprise shall be concluded in writing by drawing up one document to be signed by the parties thereto (Item 2 of Article 434) with the obligatory addendum to it of the documents, referred to in Item 2 of Article 561 of this Code. 2. The non-observance of the form of the contract of sale of the enterprise shall involve its invalidity. 3. The contract of sale of the enterprise shall be subject to state registration and shall be deemed to be concluded since the time of such registration. Article 561. Certification of the Structure of the Enterprise to Be Sold 1. The structure and cost of the enterprise to be sold shall be determined by the contract of sale of the enterprise on the basis of its full inventory making, which is carried out in accordance with the rules of such inventorying. 2. Prior to the signing of a contract of sale of the enterprise, the parties thereto shall consider the inventorying certificate, the balance-sheet, the opinion of an independent auditor on the structure and cost of the enterprise, and also the list of all debts (liabilities), included in the structure of the enterprise with an indication of creditors and of the character, amount and terms of their claims. The property, rights and duties, referred to in said documents, shall be subjects to the transfer by the seller to the buyer, unless the contrary follows from the rules of Article 559 of this Code and unless established by the agreement of the parties. Article 562. The Rights of Creditors in the Sale of the Enterprise 1. For liabilities, included in the composition of the enterprise to be sold, the creditors shall be notified before it is transferred to the buyer about its sale by one of the parties to the contract of sale of the enterprise. 2. The creditor who has not informed the seller or the buyer about his consent with the transfer of the debt shall have the right to demand, during three months since the day of the receipt of the notice about the sale of the enterprise, either the termination or the prior execution of the obligation and compensation by the seller of the losses caused by this, or the recognition of the contract of sale of the enterprise as invalid in full or in the respective part. 3. The creditor who has not been notified about the ale of the enterprise in the order, prescribed by Item 1 of this Article, may bring an action to satisfy the claims, provided for by Item 2 of this Article, during the year since the day when he learnt or should have learnt about the transfer of the enterprise by the seller to the buyer. 4. After the transfer of the enterprise to the buyer the seller and the buyer shall bear joint and several liability for the debts included in the composition of the transferred enterprise and converted to the buyer without the consent of the creditor. Article 563. The Transfer of the Enterprise 1. The enterprise shall be transferred by the seller to the buyer under the deed of conveyance, which contains the data on the structure of the enterprise and on the notification of the creditors about the sale of the enterprise, and also information about the revealed shortcomings of the transferred property and the list of assets, the duty of whose transfer have not been discharged by the seller in view of their loss. The preparation of the enterprise for conveyance, including the drawing up of a deed of conveyance and the presentation of this act for signing shall the duty of the seller and shall be effected at his expense, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract. 2. The enterprise shall be deemed to be transferred to the buyer since the day of signing the deed of conveyance by both parties. Since this time the risk of accidental destruction or damage of property within the enterprise shall pass to the buyer. Article 564. The Transfer of the Title to the Enterprise 1. The title to the enterprise shall pass to the buyer since the time of state registration of this title. 2. Unless otherwise stipulated by the contract of sale of the enterprise, the title to the enterprise shall pass to the buyer and shall be subject to state registration immediately after the conveyance of the enterprise to the buyer (Article 563). 3. In cases where the contract provides for the preservation of the seller's title to the enterprise, transferred to the buyer, until the payment for the enterprise or the onset of other circumstances, the buyer shall have the right to dispose, before the transfer of the title to it, of the assets and rights forming the composition of the transferred enterprise to the extent this is necessary for the purposes for which the enterprise has been acquired.

Article 565. The Consequences of the Transfer and Acceptance of the Enterprise with Shortcomings

1. Consequences of the transfer by the seller and of the acceptance by the buyer under the deed of conveyance of the enterprise whose structure does not conform, in particular, to the quality of the transferred assets, specified by the contract of sale of the enterprise, shall be determined on the basis of the rules in Articles 460-462, 466, 469, 475 and 479 of this Code, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract and Items 2-4 of this Article.
2. In case where the enterprise has been transferred and accepted under the deed of conveyance, which contains information about the disclosed shortcomings of the enterprise and the lost assets (Item 1 of Article 563), the buyer shall have the right to demand a corresponding reduction of the purchase price of the enterprise, unless the right to make other claims in such cases is provided for by the contract of sale of the enterprise.
3. The buyer shall have the right to demand the reduction of the purchase price in case of the transfer of the debts (liabilities) of the seller within the composition of the enterprise, which have not been indicated in the contract of sale of the enterprise or in the deed of conveyance, unless the seller proves that the buyer has known about such debts (liabilities) during the conclusion of the contract and the transfer of the enterprise.
4. In case of receipt of the buyer's notice about the defects of the property transferred within the composition of the enterprise or in the absence in this composition of particular types of property subject to the transfer may replace without delay the property of improper quality or present to the buyer the missing property.
5. The buyer shall have the right to demand in due course of law the dissolution or change of the contract of sale of the enterprise and the return of what has been executed under the contract, if it is found out that the enterprise because of its shortcomings, for which the seller is accountable, does not fit for the purposes named in the contract of sale, and these shortcomings have not been removed by the seller on the conditions and in the order and terms fixed in keeping with this Code, other laws, other legal acts or the contract or its is impossible to eliminate such shortcomings.

Article 566. The Application to the Contract of Sale of the Enterprise of the Rules for the Consequences of the Invalidation of Transactions and for the Change or Dissolution of the Contract

The rules of this Code for the consequences of the invalidation of transactions and for the change or the dissolution of the contract of sale, providing for the return or the recovery of the received in kind under the contract from one party or from both parties, shall be applied to the contract of sale of the enterprise, id such consequences do not violate the rights and law-protected interests of the creditors of the seller and the buyer and other persons and do not contradict public interests.

(Content of Part II)

Chapter 31. Barter

Article 567. Barter Contract

1. Under the barter contract each party thereto shall undertake to transfer into the ownership of the other party one commodity in exchange for the other commodity.
2. The rules for purchase and sale (Chapter 30) shall be applied to the barter contract, unless this contradicts the rules of this Chapter and the essence of barter. In this case each party shall be recognized respectively as the seller of goods which it undertakes to hand over and as the buyer of goods which it undertakes to accept in exchange.

Article 568. Prices and Expenses Under the Barter Contract

1. Unless the contrary follows from the barter contract, goods subject to exchange shall be assumed to be of equal value, while the expenses on their transfer and acceptance shall be incurred in each case by the party which bears the respective duties.
2. In case where in keeping with the barter contract the exchanged goods are recognized as those of equal value, the party which is duty-bound to hand over goods whose price is below the price of goods offered in exchange shall pay the difference in the prices immediately before or after the execution of its duty of transferring goods, unless a different procedure of payment is provided for by the contract.

Article 569. The Reciprocal Fulfilment of the Obligation of Turning Over Goods Under the Barter Contract

In case where in keeping with the barter contract the periods of the transfer of exchanged goods do not coincide, the rules for the reciprocal fulfilment of obligations (Article 328) shall be applied to the execution of the obligation of handing over goods by the party which should pass the goods after the transfer of the goods by the other party.

Article 570. The Transfer of the Title to Exchanged Goods

Unless the law or the barter contract provides otherwise, the title to exchanged goods shall pass to the parties acting under the barter contract as buyers simultaneously after the execution of the obligation of turning over goods by both parties.

Article 571. Liability for the Withdrawal of Goods Acquired Under the Barter Contract

The party from which the third party has withdrawn the goods acquired under the barter contract shall have the right, in the presence of the grounds, provided for by Article 461 of this Code, to demand that the other party should return goods received by the latter in exchange and/or in compensation for damages.

(Content of Part II)

Chapter 32. Donation

Article 572. Donation Contract

1. Under the donation contract one party (donor) shall transfer or undertake to transfer free of charge to the other part (donee) a thing into ownership or property right (claim) to himself or to a third person and release or undertake to release this party from the property obligation to himself or to the third party. In the presence of a reciprocal transfer of a thing or right or of a reciprocal obligation the contract shall not be recognized as donation. The rules provided for by Item 2 of Article 170 of this Code shall be applied to such contract.
2. The promise of handing over any thing or property right free of charge or of releasing anybody from property obligation (promise of donation) shall be recognized as a donation contract and shall bind the person who has given the promise, if the latter was made in proper form (Item 2 of Article 574) and contains the clearly expressed intention to transfer in future to a specific person a thing or a right free of charge or to release him from property obligation. The promise to donate all belongings or part of all these belongings without reference to a specific object of donation in the form of a thing, right or the release from obligation shall be null and void.
3. The contract stipulating the transfer of a gift to the donee after the death of the donor shall be null and void. The rules of civil legislation on inheritance shall be applied to this kind of donation.

Article 573. The Donee's Refusal to Accept the Gift

1. The donee shall have the right to abandon the gift at any time before it is handed over to him. In this case, the donation contract shall be deemed to be dissolved.
2. If a donation contract has been concluded in writing, the rejection of the gift shall also be made in writing. In case where the donation contract has been registered (Item 3 of Article 574), the rejection of the gift shall also be subject to state registration.
3. If a donation contract has been concluded in writing, the donor shall have the right to demand that the donee should compensate for the real damage inflicted by the refusal to accept the gift.

Article 574. The Form of the Donation Contract

1. Donation, accompanied by the transfer of the gift to the donee, may be accomplished orally, except for the cases, provided for by Items 2 and 3 of this Article. The gift shall be presented by handing order, symbolic transfer (delivery of keys, etc.) or delivery of law-making documents.
2. The contract of donation of movables shall be made in writing in cases when: the donor is represented by a legal entity and the value of the gift exceeds the statutory five-fold amounts of the minimum wages or salaries; the contract contains the promise of donation in the future.
In cases provided for by this Item the donation contract made orally shall be null and void. 3. The donation contract of real estate shall be subject to state registration.

Article 575. Ban of Donation

It shall be impermissible to donate gifts, except for common gifts, whose value does not exceed the statutory five-fold amounts of the minimum wages or salaries: 1) on behalf of minors and legally unfit individuals and by their legal representatives; 2) to the workers of medical treatment, educational, social protection and other similar institutions by individuals who are treated, maintained or educated by them, and by spouses and relatives of these persons; 3) to civil servants and employees of municipal bodies in connection with their official status or the discharge of their official duties; 4) in relations between profit-making organizations.

Article 576. The Restriction of Donation

1. The legal entity owning a thing by right of economic or operative management shall have the right to donate it with the consent of the owner, unless otherwise stipulated by law. This restriction shall not extend to usual gifts of small value. 2. Property held in common joint ownership may be donated by agreement of all those who have a stake in joint ownership with the observance of the rules, specified by Article 253 of this Code. 3. The donor's right to make claims to a third party shall be donated with the observance of the rules, stipulated by Articles 382-386, 388 and 389 of this Code. 4. Donation by means of the execution of the donee's duty to a third party shall be effected with the observance of the rules, provided for by Item 1 of Article 313 of this Code. Donation by means of the transfer by the donor of the donee's debt to a third party shall be effected with the observance of the rules, specified by Articles 391 and 392 of this Code. 5. A power of attorney for the execution of donation by the representative, in which a donee is not named and an object of donation is not indicated, shall be null and void.

Article 577. The Refusal to Execute the Donation Contract

1. The donor shall have the right to refuse to execute the contract containing the promise of handing over a thing or a right to the donee in the future or to release the donee from property obligation; if after the conclusion of the contract the property or family status or the state of health of the donor has changed so much that the execution of the contract will lead under new conditions to a substantial reduction of his standard of life.
2. The donor shall have the right to refuse to execute the contract containing the promise of giving a thing or a right to the donee in the future or to release the donee from property obligation on the grounds that entitle him to revoke donation (Item 1 of Article 578).
3. The refusal of the donor to execute the donation contract on the grounds, stipulated by Items 1 and 2 of this Article, shall not entitle the donee to claim damages.

Article 578. The Revocation of Donation

1. The donor shall have the right to revoke donation, if the donee has committed an attempt on his life, the life of any of his family members or close relatives or has committed deliberately a bodily injury to the donor. In case of the intentional homicide of the donor by the donee the right to claim in court the revocation of donation shall belong to the donor's heirs. 2. The donor shall have the right to demand judicially the revocation of donation, if the donee's treatment of the gift which has a great intangible value for the donor creates a threat of its irrevocable loss.
3. At the request of the interested person the court of law may revoke the donation of the individual businessman or the legal entity in violation of the provisions of the law on insolvency (bankruptcy) from the pecuniary means, associated with his business, during six months that preceded the declaration of this person as insolvent (bankrupt).
4. The donation contract may specify the donor's right to revoke donation, if he outlives the donee.
5. In case of revocation of donation the donee shall be obliged to return the gift, if the latter had been preserved in kind by the time of the revocation of donation.

Article 579. Cases in Which the Refusal to Execute the Donation Contract and the Revocation of Donation Are Impossible

The rules for the refusal to execute the donation contract (Article 577) and for the revocation of donation (Article 578) shall not be applied to common gifts of small value.

Article 580. The Consequences of the Infliction of Damage Owing to the Defects of the Gift

The injury inflicted on the donee's life or health and property tort owing to the defects of the gift shall be subject to indemnity by the donor in keeping with the rules, provided for by Chapter 59 of this Code, if it is proved that these defects had arisen before the transfer of the donated thing to the donee, that they do not relate to obvious shortcomings and the donor did not warn the donee about them, though he had known about them.

Article 581. Legal Succession in Case of a Promise of Donation

1. The rights of the donee to whom a gift has been promised under the donation contract shall not be passed to his heirs (successors), unless otherwise stipulated by the donation contract.
2. The duties of the donor who has promised donation shall pass to his heirs (successors), unless otherwise stipulated by the donation contract.

Article 582. Endowment

1. The donation of a thing or right for general useful purposes shall be recognized as endowment. Endowment may be made to individuals, medical treatment and instructional institutions, social protection institutions and other similar institutions, charitable and scientific institutions and educational establishments, funds, museums and other cultural institutions, public associations and religious organizations, and also to the State and other subjects of civil law, referred to in Article 124 of this Code.
2. No permission or consent shall be required for the acceptance of an endowment.
3. The endowment of property to an individual shall be conditioned by the donor, while the endowment of property to a legal entity may be conditioned by him by the use of this property according to a definite purpose. In the absence of such condition the endowment of property to an individual shall be regarded as donation, while in other cases the endowed property shall be used by the donee in keeping with the designation of property. The legal entity which accepts the endowment to be used for a definite purpose shall keep a separate record of all transactions involved in the use of the endowed property.
4. If it is impossible to use the endowed property in accordance with the purpose indicated by the donor due to the changed circumstances, it may be used according to another purpose only with the consent of the donor, while in cases of the death of the donor-individual or of the liquidation of the legal entity only with the consent of the donor and by a court decision.
5. The use of endowed property out of accordance with the purpose indicated by the donor or the change of this purpose with the contravention of the rules, provided for by Item 4 of this Article, shall entitle the donor, his heirs or any other successor to demand the revocation of the endowment.
6. Articles 578 and 581 of this Code shall not be applied to endowment.

(Content of Part II)

Chapter 33. Rent and Life Maintenance with Dependence

_ 1. General Provisions on Rent and Life Maintenance with Dependence Article 583. The Rent Contract 1. Under the rent contract one party (rent recipient) shall transfer property to the other party (rent payer) into his ownership, whereas the rent payer shall undertake to pay periodically rent to the recipient in the form of a definite sum of money or to provide money on his maintenance in a different form in exchange for the received property. 2. Under the rent contract it is possible to provide for the duty of paying rent on a permanent basis (permanent rent) or for the entire period of life of the rent recipient (life annuity). Life annuity may be established on the terms of the life maintenance of an individual with dependence. Article 584. The Form of the Rent Contract The rent contract shall be subject to notarization, whereas the contract providing for the alienation of real estate on the disbursement of rent shall also be subject to state registration. Article 585. Alienation of Property on Rent Disbursement 1. Property to be alienated on rent disbursement may be turned over by the rent recipient for the ownership of the rent payer for charge or free of charge. 2. In case where the rent contract provides for the transfer of property for charge, the rules for purchase and sale (Chapter 30) shall be applied to the relations of the parties involved in transfer and payment, and in case where such property is transferred free of charge, the rules for the donation contract (Chapter 32) shall be applied inasmuch as the rules of this Chapter stipulate otherwise and do not contradict the substance of the rent contract. Article 586. Encumbrance of Real Estate with Rent 1. The rent shall encumber the land plot, enterprise, building, structure or any other real estate, transferred on its payments. In case of alienation of such property by the rent payer, his obligations under the rent contract shall pass on the acquirer of property. 2. The person who transferred real estate encumbered with rent for the ownership of another person shall bear together with him subsidiary liability (Article 399) on the demands of the rent recipient which have arisen in connection with the violation of the rent contract unless the present Code, other law or contract provide joint and several responsibility under this liability. Article 587. Security for Rent Payment 1. In case of transfer of a land plot or any other immovable property on rent payment the rent recipient shall acquire the right of pledge to this property as security for the rent payer's obligation. 2. The clause establishing the duty of the rent payer to present security for the discharge of his obligations (Article 329) or to ensure the risk of liability in favour of the rent recipient for default on these obligations or for their improper discharge shall be the essential condition of the contract stipulating the transfer of a pecuniary sum or other movable assets. 3. In case of default by the rent payer on the obligations, provided for by Item 2 of this Article, and also in case of loss of security or the deterioration of its conditions due to the circumstances for which the rent recipient is not answerable, the rent recipient shall have the right to dissolve the rent contract and claim damages caused by the dissolution of the contract.

Article 588. Liability for Delayed Rent Payment

For delayed rent payment the rent payer shall pay to the recipient interest, stipulated by Article 395 of this Code, unless a different amount of interest is specified by the rent contract.

_ 2. Permanent Rent

Article 589. Permanent Rent Recipient

1. Only individuals, and also non-profit organizations may be the permanent rent recipient, unless this contradicts the law and if this corresponds to the aims of their activity.
2. The rights of the rent recipient may be transferred under the permanent rent contract to the persons, referred to in Item 1 of this Article, by means of assignment of a claim and descend by inheritance or by way of legal succession in case of the reorganization of legal entities, unless otherwise stipulated by the law or the contract.

Article 590. The Form and Amount of Permanent Rent

1. Permanent rent shall be paid out in money terms in the amount fixed by the contract. The permanent rent contract may provide for the payment of rent by presenting things, performing works or rendering services that correspond to the pecuniary sum of the rent in value terms. 2. Unless otherwise stipulated by the permanent rent contract, the amount of the paid rent shall rise in proportion to the increase in the statutory minimum wages or salaries. Article 591. The Dates of Permanent Rent Payment Unless otherwise stipulated by the permanent rent contract, permanent rent shall be paid out upon the end of each calendar quarter. Article 592. The Payer's Right to Permanent Rent Redemption 1. The payer of permanent rent shall have the right to refuse to make the further disbursement of rent by means of its redemption. 2. Such refusal shall be valid, provided that it has been made by the rent payer in written form within three months before the cessation of the payment of rent or for longer periods fixed by the permanent rent contract. In this case, the obligation of rent payment shall not terminate until the receipt of the entire sum of redemption by the rent recipient, unless a different redemption procedure is stipulated by the contract. 3. The condition of the permanent rent contract concerning the rent payer's refusal to use the right of redemption shall be null and void. The contract may stipulate that the right to the permanent rent redemption may not be exercised during the lifetime of the rent recipient or during different periods that do not exceed 30 years since the conclusion of the contract. Article 593. The Redemption of Permanent Rent on the Demand of the Rent Recipient The permanent rent recipient shall have the right to demand the redemption of rent by the payer in the cases when: the rent payer has delayed its payment for more than one year, unless otherwise stipulated by the permanent rent contract; the rent payer has breaches his obligations of security rent payment (Article 587); the rent payer has been recognized as insolvent or other circumstances have appeared to testify patently to the fact that rent will not be paid out by him in the amount and in the period of time fixed by the contract; real estate, transferred against the rent payment, has replenished common property or has been divided among several persons; in other cases specified by the contract. Article 594. Redemption Price of Permanent Rent 1. Redemption of permanent price in cases, provided for by Articles 592 and 593 of this Code, shall be effected at the price fixed by the permanent rent contract. 2. In the absence of a clause on redemption price in the permanent rent contract, under which property has been transferred for charge on payment of permanent rent, redemption shall be made at the price that corresponds to the annual sum of rent subject to payment. 3. In the absence of a clause on redemption price in the permanent rent contract, under which property has been transferred for rent payment free of charge, redemption price shall include in addition to the annual sum of rental payments the price of the transferred property to be determined according to the rules, provided for by Item 3 of Article 424 of this Code. Article 595. Risk of Accidental Destruction of Property Transferred on Payment of Permanent Rent 1. The risk of accidental destruction or accidental damage of the property, transferred free of charge on payment of permanent rent, shall be borne by the rent payer. 2. In case of accidental destruction or accidental damage of the property, transferred for charge on payment of permanent rent, the payer shall have the right to demand accordingly the cessation of the obligation of rent payment or the charge of the conditions of its payment.

_ 3. Life Annuity

Article 596. Life Annuity Recipient

1. Life annuity may be established for the period of life of the individual who conveys property on rent payment or for the period of life of another individual indicated by the former individual. 2. It shall be permissible to introduce life annuity in favour of some individuals whose shares in the right to receive rent are regarded as equal, unless otherwise stipulated by the life annuity contract. In case of death of one of the rent recipients his share in the right to rent shall pass to the rent recipients who outlived him, unless the life annuity contract provides otherwise, and in case of death of the last recipient the rent payment obligation shall cease. 3. The contract establishing a life annuity in favour of the individual who had died by the time of concluding the contract shall be null and void.

Article 597. The Amount of Life Annuity

1. Life annuity shall be defined by the contract as a sum of money periodically paid out to the rent recipient during his life. 2. The amount of life annuity, defined in the contract, shall be per month not less than the minimum amount of the wage or salary, established by the law and in cases, provided for by Article 318 of this Code, shall be subject to increase. Article 598. Dates of Payment of Life Annuity Unless otherwise stipulated by the life annuity contract, life annuity shall be paid out at the end of each calendar month. Article 599. The Cancellation of the Life Annuity Contract on the Demand of the Rent Recipient 1. In case of essential violation of the life annuity contract by the rent payer, the rent recipient shall have the right to demand that the rent payer redeem rent on the terms, provided for by Article 594 of this Code, or cancel the contract and claim for compensation. 2. If an apartment, dwelling house or any other property has been alienated free of charge on payment of life annuity, the rent recipient shall have the right to demand this property in case of the substantial violation of the contract by the rent payer with the offset against its value on account of the redemption price of rent.

Article 600. Risk of Accidental Destruction of Property Transferred in Payment for Life Annuity

The accidental destruction or the accidental damage of the property transferred in payment for life annuity shall not absolve the rent payer from the obligation to pay it on the terms, provided for by the life annuity contract.

_ 4. Life Maintenance with Dependency

Article 601. The Contract of Life Maintenance with Dependency

1. Under the contract of life maintenance with dependency the rent recipient-individual shall transfer the dwelling house, apartment or land plot he owns or any other real estate into the ownership of the rent payer, who undertakes to carry on life maintenance with the dependency of the individual and/or the third person (persons) indicated by him. 2. The rules for life maintenance shall be applicable to the contract of life maintenance with dependency, unless otherwise stipulated by the rules of this paragraph.

Article 602. The Duty of Providing Maintenance with Dependency

1. The duty by the rent payer to provide the maintenance with dependency may include the satisfaction of needs in a dwelling, food and clothing, and if this is required by the individual's state of health, also the care of him. The contract of life maintenance with dependency may also provide for the payment of funeral services.
2. The contract of life maintenance with dependency shall estimate the value of the entire scope of maintenance with dependency. In this case, the value of the whole scope of monthly maintenance may not be less than two minimum amounts of statutory wages or salaries.
3. In settling the dispute between the parties over the scope of maintenance to be provided to an individual the court of law shall be guided by the principles of integrity and reasonableness.

Article 603. Replacement of Life Maintenance by Periodical Payments

The contract of life maintenance with dependency may provide for possible replacement of the provision of maintenance with dependency in kind with periodical monetary payments during the life of the individual.

Article 604. Alienation and Use of Property Transferred for Life Maintenance

The rent payer shall have the right to alienate, put in pledge or in any other way encumber real estate, transferred to him as security of life maintenance, only with the preliminary consent of the rent recipient. The rent payer shall be obliged to take necessary measures so that the use of said property during the period of the provision of life maintenance with dependency should not reduce the value of this property.

Article 605. The Termination of Life Maintenance with Dependency

1. The obligation of life maintenance with dependency shall cease with the death of the rent recipient.
2. In case of substantial breach by the rent payer of his obligations the rent recipient shall have the right to demand the return of real estate, transferred as security of life maintenance or the disbursement of redemption price on the terms, prescribed by Article 594 of this Code. In this case, the rent payer shall not have the right to claim the compensation for the expenses incurred in connection with the maintenance of the rent recipient.

(Content of Part II)

Chapter 34. Lease

_ 1. General Provisions on Lease

Article 606. Lease Agreement

Under the lease agreement (contract for lease of property) the lessor shall undertake to furnish to the leaseholder (hirer) property for charge in temporary possession and use or in temporary use. Fruit, produce and income received by the leaseholder as a result of leased property in keeping with the agreement shall be his property.

Article 607. Objects of Lease

1. Land plots and other separate natural objects, enterprises and other property complexes, buildings, structures, equipment, transport vehicles and other things, which do not forfeit their natural properties in the process of their use (non-consumed things) may be let on lease. The law may institute types of property which cannot be let on lease or can be leased with restriction. 2. The law may establish specific aspects of the lease of land plots and other separate natural objects. 3. The lease agreement shall indicate data that make it possible to ascertain definitely property subject to the transfer to the leaseholder as an object of lease. In the absence of these data in the agreement the clause on the object subject to lease shall be deemed to not agreed upon by the parties, and the appropriate agreement shall not be regarded as concluded.

Article 608. Lessor

The right of leasing property shall belong to its owner. Lessors may also be represented by the persons who are authorized by law or by the owner to let property on lease.

Article 609. The Form and State Registration of the Lease Agreement

1. The lease agreement for a term of over one year shall be concluded in writing, and if at least one of the party is represented by a legal entity the lease agreement shall be concluded in writing, regardless of its term. 2. The agreement for lease of real estate shall be subject to state registration, unless otherwise stipulated by law. 3. The agreement for lease of property that provides for the transfer of the title to this property to the leaseholder (Article 624) shall be concluded in the form stipulated for the contract of sale of such property.

Article 610. The Validity Term of the Lease Agreement

1. The lease agreement shall be concluded for a term to be defined by the agreement.
2. If the period of lease is not defined by the agreement, the lease agreement shall be deemed to be concluded for an indefinite period. In this case, each party shall have the right to recede at any time from the agreement by warning the other party one month before schedule and in case of real estate lease - three months before schedule. The law may fix a different period for warning that the lease agreement, concluded for an indefinite term, ceases to be valid.
3. The law may provide for a maximum period (deadline) of the agreement for particular types of lease, and also for the lease of particular types of property. In these cases, if the term of the lease is not fixed by the agreement and neither party has receded from it before the expiry of the maximum period, fixed by the law, the agreement shall cease to operate upon the expiry of the deadline. The lease agreement concluded for a term exceeding the statutory maximum period shall be deemed to be concluded for a term equal to the time-limit.

Article 611. The Supply of Property to the Leaseholder

1. The lessor shall be obliged to supply property to the leaseholder in the state meeting the terms and conditions of the lease agreement and the purpose of property.
2. Property shall be let on lease together with all its accessories and related documents (technical certificate, quality certificate, etc.), unless otherwise stipulated by the agreement. If such accessories and documents have not been handed over, the leaseholder may not use property in accordance with its designation or is largely deprived of those assets on which he had the right to count when he concluded the agreement and he may claim for the supply of such accessories and documents by the lessor or for the cancellation of the agreement, and also for compensation of losses.
3. If the lessor has failed to furnish to the leaseholder the leased property within the period fixed in the agreement or within the reasonable period when the agreement does not indicate such period, the leaseholder shall have the right to reclaim this property from him in keeping with Article 398 of this Code and claim damages caused by delayed execution or to demand the dissolution of the agreement and to claim damages caused by its non-execution.

Article 612. The Liability of the Lessor for Defects of the Leased Property

1. The lessor shall be answerable for the defects of leased property which prevent in full or in part to its use, if even during the conclusion of the contract he did not know about these defects. In case of discovery of such defects the leaseholder shall have the right at his option: the demand that the lessor should either remove free of charge the defects of property or reduce proportionately the rental payment, or indemnify his expenses on the removal of the defects of property; to deduct directly the sum of the expenses incurred in the removal of these defects from the rental payment by notifying the lessor about this in advance; to demand the anticipatory dissolution of the contract. The lessor, who is notified about the leaseholder's claims or about his intention to eliminate the defects of property at the expense of the lessor, may replace without delay the property granted to the leaseholder by other similar property in a proper state or remove its defects free of charge. If the satisfaction of the leaseholder's claims or the deduction by him of the expenses on the removal of the defects from the rental payment does not cover the losses caused to the leaseholder, he shall have the right to demand the reparation of the uncovered part of the losses. 2. The lessor shall not be liable for the defects of the leased property which have been specified by him during the conclusion of the lease agreement or had been known to the leaseholder beforehand or should have been discovered by the leaseholder during the inspection of the property or the verification of its good condition during the conclusion of the agreement or the granting of property on lease.

Article 613. The Rights of Third Parties to the Leased Property

The lease of property shall not be a ground for the termination or charge of the rights of third parties to this property. During the conclusion of a lease agreement the lessor shall be obliged to warn the leaseholder about all the rights of third parties to the leased property (servitude, right of pledge, etc.). Default by the lessor on this duty shall entitle the leaseholder to demand a reduction in the rental payment or to dissolve the agreement and compensate for the losses.

Article 614. Rental Payment

1. The leaseholder shall be obliged to make a charge for the use of property (rental payment) in due time. Procedure, conditions and terms of making the rental payment shall be determined by the lease agreement. In case where the agreement does not determine the procedure, conditions and terms of making the rental payment, it shall be held that the procedure, conditions and terms are usually applied in the lease of similar property under comparable circumstances.
2. The rental payment shall be introduced for the leased property as a while or for each component in the form:
1) the fixed sum of payments made periodically or in a lump;
2) the established share of products, fruits or incomes obtained as a result of the use of leased property;
3) definite services rendered by the leaseholder;
4) the transfer by the leaseholder to the lessor of the thing specified by the contract for ownership or lease;
5) the payment by the leaseholder of the costs stipulated by the agreement for the improvement of leased property.
In the lease agreement the parties thereto may provide for the combination of said forms of the rental payment or for other forms of lease payment.
3. Unless otherwise stipulated by the agreement, the amount of the rental payment may be changed by agreement of the parties in the periods, provided for by the agreement, but at least once in a year. The law may envisage other minimum terms of the review of the amount of the rental payment for particular types of lease, and also for the lease of particular types of property.
4. Unless the law provides for otherwise, the leaseholder shall have the right to demand a corresponding reduction of the rental payment, if in view of the circumstances for which he is not answerable, the conditions of the use, specified by the lease agreement, or the state of property have deteriorated substantially.
5. Unless otherwise stipulated by the lease agreement, in case the leaseholder has substantially violated the terms of making the rental payment, the lessor shall have the right to demand that he should make the rental payment short of the term in the period fixed by the lessor. In this case. the lessor shall not have the right to demand an anticipatory payment of the rental for more than two terms in succession.

Article 615. The Use of Leased Property

1. The leaseholder shall be obliged to make use of leased property in accordance with the terms and conditions of the lease agreement, and if such terms and conditions in the agreement have not been defined, in accordance with the purpose of property. 2. The leaseholder shall have the right to let the leased property in sub-tenancy with the consent of the lessor and to transfer his rights and duties under the lease agreement to another person (transfer of lease), to place the leased property in gratuitous use, and also to put the leasehold interests in pledge and to introduce them as a contribution to the authorized capital of economic partnerships and societies or as a share to the producer cooperative, unless otherwise stipulated by this Code, other law or other legal acts. In said cases, with the exception of the transfer of lease, the leaseholder shall remain to be liable under the agreement to the lessor. A sublease contract may not be concluded for the term exceeding the term of the lease agreement. The rules for lease agreements shall be applied to the sublease contracts, unless otherwise stipulated by the law or other legal acts. 3. If the leaseholder makes use of property out of accordance with the terms and conditions of the lease agreement and the purpose of property, the lessor shall have the right to demand the dissolution of the agreement and claim damages.

Article 616. The Duty of the Parties to Maintain Leased Property

1. The lessor shall be obliged to carry out the overhaul of leased property at his expense, unless otherwise stipulated by the law, other legal acts or the lease agreement. An overhaul shall be carried out on time, fixed by the agreement, and if it is not provided for by the agreement or is caused by urgent necessity, it shall be carried out within the reasonable period. The breach by the lessor of the duty of making an overhaul shall entitle the leaseholder to implement the following measures at his option: to carry out the overhaul, specified by the agreement or caused by urgent necessity and to exact from the lessor the cost of the overhaul or to count towards the rental payment; to demand a corresponding reduction of the rental payment; to demand the dissolution of the agreement and to claim damages. 2. The leaseholder shall be obliged to maintain property in good condition, to carry out an overhaul at his own expense and incur expenses on the maintenance of property, unless otherwise stipulated by the law or the lease agreement.

Article 617. The Preservation of the Lease Agreement in Force in Case of the Change of the Parties Thereto

1. The transfer of the right of ownership (economic management, operative management, life inheritable possession) of leased property to another person shall not be a ground for the alteration or dissolution of the lease agreement.
2. In case of death of the individual who leases real estate, his rights and duties shall pass to the heir under the lease agreement, unless otherwise stipulated by the law or the agreement. The lessor shall have no right to refuse such heir to enter in the agreement for the remaining term of its validity, except for the case when its conclusion was conditioned by the leaseholder's personal qualities.

Article 618. The Termination of the Sublease Contract in Case of the Anticipatory Cessation of the Lease Agreement

1. Unless otherwise stipulated by the lease agreement, the anticipatory cessation of the lease agreement shall involve the termination of the sublease contract concluded in accordance with the agreement. In this case the subleaseholder shall have the right to conclude a lease agreement on the property used by him in keeping with the sublease contract within the remaining period of sublease on the terms and conditions that correspond to those of the ceased lease agreement. 2. If the lease agreement is null and void on the grounds, provided for by this Code, the sublease contract concluded in conformity with it shall also be null and void.

Article 619. Early Rescission of the Lease Agreement on Demand of the Lessor

At the request of the lessor the lease agreement may be dissolved by a court of law short of the term in cases when the leaseholder: 1) makes use of property with the substantial violation of the terms and conditions of the agreement or of the purpose of property, or with repeated breaches; 2) substantially deteriorates property; 3) fails to make a rental payment for more than two times in succession upon the expiry of the payment date, fixed by the agreement; 4) fails to carry out an overhaul of property in the time-limits fixed by the lease agreement, and in the absence of them in the agreement within reasonable periods in cases where in conformity with the law, other legal acts or the agreement the overhaul is the duty of the leaseholder. The lease agreement may provide for other grounds of the anticipatory dissolution of the agreement on the demand of the lessor in compliance with Item 2 of Article 450 of this Code. The lessor shall have the right to demand that the agreement be dissolved short of the term only after the sending to the leaseholder a written warning about the need to execute the obligation by him within the reasonable period of time.

Article 620. The Anticipatory Dissolution of the Lease Agreement on the Demand of the Leaseholder

At the request of the leaseholder the lease agreement may be dissolved short of the term by a court of law in cases when: 1) the lessor fails to grant property for use by the leaseholder or creates impediments to the use of property in keeping with the terms and conditions of the agreement or the purpose of property; 2) the property transferred to the leaseholder has the defects which prevent its use and which have not been specified by the lessor during the conclusion of the agreement, have not been known to the leaseholder in advance and should not have been discovered by the leaseholder during the inspection of the property or the verification of its serviceability at the time of the conclusion of the agreement; 3) the lessor does not carry out the duty of effecting major repairs of property within the time-limits fixed by the lease agreement and in their absence - within the reasonable period of time; 4) property proves to be in a faulty condition in view of the circumstances beyond the control of the leaseholder. The lease agreement may also institute other grounds for the anticipatory dissolution of the agreement on the demand of the leaseholder in keeping with Item 2 of Article 450 of this Code.

Article 621. The Leaseholder's Preferential Right to Conclude a Lease Agreement for a New Term

1. Unless otherwise stipulated by the law or the lease agreement, the leaseholder who discharged his duties properly shall have, with other things being equal, the right of preference to other persons to the conclusion of a lease agreement for a new term upon the expiry of the validity term of the agreement. The leaseholder shall be obliged to inform in writing the lessor about his desire to conclude such agreement, and if the agreement does not indicate such time - within the reasonable period before the expiry of the validity term of the agreement. With the conclusion of a lease agreement for a new period the terms and conditions of the agreement may be changed by agreement between the parties thereto. If the lessor has denied the leaseholder the conclusion of an agreement for a new term, but has concluded the lease agreement with another person during one year since the day of the expiry of the validity term of the agreement, the leaseholder shall have the right at his option to demand in court the transfer of the rights and duties under the concluded agreement to himself and the reparation of the losses, caused by the refusal to resume the lease agreement with him, or the reparation of such losses alone. 2. If the leaseholder continues to make use of property after the expiry of the validity term of the agreement in the absence of objections on the part of the lessor, the agreement shall be deemed to be resumed on the same conditions for an indefinite period of time (Article 610).

Article 622. The Return of Leased Property to the Lessor

With the termination of the lease agreement the leaseholder shall be obliged to return to the lessor in the same condition in which he received it with an allowance for normal wear and tear or in the condition specified by the agreement. If the leaseholder has failed to return leased property or returned it untimely, the lessor shall have the right to demand that the rental payment be made during all the time of its delay. In case of where the said payment does not cover the losses caused to the lessor, the leaseholder may claim damages. In case where a penalty is provided for the untimely return of leased property, losses may be recovered in full measure over and above the penalty, unless otherwise stipulated by the agreement.

Article 623. Improvements of Leased Property

1. Separable improvements of leased property made by the leaseholder shall be his property, unless otherwise stipulated by the lease agreement. 2. In case where the leaseholder has made the improvements in leased property, which are not separable without detriment to this property, at the expense of his own pecuniary means and with the consent of the lessor, the leaseholder shall have the right to the replacement of the value of these improvements after the termination of the agreement, unless otherwise stipulated by the lease agreement. 3. The value of inseparable improvements of leased property made by the leaseholder without the lessor's consent shall be subject to reparation, unless otherwise stipulated by the law. 4. Improvements in leased property, both separable and unseparable, made at the expense of depreciation deductions from this property shall be the property of the leaseholder.

Article 624. Redemption of Leased Property

1. The law or the lease agreement may stipulate that leased property is to be passed into the hands of the leaseholder upon the expiry of the period of lease or before its expiry, provided that the leaseholder has paid the entire redemption price, specified by the agreement. 2. If the lease agreement does not provide for the clause on the redemption of leased property, it may be introduced by the additional agreement of the parties, which have the right to come to an agreement on the reckoning of the earlier paid rental in the redemption price. 3. The law may specify cases of banning the redemption of leased property.

Article 625. Specific Aspects of Particular Types of Lease and Lease of Particular Kinds of Property

Provisions stipulated by this paragraph shall be applicable to particular types of the lease agreement and the agreement of lease of particular kinds of property (hire, lease of transport vehicles, rent of buildings and structures, rent of enterprises, financial lease), unless otherwise stipulated by the rules of this Code on these agreements.

_ 2. Hire

Article 626. The Hire Contract

1. Under the hire contract the lessor who lets property on lease as permanent business shall undertake to grant to the leaseholder movable property for charge in temporary possession and use. Property given under the hire contract shall be used for consumer purposes, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract or unless the contrary follows from the substance of the obligation. 2. The hire contract shall be concluded in writing. 3. The hire contract shall be a public agreement (Article 426).

Article 627. The Term of the Hire Contract

1. The hire contract shall be concluded for a term of one year. 2. The rules for the renewal of the lease agreement for an indefinite period and for the preferential right of the leaseholder to renew the lease agreement (Article 621) shall not be applicable to the hire contract. 3. The leaseholder shall have the right to abandon the hire contract at any time by warning the lessor in writing about his intention within ten days.

Article 628. The Granting of Property to the Leaseholder

The lessor who concludes the hire contract shall be obliged to verify the serviceability of leased property in the presence of the leaseholder, and also to acquaint the leaseholder with the rules of using property or to issue to him written instructions on the use of this property.

Article 629. Removal of Defects of Leased Property

1. In case of discovery by the leaseholder of defects in leased property that wholly or partially prevent its use, the lessor shall be obliged, within 10 days since the day of the leaseholder's statement on defects, unless the hire contract provides for a shorter period, to remove free of charge the defects of property on the spot or to replace this property for other similar property held in proper condition.
2. If the defects of leased property have resulted from the breach by the leaseholder of the rules of the operation and maintenance of property, the leaseholder shall pay to the lessor the cost of repairs and transportation of property.

Article 630. Rental Payment Under the Hire Contract

1. A rental payment under the hire contract shall be fixed in definite payments made periodically or in the lump. 2. If the leaseholder returns property short of the term, the lessor shall return to him the corresponding part of the received rental payment, reckoning it since the day succeeding the day of the actual return of property. 3. Recovery of rental payment arrears from the leaseholder shall be effected in the extra-judicial order on the basis of the notary's endorsement of execution.

Article 631. The Use of Leased Property

1. Major and current repairs of property leased under the hire contract shall be the duty of the lessor. 2. The sub-lease of the property granted to the leaseholder under the hire contract, the transfer by him of his rights and duties under the hire contract to another person, the provision of this property for gratuitous use, the pledge of lease rights and their contribution as a property share to economic partnerships and companies or as a share to producer cooperatives shall not be allowed.

_ 3. Lease of Transport Vehicles

__ 1. Lease of a Transport Vehicle with the Provision of Services for Driving and Technical Operation Article 632. The Agreement of Lease of a Transport Vehicle with Its Crew Under the agreement of lease (chartering for a time) of a transport vehicle with its crew the lessor shall grant to the leaseholder a transport vehicle for charge in temporary possession and use and shall render the services for driving it and technical operation. The rules for the renewal of the lease agreement for an indefinite period and for the preferential right of the leaseholder to the conclusion of a lease agreement for a new period (Article 621) shall not be applicable to the lease agreement of a transport vehicle with its crew.

Article 633. The Form of the Agreement of Lease of a Transport Vehicle with Its Crew

The agreement of lease of a transport vehicle with its crew shall be concluded in writing, regardless of its validity term. The rules for the registration of lease agreements, provided for by Item 2 of Article 609 of this Code, shall not be applicable to such agreement.

Article 634. The Duty of the Lessor to Maintain a Transport Vehicle

During the entire validity term of the agreement of lease of a transport vehicle with its crew the lessor shall be obliged to maintain the proper condition of the leased transport vehicle, including minor and major repairs and the provision of requisite accessories.

Article 635. The Duty of the Lessor to Drive and Operate a Transport Vehicle

1. The services of driving and operating a transport vehicle granted by the lessor to the leaseholder shall provide for its normal and safe operation in keeping with the purposes of lease specified in the agreement. The agreement of lease of a transport vehicle with its crew may envisage a wider range of services offered to the leaseholder. 2. The crew of a transport vehicle and the skill of its members shall comply with the rules obligatory for the parties, the terms and conditions of the agreement, and if such requirements have not been established by those mandatory rules, the crew and the skill of its members shall comply with the requirements of the usual practice of the operation of the transport vehicle of this type and with the terms and conditions of the agreement. The crew members shall be the workers of the lessor. They shall be subordinate to the lessor's orders dealing with driving and technical operation and to the leaseholder's order dealing with the commercial exploitation of the transport vehicle. Unless the lease agreement provides otherwise, the expenses on the payment for the services of the crew members, and also the expenses incurred in their maintenance shall be borne by the lessor.

Article 636. The Duty of the Leaseholder to Pay Expenses Incurred in the Commercial Exploitation of a Transport Vehicle

Unless otherwise stipulated by the agreement of lease of a transport vehicle with its crew, the leaseholder shall bear the expenses incurred in the commercial exploitation of a transport vehicle, including the expenses on the payment for fuel and other materials spent during this exploitation and on the payment of fees.

Article 637. Insurance of a Transport Vehicle

Unless otherwise stipulated by the agreement of lease of a transport vehicle with its crew, the duty of insuring the transport vehicle and/or insuring the liability for the damage which can be caused by it or in connection with its operation shall be vested with the leaseholder in those cases where such insurance is obligatory by virtue of the law or the agreement. Article 638. Agreements with Third Parties on the Use of a Transport Vehicle 1. Unless otherwise stipulated by the agreement of lease of a transport vehicle with its crew, the leaseholder shall be obliged to sublease the transport vehicle without the lessor's consent. 2. Within the framework of the commercial exploitation of a leased transport vehicle the leaseholder shall have the right to conclude on his own behalf contracts of carriage and other contracts with third parties without the lessor's consent, unless these contracts contradict the purposes of the use of the transport vehicle, indicated in the lease agreement, and if such purposes have not been set, unless these contracts contradict the designation of the transport vehicle. Article 639. Liability for the Harm Caused to a Transport Vehicle In case of the destruction of or damage to the leased transport vehicle the leaseholder shall be obliged to compensate to the lessor for the losses caused, if the latter proves that the destruction of or the damage to the transport vehicle have taken place due to the circumstances for which the leaseholder is answerable in keeping with the law or the lease agreement. Article 640. Liability for the Harm Caused by a Transport Vehicle The liability for the harm, caused to third persons by the leased transport vehicle, its mechanisms, devices, equipment, shall be borne by the leaseholder in keeping with the rules, envisaged by Chapter 59 of this Code. He shall have the right to have recourse against the leaseholder concerning the reimbursement of the sums of money paid to third persons, if he proves that the harm has been caused through the fault of the leaseholder. Article 641. Specific Aspects of Transport Vehicles of Particular Types The transport charters and codes may provide for the lease of transport vehicles of particular types and the provision of driving and technical operation services with their specific aspects other than those specified by this paragraph.

__ 2. The Lease of a Transport Vehicle Without Driving and Technical Operation Services Article 642. The Agreement of Lease of a Transport Vehicle without a Crew Under the agreement of lease of a transport vehicle without a crew the lessor shall give to the leaseholder the transport vehicle for charge in his temporary possession and use without rendering the driving and technical operation services. The rules for the renewal of the lease agreement for an indefinite period and for the preferential right of the leaseholder to conclude the lease agreement for a new period (Article 621) shall not be applicable to the agreement of lease of a transport vehicle without a crew.

Article 643. The Form of the Agreement of Lease of a Transport Vehicle Without a Crew

The agreement of lease of a transport vehicle without a crew shall be concluded in writing, regardless of its validity term. The rules for the registration of lease agreements, envisaged by Item 2 of Article 609 of this Code, shall not be applied to such agreement. Article 644. The Lessor's Duty of Maintaining a Transport Vehicle During the entire validity term of the agreement of lease of a transport vehicle without a crew the leaseholder shall be obliged to support the proper condition of the leased transport vehicle, including to carry on minor and major repairs. Article 645. The Leaseholder's Duty of Driving a Transport Vehicle and Operating It The leaseholder shall drive the leased transport vehicle on his own and carry out its commercial exploitation and technical operation.

Article 646. The Leaseholder's Duty of Paying the Expenses Incurred in the Maintenance of a Transport Vehicle

Unless otherwise stipulated by the agreement of lease of a transport vehicle without a crew, the leaseholder shall bear expenses on the maintenance of the leased transport vehicle and its insurance, including the insurance of his liability, and also expenses arising from its operation. Article 647. Contracts with Third Persons on the Use of a Transport Vehicle 1. Unless otherwise stipulated by the agreement of lease of a transport vehicle without a crew, the leaseholder shall have the right to sublease the leased transport vehicle without the lessor's consent on the terms and conditions of the agreement of lease of the transport vehicle with the crew or without it. 2. The leaseholder shall have the right, on his behalf and without the lessor's consent, to conclude contracts of carriage and other contracts with third persons, unless these contracts contradict the purposes of the use of the transport vehicle, indicated in the lease agreement, and if such purposes have not been set, unless these contracts contradict the designation of the transport vehicle. Article 648. Liability for the Harm Inflicted by a Transport Vehicle The liability for the harm caused to third persons by a transport vehicle, its mechanisms, devices and equipment shall be borne by the leaseholder in keeping with the rules of Chapter 59 of this Code. Article 649. Specific Aspects of the Lease of Transport Vehicles of Particular Types The transport charters and codes may provide for the lease of transport vehicles of particular types without the provision of driving and technical operation services with their specific aspects other than those specified by this paragraph.

_ 5. The Lease of Enterprises Article 656. The Contract of Lease of the Enterprise 1. Under the contract of lease of the enterprise as a property complex to be used for business the lessor shall undertake to grant to the leaseholder for charge in temporary possession and use land plots, buildings, structures, equipment and other fixed assets included in the enterprise, to transfer in the order, on the terms and within the limits of the contract the stocks of raw materials, fuel, auxiliary materials and other current assets, the rights of using land, water and other natural resources, buildings, structures and equipment, other property rights of the lessor related to the enterprise, the rights to the signs which individualize the performance of the enterprise, and other exclusive rights, and also to cede to him the rights of claims and to transfer to him the debts of the enterprise. The transfer of the rights of possession and use of the assets held in the ownership of other persons, including land and other natural resources, shall be effected in the order, provided for by the law and other legal acts. 2. The rights of the lessor, received by him on the basis of the permit (license) for the engagement in the respective activity, shall not be transferred to the leaseholder, unless otherwise stipulated by the law or other legal acts. The inclusion in the composition of the enterprise to be transferred under the contract of the obligations which the leaseholder is unable to execute in the absence of such permit (license) shall not release the lessor from the corresponding obligations to creditors.

Article 657. The Rights of Creditors in Case of the Lease of an Enterprise

1. Under the obligations included in the composition of the enterprise the creditors shall be notified in writing by the lessor about the lease of the enterprise before it is transferred to the leaseholder. 2. The creditor who has failed to inform the lessor in writing about his consent to transfer the debt shall have the right to demand the termination or the anticipatory execution of the obligation and the compensation for the losses caused by this during three months since the day of receipt of the notice of the lease of the enterprise. 3. The creditor who has not been notified about the lease of the enterprise in the procedure, envisaged by Item 1 of this Article, may bring an action about the satisfaction of the claims, stipulated by Item 2 of this Article, during one year since the day when he has known or should have known about the lease of the enterprise. 4. After the lease of the enterprise the lessor and the leaseholder shall bear joint and several liability for the debts, which have been included in the leased enterprise and which have been transferred to the leaseholder without the creditor's consent.

Article 658. The Form and State Registration of the Contract of Lease of an Enterprise

1. The contract of lease of an enterprise shall be concluded in writing by drawing up one document to be signed by the parties thereto (Item 2 of Article 434). 2. The contract of lease of an enterprise shall be subject to state registration and shall be deemed to be concluded since the time of such registration. 3. Non-observance of the form of the contract of lease of an enterprise shall invalidate it. Article 659. The Transfer of the Leased Enterprise The enterprise shall be transferred to the leaseholder under the deed of conveyance. It shall be the duty of the lessor to prepare the enterprise for its transfer, to draw up and submit the deed of conveyance for signing. These operations shall be carried out at his expense, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract of lease of the enterprise. Article 660. The Use of the Property of the Leased Enterprise Unless otherwise stipulated by the contract of lease of an enterprise, the leaseholder shall have the right, without the lessor's consent, to sell, exchange, grant for temporary use or lend out material values that form part of the property of the leased enterprise, to sublease them and to transfer his rights and duties under the contract of lease in respect of such values to another person, provided that his does not involve the reduction of the cost of the enterprise and does not violate the other provisions of the contract of the lease of the enterprise. The said procedure shall not be applied to land and other natural resources, and also in other cases envisaged by the law. Unless otherwise stipulated by the contract of lease of the enterprise, the leaseholder shall have the right, without the lessor's consent, to introduce changes to the composition of the leased property complex, to carry out its reconstruction, expansion, and technical re-equipment that increases its cost. Article 661. The Leaseholder's Duties of Maintaining the Enterprise and Disbursing Expenses on Its Operation 1. During the entire validity term of the contract of lease of the enterprise the leaseholder shall be obliged to maintain the enterprise in proper technical condition, and also to carry out its current and major repairs. 2. The leaseholder shall bear the expenses incurred in the operation of the leased enterprise, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract, and also in the payment for the insurance of the leased property. Article 662. The Introduction of Improvements to the Leased Enterprise by the Leaseholder The leaseholder of an enterprise shall have the right to the compensation to him of the cost of inseparable improvements in the leased property, regardless of the permission of the lessor for such improvements, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract of lease of the enterprise. The lessor may be dispensed by the court from the duty of compensating to the leaseholder the cost of such improvements, if he proves that the leaseholder's outlays on these improvements increase the cost of the leased property in disproportion to the improvement of its quality and/or operation properties or in case of such improvements the principles of conscientiousness and reasonableness have been breached. Article 663. The Application of the Rules for the Consequences of the Invalidity of Transactions and for the Alteration and Dissolution of Contracts to the Contract of Lease of the Enterprise The rules of this Code for the consequences of the invalidity of transactions and for the alteration and dissolution of the contract, which provide for the return or recovery in kind of the received payment under the contract from one party or from both parties, shall be applicable to the contract of lease of the enterprise, unless such consequences violate substantially the rights and law-protected interests of the creditors of the lessor and the leaseholder and other persons and unless they run counter to public interests. Article 664. The Return of the Leased Enterprise With the termination of the contract of lease of the enterprise the leased property complex shall be returned to the lessor with the observance of the rules, provided for by Articles 656, 657 and 659 of this Code. In this case the preparation of the enterprise for the transfer to the lessor, including the drawing up and submission of a deed of conveyance for signing shall be the duty of the leaseholder and shall be effected at his expense, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract.

_ 6. Financial Lease (Leasing)

Article 665. The Contract of Financial Lease

Under the contract of financial lease (leasing contract) the lessor shall undertake to acquire the property indicated by the leaseholder from the seller specified by him and to grant to the leaseholder this contract for charge in temporary possession and use for business purposes. In this case the lessor shall bear no responsibility for the choice of a subject of the lease and of a seller. The contract of financial lease may provide for making the choice of a seller and acquired property by the lessor. Article 666. The Subject of the Contract of Financial Lease Any non-consumed things used in business, except for land plots and other natural objects may be the subject of the contract of financial lease. Article 667. The Notification of the Seller about the Lease of Property The lessor who acquires property for the leaseholder shall notify the seller that this property is intended for its lease by a definite person. Article 668. The Transfer of the Subject of the Contract of Financial Lease to the Leaseholder 1. Unless otherwise stipulated by the contract of financial lease, the property which is the subject of this contract shall be transferred by the seller directly the leaseholder in the place of location of the latter. 2. In case where property, being the subject of the contract of financial lease, is not transferred to the leaseholder in the period fixed in the contract or in the reasonable period, if the contract does not fix such date, the leaseholder shall have the right to demand the dissolution of the contract and claim damages, if delay was caused by the circumstances beyond the contract of the lessor. Article 669. The Transfer of the Risk of Accidental Destruction of, or Accidental Damage to, Property to the Leaseholder The risk of accidental destruction of, or accidental damage to, the leased property shall pass to the leaseholder at the time of the transfer of the leased property to him, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract of financial lease.

Article 670. Liability of the Seller

1. The leaseholder shall have the right to place directly to the seller of the property, which is the subject of the contract of financial lease, the claims, following from the contract of sale, concluded between the seller and the lessor, for the quality and completeness of the property, the terms of its delivery and in other cases of the improper performance of the contract by the seller. In this case the leaseholder shall have the rights and bear the duties, provided for by this Code for the buyer, except for the duty of paying for the acquired property, as if he was a party to the contract of sale of said property. However the leaseholder may not dissolve the contract of sale with the seller without the lessor's consent. In their relations with the seller the leaseholder and the lessor act as joint and several creditors (Article 326). 2. Unless otherwise stipulated by the contract of financial lease, the lessor shall not be liable to the leaseholder for the fulfilment by the seller of the claims following from the contract of sale, except in cases where the responsibility for the choice of a seller rests with the lessor. In the latter case the leaseholder shall have the right at his own option to make claims following from the contract of sale, both directly to the seller of property and to the lessor, who bear joint and several liability.

(Content of Part II)

Chapter 35. The Renting of Living Accommodation

Article 671. The Contract of Renting Living Accommodation

1. Under the contract of renting living accommodation one party - the owner of living quarters or the person authorized by him (renter) - shall be obliged to give to the other part (tenant) living accommodation for charge in possession and use for residing in it. 2. Living accommodation may be granted to legal entities in possession and/or use on the basis of the lease agreement or another contract. A legal entity may use living quarters for the residence of private persons alone. Article 672. The Contract of Renting Living Accommodation in the State and Municipal Housing Stock of Social Use 1. Living quarters in the state and municipal housing stock in social use shall be given to individuals under the contract of the social renting of living accommodation. 2. The members of the family residing under the contract of the social renting of living accommodation together with the tenant shall enjoy all the rights and bear all the obligations under the contract of renting living quarters on a par with the tenant. On the demand of the tenant and the members of his family the contract may be concluded with one members of the family. In case of death of the tenant or of his retirement from living quarters the contract shall be concluded with one family members residing in these quarters. 3. A contract of the social renting of living accommodation shall be concluded on the grounds and conditions and in the order, provided for by the housing legislation. The rules of Articles 674, 675, 678, 680, 681 and Items 1-3 of Article 685 of this Code shall be applicable to the contract of the social renting of living accommodation, unless otherwise stipulated by the housing legislation. Article 673. The Object of the Contract of Renting Living Accommodation 1. Isolated living accommodation suitable for permanent residence (the apartment, dwelling house, part of the apartment or dwelling house). The fitness of living accommodation for residence shall be determined in the order, provided for by the housing legislation. 2. The tenant of living quarters in a tenement shall have the right to use property, indicated in Article 290 of this Code, in addition to the use of living accommodation. Article 674. The Form of the Contract of Renting Living Accommodation The contract of renting living accommodation shall be concluded in writing. Article 675. The Preservation of the Contract of Renting Living Accommodation When the Right of Ownership of Living Quarters Is Transferred The transfer of the right of ownership of living quarters under the contract of renting living accommodation shall not involve the dissolution or charge of the contract of renting living accommodation. In this case the new owner shall become a renter on the terms of the contract of renting concluded earlier. Article 676. The Obligations of the Renter of Living Quarters 1. The renter shall be obliged to transfer to the tenant free living quarters in a condition suitable for residence. 2. The renter shall be obliged to carry on proper exploitation of the dwelling house, in which the leased living quarters are to be found, to provide public utilities or ensure their provision to the tenant for charge, to carry on the repair of the common property in the tenement and of devices for rendering communal services in the living quarters. Article 677. The Tenant and Individuals Permanently Residing with Him 1. Only a private person may be a tenant under the contract of renting living accommodation. 2. The contract shall indicate individuals permanently residing in living quarters together with the tenant. In the absence of such indication in the contract these individuals shall be moved in living quarters in accordance with the rules of Article 679 of this Code. Individuals permanently residing together with the tenant shall have equal rights in the use of living accommodation. The relations between the tenant and such individuals shall be determined by law. 3. The tenant shall be liable to the renter for the actions of the individuals permanently residing together with him and violating the terms and conditions of the contract of renting living accommodation. 4. Individuals permanently residing together with the tenant may be notifying the renter conclude with the tenant a contract to the effect that all the individuals permanently residing in living quarters bear with the tenant joint and several liability to the renter. In this case such individuals shall be co-tenants. Article 678. The Obligations of the Tenant of Living Quarters The tenant shall be obliged to make use of living quarters for residence only, to preserve them and maintain them in proper condition. The tenant shall have no right to reconstruct living quarters without the renter's consent. The tenant shall be obliged to make payment for living accommodation. Unless otherwise stipulated by the contract, the tenant shall be obliged to make utility rates on his own. Article 679. The Moving-in of Individuals Permanently Residing with the Tenant Other individuals may be moved in living quarters with the consent of the renter, tenant and individuals permanently residing with him in the capacity of permanently residents. No consent shall be required in case of moving in minors. The moving-in shall be allowed with the observance of the requirements of legislation on the living space norm per one person, except for the case of moving in minors. Article 680. Temporary Lodgers The tenant and the individuals permanently residing with him shall have the right to permit temporary lodgers (users) to live free of charge in their living quarters by common agreement and with the preliminary notification of the renter. The renter may ban the living of temporary lodgers with the observance of the requirements of legislation on the living space norm per man. The period of living of temporary lodgers may not exceed six months. Temporary lodgers shall not possess the independent right of using living quarters. The tenant shall be responsible for their actions to the renter. Temporary lodgers shall be obliged to vacate living quarters upon the expiry of the period of residence agreed upon with them, and if this period is not agreed upon, they shall be obliged to vacate living quarters within seven days since the day of making the respective demand by the tenant or any individual permanently residing with him. Article 681. Repairs of the Leased Living Quarters 1. It shall be the duty of the tenant to carry out current repairs of leased living quarters, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract of renting living accommodation. 2. It shall be the duty of the renter to carry out major repairs of leased living quarters, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract of renting living accommodation. 3. It shall not be allowed to re-equip the dwelling house in which living quarters are to be found, if this re-equipment substantially change the conditions of using living quarters, without the consent of the tenant. Article 682. Payment for Living Quarters 1. The amount of the payment for living quarters shall be fixed by agreement between the parties in the contract of renting living quarters. If a maximum payment for living quarters has been fixed in accordance with the law, the payment provided for by the contract shall not exceed this amount. 2. It shall not be allowed to change the payment for living quarters unilaterally, except for the cases provided for by the law or the contract. 3. Payment for living quarters shall be made by the tenant within the periods of time, envisaged by the contract of renting living accommodation. If the contract does not provide for time-limits, payment shall be made by the tenant every month in the order, prescribed by the Housing Code of the Russian Federation. Article 683. The Time-limit in the Contract of Renting Living Accommodation 1. A contract of renting living accommodation shall be concluded for a term that does not exceed five years. If the contract does not fix the term, the contract shall be deemed to be concluded for five years. 2. The rules, envisaged by Item 2 of Article 677, Articles 680, 684-686, the fourth paragraph of Item 2 of Article 687 of this Code shall not be applied to the contract of renting living accommodation, concluded for a term of one year (short-term renting), unless otherwise stipulated by the contract. Article 684. The Preferential Right of the Tenant to Conclude a Contract for a New Term With the lapse of the term of the contract of renting living quarters the tenant shall have the preferential right to conclude a contract of renting living accommodation for a new term. Not later than three months before the expiry of the term of the contract of renting living quarters the renter shall propose that the tenant conclude a contract on the same or other conditions or warn the tenant about the refusal to prolong the contract in connection with the decision of not letting on lease living quarters during the period of not less than a year. If the renter has failed to perform this obligation, while the tenant has not refused to prolong the contract, the latter shall be deemed to be extended on the same conditions and for the same period. When the terms and conditions of the contract are being coordinated, the tenant shall have no right to demand that the number of persons permanently residing with him under the contract of renting living accommodation should be increased. If the renter has refused to prolong the contract in connection with the decision not to let premises on lease, but during one year since the day of the expiry of the validity term of the contract with the tenant has concluded the contract of renting living accommodation with another person, the tenant shall have the right to demand that this contract should be recognized as invalid and/or that compensation should be made for the losses caused by the refusal to renew the contract with him. Article 685. Sustenance of Living Quarters 1. Under the contract for sustenance of living quarters the tenant shall transfer for a term all the rented premise or the part thereof in use by subtenant with the consent of the renter. The subtenant shall not acquire the independent right of using living quarters. The tenant shall remain to be liable to the renter under the contract of renting living accommodation. 2. A contract for sustenance of living quarters may be concluded on condition that the requirements of legislation on the living space norm per one man should be met. 3. The contract for sustenance of living quarters shall be payable. 4. The validity term of the contract for sustenance of living quarters may not exceed the validity term of the contract of renting living quarters. 5. In case of the termination of the contract of renting living quarters short of the term, the contract for sustenance of living quarters shall cease simultaneously with it. 6. The rules for the preferential right to the conclusion of a contract for a new term shall not extend to the contract for sustenance of living quarters. Article 686. The Replacement of the Tenant in the Contract of Renting Living Accommodation 1. On the demand of the tenant and other private persons permanently residing with him and with the consent of the renter the tenant in the contract of renting living accommodation may be replaced by one of the persons of age permanently residing together with the tenant. 2. In the event of the tenant's death or of his retirement from living quarters, the contract shall continue to operate on the same conditions, and one of the private persons permanently residing with the former tenant shall become a tenant by general agreement between them. If such agreement is not reached, all the individuals permanently residing in living quarters shall become co-tenants. Article 687. The Dissolution of the Contract of Renting Living Quarters 1. With the consent of other persons permanently residing with him the tenant of living quarters shall have the right to cancel the contract of renting with the written warning of the renter three months beforehand. 2. A contract of renting living quarters may be dissolved in due course of law on the demand of the renter in the cases of: the non-deposition by the tenant of payment for living quarters for six months, unless the contract fixes a longer period, and in case of short-term renting when payment has not been made for more than two times upon the expiry of the term of payment fixed by the contract; the destruction of, or damage to, the premise by the tenant or other persons for whose actions he is answerable. By the court's decision the tenant may be granted the period of one year for the removal by him of the breaches that served as a ground for the dissolution of the contract of renting living accommodation. If during the period of time, fixed by a court of law, the tenant does not remove the breaches or does not take all the necessary measures to eliminate them, the court shall make a decision on the dissolution of the contract of renting living accommodation in reply to the repeated application of the renter. In this case, at the request of the tenant the court may postpone the execution of its decision for a term of not more than a year in its decision on the dissolution of the contract. 3. A contract of renting living accommodation may be dissolved by a court of law on the demand of any party to the contract: if the premise ceases to be suitable for permanent residence, and also in case of its fault; in other cases, provided for by the housing legislation. 4. If the tenant of living quarters or other private persons for whose actions he is answerable make use of living quarters not to its purpose or systematically violate the rights and interests of neighbours, the renter may warn the tenant about the need to remove these breaches. If the tenant or other persons, for the actions of which he is answerable, continue to make use of living quarters after the warning not to the purpose or to breach the rights and interests of neighbours, the tenant shall have the right to dissolve the contract of renting living accommodation judicially. In this case, the rules, provided for by the fourth paragraph of Item 2 of this Article, shall be applied.

Article 688. The Consequences of the Dissolution of the Contract of Renting Living Accommodation

In case of the dissolution of the contract of renting living accommodation the tenant and other persons living in these living quarters by the time of the cancellation of the contract shall be subject to eviction on the basis of the court's decision.

(Content of Part II)

Chapter 36. Gratuitous Use

Article 689. Contract for Gratuitous Use

1. Under the contract for gratuitous use (loan agreement) one party (lender) shall undertake to transfer a thing or transfers it in gratuitous use by the other party (borrower), while the latter shall undertake to return the same thing in the condition in which it received it with due account for normal depreciation or in the condition stipulated by the contract. 2. The rules of Article 607, Item 1 and Paragraph 1 of Item 2 of Article 610, Items 1 and 3 of Article 615, Item 2 of Article 621, Items 1 and 3 of Article 623 of this Code shall be accordingly applicable to the contract for gratuitous use.

Article 690. The Lender

1. The right of transferring a thing in gratuitous use shall belong to it owner and other persons authorized therefor by the law or by the owner. 2. A non-profit organization shall have no right to transfer property in gratuitous use by the person who is its founder, partner, manager, member of its management or control bodies. Article 691. The Giving of a Thing in Gratuitous Use 1. The lender shall be obliged to give a thing in the condition that corresponds to the terms of the contract for gratuitous use and its purpose. 2. A thing shall be given for gratuitous use with all its accessories and related documents (instructions on its use, technical certificate, etc.), unless otherwise stipulated by the contract. If such accessories and documents have not been given, and without them the thing can not be used according to its designation or its use is largely responsible for the loss of its value for the lender, the latter shall have the right to demand such accessories and documents or the cancellation of the contract and the indemnity for the real loss. Article 692. The Consequences of Failure to Give a Thing in Gratuitous Use If the lender fails to give a thing to the borrower, the latter shall have the right to demand the cancellation of the contract for gratuitous use and the indemnity for the real loss. Article 693. Liability for the Defects of the Thing Given for Gratuitous Use 1. The lender shall be liable for the defects of the thing which he deliberately or because of gross negligence did not specify during the conclusion of the contract for gratuitous use. In case of discovery of such defects the borrower shall have the right to demand from the lender at his option the gratuitous removal of the defects of the thing or the reimbursement of his expenses on the removal of the defects of the thing, or the anticipatory cancellation of the contract and the indemnity for the real loss. 2. The lender, being informed about the claims of the borrower or about his intention to eliminate the defects of the thing at the expense of the lender, may replace without delay the faulty thing by another similar thing in a proper condition. 3. The lender shall not be liable for the defects of the thing which were specified by him during the conclusion of the contract or had been known in advance to the borrower, or should have been discovered by the borrower during the inspection of the thing or the verification of its good condition during the conclusion of the contract or the transfer of the thing. Article 694. The Rights of Third Persons to the Thing Transferred for Gratuitous Use The transfer of a thing for gratuitous use shall not be a ground for the alteration or termination of the rights of third persons to this thing. During the conclusion of a contract for gratuitous use the lender shall be obliged to warn the borrower about all the rights of third persons to this thing (servitude, the right of the pawning of the thing, etc.). Default on this obligation shall entitle the borrower to demand the dissolution of the contract and the indemnity for the real loss. Article 695. The Obligation of the Borrower to Maintain a Thing The borrower shall be obliged to maintain the thing received for gratuitous use in a good condition, including to effect minor and major repairs and to bear all the expenses on its maintenance, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract for gratuitous use. Article 696. The Risk of Accidental Destruction of, or Accidental Damage to, the Thing The borrower shall bear the risk of accidental destruction of, or accidental damage to, the thing received for gratuitous use, if the thing has been destroyed or become faulty in view of the fact that he used it out of accordance with the contract for gratuitous use or its purpose, or has transferred the thing to a third person without the lender's consent. The borrower shall also bear the risk of accidental destruction of, or accidental damage to, the thing, if with due account of actual circumstances he could prevent its destruction or damage by sacrificing his thing but has preferred to preserve his thing. Article 697. Liability for the Harm Inflicted on the Third Person As a Result of the Use of a Thing The lender shall be liable for the harm inflicted on the third person as a result of the use of a thing, unless he proves that the harm was caused in consequence of intent or gross negligence on the part of the borrower or the person who is in possession of this thing with the lender's consent. Article 698. The Cancellation of the Contract for Gratuitous Use Short of the Term 1. The lender shall have the right to demand that the contract for gratuitous use should be cancelled short of the term in cases where the borrower: uses the thing out of accordance with the contract or with its designation; fails to discharge the obligation of keeping the thing in good condition or of maintaining it; substantially worsens the condition of the thing; has handed over the thing to a third person without the lender's consent. 2. The borrower shall have the right to demand to anticipatory cancellation of the contract for gratuitous use in the following cases: if defects have been discovered that makes impossible or burdensome the normal use of the thing and, moreover he did not know about them and could not know about them at the time of the conclusion of the contract; if the thing proves to be in a condition unsuitable for its use by reason of circumstances for which he is not answerable; if during the conclusion of the contract the lender did not warn him about the rights of third persons to the thing being handed over to them; if the lender has failed to discharge the obligation of handing over the thing or its accessories and related documents. Article 699. Repudiation of the Contract for Gratuitous Use 1. Each party to the contract shall have the right to repudiate at any time the contract for gratuitous use, concluded without an indication of its validity term, by informing the other party one month in advance, unless the contract stipulates a different date of notification. 2. Unless otherwise stipulated by the contract, the borrower shall have the right to repudiate at any time the contract, concluded with an indication of its validity term, in the procedure, envisaged by Item 1 of this Article.

Article 700. The Change of the Parties to the Contract for Gratuitous Use

1. The lender shall have the right to alienate a thing or to hand it over for lucrative use to a third person. In this case, the new owner or user shall receive the rights under the contract for gratuitous use, concluded earlier, while his rights to the thing shall be encumbered with the rights of the borrower. 2. In case of the lender's death or the reorganization or liquidation of the lending legal entity, the rights and obligations of the lender under the contract for gratuitous use shall pass on to the heir (legal successor) or to the other person to whom the right of ownership of the thing or another right, on the basis of which the thing was handed over for gratuitous use, has been transferred. In case of the reorganization of the lending legal entity its rights and obligations under the contract shall pass to the legal entity which is its legal successor, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract.

Article 701. The Termination of the Contract for Gratuitous Use

The contract for gratuitous use shall cease in case of the borrower's death or the liquidation of the borrowing legal entity, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract.

(Content of Part II)

Chapter 37. Contract of Hiring Work

_ 1. General Provisions on Contract of Hiring Work

Article 702. Contract of Work and Labour

1. Under the work and labour contract one party (contractor) shall undertake to perform definite work according to the assignment of the other party (customer) and to turn it over to the customer, whereas the customer shall undertake to accept the result of this work and to pay for it. 2. The provisions envisaged by this paragraph shall be applied to the individual types of the work and labour contract (domestic contract, building contract, contract for the performance of design and survey works, contract works for state needs), unless otherwise stipulated by the rules of this Code for these types of contracts. Article 703. Works Performed Under the Contract of Work and Labour 1. A contract of work and labour shall be concluded for the manufacture or processing of a thing or for the performance of another work with the transfer of its result to the customer. 2. Under the contract of work and labour, concluded for the manufacture of a thing, the contractor shall transfer the rights to it to the customer. 3. Unless otherwise stipulated by the contract, the contractor shall determine methods of performing the customer's assignment on his own. Article 704. Performance of Work by the Contractor's Maintenance 1. Unless otherwise stipulated by the work and labour contract, the work shall be performed by the contractor's maintenance - from his materials and with his own forces and means. 2. The contractor shall bear liability for improper quality of materials and equipment supplied by him, and also for the provision of materials and equipment, encumbered with the rights of third persons. Article 705. The Distribution of Risks Between the Parties 1. Unless otherwise stipulated by this Code, other laws or the contract of work and labour, the risk of accidental destruction of, or accidental damage to, materials, equipment, the things or assets used for the execution of the contract, transferred for processing, shall be borne by the party that has extended them; the risk of accidental destruction of, or accidental damage to, the result of the performed work before it is accepted by the customer shall be borne by the contractor. 2. In case of delay in the delivery and acceptance of the result of work the risks, specified in Item 1 of this Article, shall be borne by the part which has made this delay. Article 706. The General Contractor and the Subcontractor 1. Unless the obligation of the subcontractor to perform personally the work, envisaged by the contract, follows from the law or the work and labour contract, the contractor shall have the right to draw other persons (subcontractors) in the execution of his obligations. In this case the contractor shall play the part of the general contractor. 2. The contractor who has drawn a subcontractor in the execution of the work and labour contract in contravention of the provisions of Item 1 of this Article or the contract shall bear liability to the customer for the losses caused by the subcontractor's participation in the execution of the contract. 3. The general contractor shall bear liability to the customer for the consequences of the non-discharge or improper discharge of the obligations by the subcontractor in keeping with the rules of Item 1 of Article 313 and Article 403 of this Code and shall bear liability to the subcontractor for the non-fulfilment or improper fulfilment of the obligations by the customer under the work and labour contract. Unless otherwise stipulated by the law or the contract, the customer and the subcontractor shall not have the right to make to each other claims relating to the breach of the contracts, concluded by each of them with the general contractor. 4. With the general contractor's consent the customer shall have the right to conclude contracts for the performance of individual works with other persons. In this case the said persons shall bear liability directly to the customer for the non-performance or improper performance of work. Article 707. The Participation of Several Persons in the Performance of Work 1. If two or more persons act simultaneously on the side of the contractor, they shall be recognized in case of indivisibility of the subject-matter of the obligation as joint and several debtors with regard to the customer and accordingly as joint and several creditors. 2. In the event of the divisibility of the subject-matter of the obligation, and also in other cases, provided for by the law, other legal acts or the contract, each person, referred to in Item 1 of this Article, shall acquire rights and bear obligations with regard to the customer within the limits of their share (Article 321). Article 708. The Dates of the Performance of the Work 1. The work and labour contract shall indicate the initial and deadline expiry dates of the performance of work. By agreement between the parties the contract may also provide for the dates of completing in particular stages of the work concerned (interim dates). Unless otherwise stipulated by the law, other legal acts or the contract, the contractor shall bear liability for breaking both the initial or ultimate and interim dates of the performance of the work concerned. 2. The initial, ultimate and interim dates of the performance of the work may be changed in cases and in the order, rescribed by the contract. 3. The consequences of delay in execution, referred to in Item 2 of Article 405 of this Code shall ensue in case of breaking the ultimate date of the performance of the work concerned, and also of other times established by the work contract. Article 709. The Price of the Work 1. The work and labour contract shall indicate the price of the work subject to performance or the methods of its estimation. If there is no such indication in the contract, the price of the work shall be estimated in accordance with Item 3 of Article 424 of this Code. 2. The price in the work and labour contract shall include compensation for the contractor's costs and the remuneration due to him. 3. The price of the work may be estimated by means of drawing up its estimate. In the event the work is performed in accordance with the estimate made by the contractor, the estimate shall acquire the force and become a part of the work and labour contract since the time of its confirmation by the customer. 4. The price of the work (estimate) may be approximate or firm. In the absence of other references in the work and labour contract the price of the work shall be deemed to be firm. 5. If there is a need for additional works and for this reason for a substantial excess of the price of the work estimated approximately, the contractor shall be obliged to warn the customer in due time about this. The customer who has not given his consent to the price of the work, indicated in the work and labour contract shall have the right to repudiate the contract. In this case the contractor may demand that the customer should pay the price for the performed part of the work. The contractor who has not warned the customer in due time about the need of exceeding the price of the work, indicated in the contract, shall be obliged to fulfil the contract and retain the right to the payment for the work at the price specified in the contract. 6. The contractor shall have no right to demand an increase in the firm price, whereas the customer shall have no right to demand its decrease, including in the event when at the time of concluding the work and labour contract the possibility was excluded to make provision for the full scope of works subject to performance or of the expenses needed for this. In the event of the substantial increase in the case of materials and equipment provided by the contractor, and also of the services rendered to him by third persons, which cannot be foreseen during the conclusion of the contract, the contractor shall have the right to demand an increase in the fixed price, and should the customer refuse to meet this demand, he shall have the right to demand the dissolution of the contract in accordance with Article 451 of this Code. Article 710. The Saving of the Contractor 1. When the contractor's actual expenses prove to be less than those reckoned in the estimation of the price of the work, the contractor shall retain the right to the payment for works at the price, envisaged by the work and labour contract, unless the customer proves that the saving obtained by the contractor has influenced the quality of the performed works. 2. the work and labour contract may provide for the distribution of the saving obtained by the contractor among the parties thereto. Article 711. Procedure of the Payment for the Work 1. If the work and labour contract does not provide for apreliminary payment for the fulfilled work or of its particular stages, the customer shall be obliged to pay to the contractor the specified price after the final delivery of the results of the work, provided that the work has been performed properly and within the agreed period or short of the term with the consent of the customer. 2. The contractor shall have the right to demand the advance or earnest money only in cases and in the amount, indicated in the law or in the work and labour contract. Article 712. The Contractor's Right to Retention In the event of default on the customer's obligation to pay the fixed price or any other sum of money due to the contractor in connection with the performance of the work and labour contract, the contractor shall have the right, in keeping with Articles 359 and 360 of this Code, to the retention of the results of the work, and also the equipment belonging to the customer, the thing transferred for processing, the remainder of the unused material and other property of the customer, turned out at his disposal before the payment of relevant sums of money by the customer. Article 713. The Performance of the Work with the Use of the Customer's Material 1. The contractor shall be obliged to make economical and thrifty use of the material supplied by the customer, submit after the completion of the work to the customer his report on the spending of the material, and also to return its remainder or to reduce the price of the work with the customer's consent and with account of the value of the unused material that remains at the contractor's disposal. 2. If no result has been achieved or the achieved result has shortcomings which make it unfit for the use specified by the work and labour contract or by the usual use in the absence of the appropriate condition in the contract for reasons caused by the shortcomings of the material, supplied by the customer, the contractor shall have the right to demand payment for the work dome by him. 3. The contractor may exercise the right, indicated in Item 2 of this Article, if he proves that the material's shortcomings could not be discovered in the event of a proper acceptance of this material by the contractor. Article 714. The Contractor's Liability for the Non-safety of Property Supplied by the Contractor The contractor shall bear liability for the non-safety of the materials, equipment supplied by the customer, of things and other property transferred for processing (treatment) and possessed by the contractor in connection with the execution of the work and labour contract. Article 715. The Rights of the Customer During the Performance of the Work by the Contractor 1. The customer shall have the right to verify at any time the progress and quality of the work performed by the contractor, while not interfering in his activity. 2. If the contractor does not embark on the execution of the work and labour contract or performs the work so slowly that it is obviously impossible to finish it by the time fixed, the customer shall have the right to refuse to execute the contract and to claim damages. 3. If it becomes obvious during the performance of the work that it will not be performed properly, the customer shall have the right to appoint a reasonable date for the removal of shortcomings and in case of default of this requirement by the contractor in the appointed time to waive the work and labour contract or to entrust another person with the correction of the work at the expense of the contractor, and also to claim damages. Article 716. The Circumstances About Which the Contractor Shall Be Obliged to Warn the Customer 1. The contractor shall be obliged to warn the customer without delay and to suspend the work before he receives his directions in the event of the discovery of: the unsuitability or the substandard quality of the customer's materials, equipment, technical documents or the thing delivered for processing (treatment); possible favourable consequences of the implementation of the customer's directions on the method of performing the work; other circumstances beyond the contractor's control, which endanger the fitness or the stability of the results of the work being performed or make it impossible to finish this work on time. 2. The contractor, who has failed to warn the customer about the circumstances, indicated in Item 1 of this Article or who has continued the work without waiting for the expiry of the date, referred to in the contract, and in its absence without waiting the expiry of the reasonable period for a reply to the warning or despite the timely indication of the customer concerning the discontinuance of the work, shall have no right to refer to said corresponding in the event of the presentation of appropriate claims to him or by him to the customer. 3. If despite the timely and justified warning by the contractor about the circumstances, referred to in Item 1 of this Article, the customs fails to replace within the reasonable time the unfit and substandard materials, equipment, technical documents or the thing transferred for processing (treatment), does not change the directions on the method of performing the work or does not take other necessary measures to remove the circumstances threatening its fitness, the contractor shall have the right to refuse to execute the work and labour contract and claim the damages caused by the termination of the contract. Article 717. The Customer's Refusal to Execute the Work and Labour Contract Unless otherwise stipulated by the work and labour contract, the customer may at any time before the delivery of the result of the work to him refuse the execute the contract by paying to the contractor a part of the fixed price in proportion to the part of the work performed before the receipt of the notice about the refusal of the customer to implement the contract. The customer shall also be obliged to compensate the contractor's losses, caused by the termination of the work and labour contract, within the limits of the difference between the price fixed for the entire work and the part of the price paid put for the performed work. Article 718. The Customer's Assistance 1. In cases, in the scope and in the order, provided for by the work and labour contract, the customer shall be obliged to assist the contractor in the performance of the work. In case of default on this duty by the customer the contractor shall have the right to claim damages, including additional costs caused by downtime or by putting off the dates of the performance of the work, or by the increase in the price of the work, indicated in the contract. 2. In cases where it has become impossible to perform the work under the work and labour contract owing to the customer's actions or omission, the contractor shall have the right to pay the price, indicated in the contract, with account of the performed part of the work. Article 719. Default on the Customer's Reciprocal Obligations Under the Work and Labour Contract 1. The contractor shall have the right not to proceed to the work or to suspend the work he began in cases where the breach by the customer of his obligations under the work and labour contract, in particular, the non-supply of materials, equipment, technical documents or the thing subject to processing (treatment), prevents the execution of the contract by the contractor, and also in the presence of the circumstances evidencing that the said circumstances will not be discharged in the fixed period (Article 328). 2. Unless otherwise stipulated by the work and labour contract, the contractor shall have the right to refuse the execute the contract and to claim damages in the presence of circumstances, referred to in Item 1 of this Article. Article 720. The Acceptance by the Customer of the Work Fulfilled by the Contractor 1. Within the time-limit and in the order, provided for by the work and labour contract, the customer shall be obliged to inspect with the contractor's participation the result of the work and to accept the performed work; in the event of the discovery of departures from the contract that worsen the result of the work or of any other shortcomings in the work, the customer shall be obliged to state at once about this to the contractor. 2. The customer who has discovered shortcomings in the work during its acceptance shall have the right to refer to them in cases where the deed or any other document testifying to the acceptance has specified these shortcomings or the possibility of a subsequent presentation of the claim about their removal. 3. Unless otherwise stipulated by the work and labour contract, the customer who has accepted the work without its check shall be deprived of the right to refer to the shortcomings in the work which could be ascertained in the usual method of its acceptance (obvious shortcomings). 4. The customer who has discovered in the work after its acceptance departures from the work and labour contract or other defects which could not be identified by the usual method of acceptance (latent defects), including those that were deliberately hidden by the contractor, shall be obliged to inform the contractor about this within the reasonable period upon their discovery. 5. In case a dispute has arisen between the customer and the contractor over the defects of the fulfilled work or their causes, an expert examination shall be scheduled. Expenses on the expert examination shall be borne by the contractor, except for the cases when experts have found out that there are no breaches by the contractor of the work and labour contract or a causal relationship between the contractor's actions and the discovered defects. In said cases the expenses on the expert examination shall be borne by the party which has called for the schedule of the expert examination, and if was scheduled by agreement between the parties, the expenses shall be borne by the parties in equal shares. 6. Unless otherwise stipulated by the work and labour contract, in event of the customer's evasion from the acceptance of the fulfilled work, the contractor shall have the right, upon the expiry of one month since the day when as per the contract the result of the work should have been turned over to the customer, provided the latter makes subsequently two warnings of the customer to sell the result of the work and to place the avails, minus all the payments due to the contractor, on the customer's deposit in the procedure, provided for by Article 327 of this Code. 7. If the evasion of the customer from the acceptance of the fulfilled work has involved a delay in the delivery of the work, the risk of accidental destruction of the thing manufactured (processed or treated) shall be recognized as passed to the customer at the time when the transfer of the thing should have taken place. Article 721. The Quality of the Work 1. The quality of the work performed by the contractor shall correspond to the terms and conditions of the contract and in the absence or in the event of the incompleteness of these terms and conditions - to the requirements usually made to the work of appropriate kind. Unless otherwise stipulated by the law, other legal acts or the contract, the result of the fulfilled work shall possess, at the time of its transfer to the customer, the properties, referred to in the contract, or determined by the usually made requirements and shall be suitable within a reasonable period for the use, stipulated by the contract, for the usual use of the result of the work of this kind. 2. If the law or other legal acts provide in the statutory manner for mandatory requirements for the work to be performed under the work and labour contract, the contractor acting as a businessman shall be obliged to perform the work by observing these mandatory requirements. The contractor may assume under the contract the obligation of fulfilling the work that meets the requirements for quality higher than the requirements made obligatory for the parties. Article 722. The Guarantee of the Quality of the Work 1. In case where the law, other legal acts, the work and labour contract or the customs of business turnover provides for a guarantee period for the result of the work, the result of the work shall correspond to the terms and conditions of the contract for quality during the entire guarantee period (Item 1 of Article 721). 2. Unless otherwise stipulated by the work and labour contract, the guarantee of the quality of the result of the work shall extend to all the components of the result of the work. Article 723. The Contractor's Liability for Improper Quality of the Work 1. In cases where the work has been performed by the contractor with departures from the work and labour contract which have worsened the result of the work or with other defects which make it unsuitable for the use, envisaged by the contract, or in the absence of the relevant condition of unfitness for the usual use in the contract, the customer shall have the right, unless otherwise stipulated by the law or the contract, to demand from the contractor the following actions at his option: gratuitous removal of defects within the reasonable period; an adequate reduction of the price fixed for the work; reimbursement of his expenses incurred in the elimination of defects, when the customer's right to remove them is provided for by the work and labour contract (Article 397). 2. Instead of the removal of the defects for which he is responsible the contractor shall have the right to perform gratis the work anew with the compensation to the customer of the losses caused by the delay in the execution of the work. In this case the customer shall be obliged to return the result of the work to the contractor, if such return is possible according to the nature of the work. 3. If departures in the work from the terms and conditions of the work and labour contract or any other shortcomings of the result of the work have not been eliminated in the reasonable period or are substantial and unremovable, the customer shall have the right to refuse to execute the contract and claim damages. 4. The proviso of the work and labour contract about the release of the contractor from the liability for definite shortcomings shall not absolve him from the liability, if it is proved that such shortcomings have arisen due to the contractor's faulty actions or inaction. 5. The contractor who has submitted materials for the fulfilment of the work is responsible for their quality under the rules for the seller's liability for substandard goods (Article 475). Article 724. The Terms of Discovery of the Result of the Work of Improper Value 1. Unless otherwise stipulated by the law or the work and labour contract, the customer shall have the right to make claims relating to the improper quality of the result of the work, provided that it was discovered during the period of time, fixed by this Article. 2. In case where no guarantee period is fixed for the result of the work, claims relating to the shortcomings of the result of the work may be made by the customer, provided they have been disclosed during the reasonable period, but within two years since the day of the delivery of the result of the work, unless different time-limits have been fixed by the law, the contract or the customs of business turnover. 3. The customer shall have the right to make claims, associated with the shortcomings in the result of the work, discovered during the guarantee period. 4. In case where the guarantee period provided for by the contract is less then two years and the shortcomings of the result of the work have been discovered by the customer upon the expiry of the guarantee period but within two years since the time envisaged by Item 5 of this Article, the contractor shall bear liability, if the customer proves that the shortcomings arose before the delivery of the result of the work to the customer or for reasons that arose before this time. 5. Unless otherwise stipulated by the work and labour contract, the guarantee period (Item 1 of Article 722) shall begin to run since the time when the result of the fulfilled work was accepted or should have accepted by the customer. 6. The rules contained in Items 2 and 4 of Article 471 of this Code shall be applied to the computation of the guarantee period under the work and labour contract, unless otherwise stipulated by the law, other legal acts, the agreement of the parties or unless the contrary follows from the specifics of the work and labour contract. Article 725. The Statute of Limitation for the Improper Quality of the Work 1. The period of limitation for claims made in connection with the improper quality of the work, performed under the work and labour contract, shall be one year, which the period of limitation for buildings and structures shall be determined according to the rules of Article 196 of this Code. 2. If under the work and labour contract the result of the work has been accepted in parts, the period of limitation shall begin to run since the day of the acceptance of the result of the work as a whole. 3. If the law, other legal acts or the work and labour contract provide for a guarantee period and the statement of claim for the shortcomings of the result of the work has been made during the guarantee period, the period of limitation, referred to in Item 1 of this Article, shall run begin with the day of the statement for the shortcomings. Article 726. The Duty of the Contractor to Transfer Information to the Customer The contractor shall be obliged to transfer together with the result of the work information on the operation or any other use of the subject of the work and labour contract, if this is provided by the contract or if the nature of information is such that without it is impossible to make use of the result of the work for the purposes, indicated in the contract. Article 727. The Confidentiality of Information Received by the Parties If the party thanks to the discharge of its obligation under the work and labour contract has received from the other party information about new decisions and technical knowledge, including knowledge not protected by law, and also information that can be regarded as a commercial secret (Article 139), the party which has received such information shall have no right to communicate it to the third persons without the consent of the other party. The procedure and conditions for the use of such information shall be determined by the agreement of the parties. Article 728. The Return by the Contractor of the Property Transferred by the Customer In cases where the customer dissolves the work and labour contract on the basis of Item 2 of Article 715 or Item 3 of Article 723 of this Code, the contractor shall be obliged to return the materials and equipment, supplied by the customer, the thing transferred for processing (treatment) and other property or to hand them over to the person indicated by the customer, and if this has proved to be impossible - to replace the value of the materials, equipment and other property. Article 729. The Consequences of the Termination of the Work and Labour Contract Before the Acceptance of the Result of the Work Should the work and labour contract cease to be valid on the grounds, provided for by the law or the contract, before the acceptance by the customer of the result of the work, performed by the contractor (Item 1 of Article 720), the customer shall have the right to demand the transfer to him of the result of the incomplete work with the compensation of the contractor's expenses. _ 2. The Domestic Contract Article 730. The Domestic Contract 1. Under the domestic contract the contractor who carries on appropriate business shall undertake to perform the work assigned by the individual (customer) to satisfy the customer's household and other personal requirements, while the customs shall undertake to accept the work and to pay for it. 2. The domestic contract is a public agreement (Article 426). 3. The laws on the protection of the customers' rights and other legal acts adopted in accordance with them shall be applicable to the relations under the domestic contract which are not regulated by this Code. Article 731. The Guarantees of the Customer's Rights 1. The contractor shall have no right to impose on the customer the inclusion of an additional work or service in the domestic contract. The customer shall have the right to refuse to pay for the work or service not specified by the contract. 2. The customer shall have the right to refuse to execute the domestic contract at any time before the delivery of the work to him by paying to the contractor a part of the fixed price in proportion to the part of the work, performed before the notification about the waiver of the execution of the contract and by reimbursing the contractor's expenses incurred prior to this time for the purpose of the fulfilment of the contract, unless they form the said part of the price of the work. The terms and conditions of the contract which deprive the customer of this right shall be void. Article 732. The Provision to the Customer of Information about the Offered Work 1. The contractor shall be obliged, before the conclusion of a domestic contract, to offer to the customer the necessary and trustworthy information about the offered work, its kinds and specific features, the price and the form of payment, and also to provide the customer with other information relating to the contract at his request. If this is of relevance due to the nature of the work, the contractor shall indicate to the customer the concrete person who will perform this work. 2. If the customer was not afforded the possibility of receiving immediately at the place of the conclusion of a consumer work contract the information on the work indicated in Item 1 of this Article, it may demand from the contractor the compensation for damages caused by ungrounded evasion to conclude the contract (Item 4 of Article 445). The customer may demand the cancellation of a concluded consumer work contract without payment for the work done and also the compensation for damages when, as a result of the incompleteness or inaccuracy of the information received from the contractor, a contract was concluded for the performance of work not having the characteristics that the consumer had in mind. The contractor that did not finish the customer the information on the work indicated in Item 1 of this Article shall bear responsibility also for the defects of the work which arose after its transfer due to the absence of such information therewith. Article 733. The Performance of the Work from the Contractor's Material 1. If the work under the domestic contract is to be performed from the contractor's materials, the latter shall be paid by the customer during the conclusion of the contract in full or in part, indicated in the contract, with the final settlement at the time of the receipt by the customer of the work fulfilled by the contractor. In conformity with the contract the material may be supplied by the contractor on credit, including with the proviso of payment by the customer for the material by instalments. 2. The change of the price of the contractor's material after the conclusion of the domestic contract shall involve no recalculation. Article 734. The Fulfilment of the Work from the Customer's Materials If the work under the domestic contract is fulfilled from the customer's materials, the receipt or any other document issued by the contractor to the customer during the conclusion of the contract shall indicate the exact name, description and price of the materials to be determined by the agreement of the parties. The estimation of the materials in the receipt or any other similar document may be subsequently disputed by the customer in court. Article 735. The Price and Payment for the Work The price of the work in the domestic contract shall be determined by the agreement of the parties and may not be higher than that fixed or regulated by the respective state bodies. The work shall be paid by the customer after it is finally delivered by the contractor. With the customer's consent the work may be paid by him during the conclusion of the contract in full or by giving an advance. Article 736. The Warning by the Customer about the Conditions of the Use of the Fulfilled Work In the event of the delivery of the work to the customer the contractor shall be obliged to inform him about the requirements to be observed for the effective and sage use of the result of the work, and also about the consequences possible for the customer himself and other persons in case of non-observance of the relevant requirements. Article 737. The Consequences of the Discovery of Shortcomings in the Fulfilled Work 1. In case of discovery of defects at the time of acceptance of the result of the work or after its acceptance during the quarantee period, and is it has not been established, then during a reasonable period but not later than two years (for immovable property, five years) from the day of the acceptance of the result of the work, the customer may at its choice exercise one of the rights stipulated in Article 723 of this Code or demand the cost-free repeat performance of the work or compensation for the expenditures borne by it for the correction of the shortcomings with its own funds or by third persons. 2. In case of discovery of essential defects of the result of the work the customer may raise a demand to the contractor for the cost-free removal of such defects if is proves that they arose before the acceptance of the result of the work by the customer or for reasons that arose before that moment. This demand may be raised by the customer if the indicated defects were discovered upon the expiry of two years (for immovable property, five years) from the day of the acceptance of the result of the work by the customer, but within the limits of the period of service established by for the result of the work or during ten years from the day of the acceptance of the result of the work by the customer if the period of service has not been established."; 3. In case of default on the contractor's claim, referred to in Item 2 of this Article, the customer shall have the right during the same period to demand either the return of a part of the price paid for the work or the reimbursement of the expenses incurred in connection with the removal of the shortcomings by the customer with his own forces or with the help of third persons or refuse to perform the contract and demand the compensation for the inflicted losses. Article 738. The Consequences of the Customer's Failure to Appear to Receive the Result of the Work In the event the customer has failed to appear to receive the result of the fulfilled work or has evaded its acceptance, the contractor shall have the right to sell the result of the work at a reasonable price, while making a written warning of the customer, upon the expiry of two months since such warning and to place the avails, minus all the payments due to the contractor, on the deposit account in the order, prescribed by Article 327 of this Code. Article 739. The Customer's Rights in Case of Improper Fulfilment or Non-fulfilment of the Work under the Domestic Contract In the event of improper fulfilment or non-fulfilment of the work under the domestic contract the customer may avail himself of the rights, granted to the buyer in compliance with Articles 503-505 of this Code. _ 3. The Building Contract Article 740. The Building Contract 1. Under the building contract the contractor shall undertake in the period stipulated by the contract to build by the assignment of the customer a project or to perform other construction works, whereas the customer shall undertake to create for the contractor requisite conditions for the performance of the works, to accept their result and pay the specified price. 2. The building contract shall be concluded to build or reconstruct an enterprise or building (including a dwelling house), to erect any other project, and also to perform assembly, start-up and adjustment operations, and other works indissolubly related to the project concerned. The rules for the building contract shall be also applied to the works involved in the major repairs of buildings and structures, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract. In cases provided for by the contract the contractor shall assume the duty of running the project after it has been accepted by the customer during the period indicated in the contract. 3. In cases where under the building contract the contractor fulfils the works in order to meet the household and other personal needs of the individual (customer), the rules of the second paragraph of this Article on the customer's rights shall be accordingly applied to such contract. Article 741. The Allocation of Risk Between the Parties 1. The risk of accidental destruction of, or accidental damage to, the building project, which makes up the subject of the building contract, shall be borne by the contractor before this project is accepted by the customer. 2. If the building project is destroyed or damaged before the customer has accepted it owing to the substandard materials, supplied by the customer (details, structures), or equipment or owing to the execution of mistaken directions of the customer, the contractor shall have the right to demand the payment for all the cost of the works, specified by the estimate, provided that he has fulfilled the duties, envisaged by Item 1 of Article 716 of this Code. Article 742. The Insurance of the Building Project 1. The building contract may provide for the duty of the party to insure appropriate risks if it runs the risk of accidental destruction of, or accidental damage to, the building project, materials, equipment and other assets, used in construction, or bears liability for the infliction of damage to other persons during construction. The party that bears the obligation for insurance shall present to the other party the proofs of the conclusion by it of the insurance contract on the terms, provided for by the building contract, including data on the insurer, the insurance sum and insured risks. 2. Insurance shall not release the appropriate party from the duty of taking necessary measures to prevent the onset of an insured accident. Article 743. Technical Documentation and the Estimate 1. The contract shall be obliged to carry on construction and the related works in accordance with the technical documents determining the scope and content of the works and other requirements made for them and with the estimate fixing the price of the works. In the absence of other directions the building contract implies that the contractor is obliged to perform all the works indicated in technical documents and the estimate. 2. The building contract shall define the composition and content of technical documentation, and also provide which of the parties and by which date it should submit relevant documents. 3. The contractor who has discovered in the process of construction the works which have not been recorded in technical documents and in this connection the need for additional works and for augmenting the detailed estimate of the cost of construction shall be obliged to inform the customer about this. If the contractor has failed to receive from the customer a reply to his information during 10 days, unless the law or the building contract provides for a different date, he shall be obliged to suspend the corresponding works and charge the losses caused by downtime to the customer's account. The customer shall be released from the compensation of these losses, if he proves that there is no need for additional works. 4. The contractor who fails to discharge the obligation, established by Item 3 of this Article, shall be deprived of the right to demand from the customer the payment for the fulfilled additional works and the compensation for the relevant losses, unless he proves the need for immediate actions in the interests of the customer, particularly in connection with the fact that the suspension of the works could lead to the destruction of, or damage to, the building project. 5. With the consent of the customer with the conduct and payment of additional works the contractor shall have the right to refuse to perform them only in cases where they do not enter in the sphere of the contractor's professional activity or cannot be performed by the contractor for reasons beyond his control. Article 744. Introduction of Changes to Technical Documentation 1. The customer shall have the right to introduce changes to technical documentation, unless related additional works exceed in cost terms 10 per cent of the total estimate cost of construction and change the nature of the works, envisaged in the building contract. 2. Changes shall be made in technical documentation in the scope greater than that, indicated in Item 1 of this Article, on the basis of the additional estimate agreed upon by the parties. 3. The contractor shall be obliged in accordance with Article 450 of this Code to review the estimate, if the cost of the works has exceeded the estimate by not less than 10 per cent for the reasons beyond his control. 4. The contractor shall have the right to demand the reimbursement of reasonable expenses incurred by him in connection with the ascertainment and removal of defects in technical documentation. Article 745. The Supply of Project Construction with Materials and Equipment 1. The duty of supplying project construction with materials, including details and structures, or equipment shall be borne by the contractor, unless the building contract provides for the supply of construction as a whole or in certain part by the customer. 2. The party which is obliged to supply project construction shall bear the liability for the revealed impossibility to make use of its supplied materials or equipment without the deterioration of the quality of the works being performed, unless he proves that their impossible use is due to the circumstances under the control of the other party. 3. In case of the revealed impossibility of making use of the materials and equipment supplied by the customer without the deterioration of the quality of the works being performed and of the customer's refusal to replace them, the contractor shall have the right to waive the building contract and demand that the customer pay the price of the contract in proportion to the fulfilled part of the works. Article 746. The Payment for Works to Be Done 1. The payment for the works done by the contractor shall be made by the customer in the amount provided for by the estimate within the time and in the order prescribed by the law or the building contract. In the absence of appropriate references in the law or the contract the payment for works shall be made in accordance with Article 711 of this Code. 2. The building contract may provide for the payment for works in the lump and in full scope after the projects is accepted by the customer. Article 747. The Customer's Additional Obligations under the Building Contract 1. The customer shall be obliged to provide in time a land plot for construction. The area and condition of the land plot to be provided shall correspond to the terms of the building contract and in the absence of such conditions shall ensure the timely start of the works, their normal performance and completion on due date. 2. In cases and in the procedure, envisaged by the building contract the customer shall be obliged to convey to the contractor for use the buildings and structures necessary for the accomplishment of the works, to transport cargoes at his address, to lay out temporary networks of power, water and steam supply and render other services. 3. Payments for the services rendered by the customer and indicated in Item 2 of this Article shall be made in cases and on the terms, provided for by the building contract. Article 748. Control and Supervision by the Customer over the Performance of Works Under the Building Contract 1. The customer shall have the right to exercise control and supervision over the progress and quality of the works being performed, the observance of the period of their fulfilment (schedule), the quality of the materials supplied by the contractor, and also over the proper use by the contractor of the customer's materials without interfering in the day-to-day economic activity of the contractor. 2. The customer who has discovered during his control and supervision over the performance of the works departures from the terms and conditions of the building contract, which may deteriorate the quality of the works, or any other shortcomings, shall be obliged to inform the contractor about this without delay. The customer who has failed to make such statement to the contractor shall forfeit his right to refer in future to the shortcomings he will detect. 3. The contractor shall be obliged to implement the customer's directions, received during construction, unless such directions contradict the terms and conditions of the building contract and represent intervention in the day-to-day economic activity of the contractor. 4. The contractor who has fulfilled the works improperly shall have no right to refer to the fact that the customer failed to exercise his control and supervision over their performance, except for the cases when the obligation to exercise such control and supervision has been placed on the customer by law. Article 749. The Participation of an Engineer (Engineering Organization) in the Exercise of the Rights and in the Discharge of the Obligations of the Customer For the purposes of exercising control and supervision over project construction and of adopting on his behalf of decisions in relations with the contractor the customer may conclude on his own, without the contractor's consent, a contract for the rendering of such services to the customer with the relevant engineer (engineering organization). In this case the building contract shall define the functions of such engineer (engineering organization), connected with the consequences of his actions for the contractor. Article 750. Cooperation of the Parties to the Building Contract 1. If hindrances to the proper execution of the building contract come to the surface during project construction and the related works, each party shall be obliged to take all reasonable measures under its control in order to remove such hindrances. The party which has failed to discharge this obligation shall forfeit its right to claim damages caused by the failure to eliminate the relevant hindrances. 2. The expenses of the party incurred in the discharge of the obligations, indicated in Item 1 of this Article, shall be subject to reimbursement by the other party in cases where this is stipulated by the building contract. Article 751. The Contractor's Obligations of Protecting the Environment and of Providing Safety for Building Works 1. The contractor shall be obliged to observe the requirements of the law and other legal acts on environmental protection and safety of building works in the process of construction and the related works. The contractor shall bear liability for the breach of said requirements. 2. The contractor shall have no right to use during the works being done the materials and equipment, supplied by the customer, or fulfil his directions, if they may lead to the breach of the requirements, obligatory for the parties, for the protection of the environment and the safety of building works. Article 752. The Consequences of the Laying-up of Project Construction If the works under the building contract have been suspended and the project construction has been laid-in for the reasons beyond the control of the parties, the customer shall be obliged to pay in full to the contractor for the works fulfilled up to the time of the laying-up of the work, and also to reimburse the expenses caused by the need to terminate the works and to lay-up the project construction with the offset of the benefits which the contractor has received or could receive due to the termination of the works. Article 753. The Delivery-Acceptance of Works 1. The customer who has received the communication of the contractor about the delivery of the result of the works performed under the building contract or, if this is provided for by the contract, of the fulfilled stage of the works, shall be obliged to proceed to it acceptance. 2. The customer shall organize and effect the acceptance of the result of the works at his own expense, unless otherwise stipulated by the building contract. In cases envisaged by the law or any other legal acts the representatives of state bodies and local self-government bodies shall take part in the acceptance of the result of the works. 3. The customer who has accepted the result of a particular stage of the works shall bear the risk of the consequences of the destruction of, or damage to, the result of the works which have taken place not through the fault of the contractor. 4. The delivery of the result of the works by the contractor and the acceptance of it by the customer shall be formalized by the certificate, signed by both parties. If one of the parties refuses to sign the certificate, a note about this shall be put down in it, with the certificate being signed by the other party. A unilateral certificate of acceptance of the result of the works may be recognized by a court of law as invalid only in case of the motives of the refusal to sign the acceptance certificate have been recognized by it as sound. 5. In cases where this is provided for by the law or the building contract or follows from the nature of the works performed under the contract, the acceptance of the result of the works shall be preceded by preliminary tests. In these cases the acceptance may take place only with the positive result of the preliminary tests. 6. The customer shall have the right to refuse to accept the result of the works in case of the discovery of shortcomings, which exclude the possibility of its use for the purpose, indicated in the building contract and may not be removed by the contractor or the customer. Article 754. The Contractor's Liability for the Quality of Works 1. The contractor shall bear liability to the customer for the departures from the requirements, provided for by technical documents and by the building norms and rules obligatory for the parties, and also for the failure to achieve this building project's indicators, indicated in the technical documents, including the enterprise's industrial capacity. In the event of the reconstruction (renewal, reorganization, restoration, etc.) of a building or structure the contractor shall bear liability for the reduction or loss of the durability, stability and reliability of the building, structure or a part thereof. 2. The contractor shall bear no liability for small departures from technical documents, made without the customer's consent, if he proves that they have not influences the quality of project construction. Article 755. Guarantees of Quality in the Building Contract 1. Unless otherwise stipulated by the building contract, the contractor shall guarantee the achievement by the construction project of the indicators indicated in technical documents and the possibility of using the project in keeping with the building contract throughout the guarantee period. The statutory guarantee period may be extended by the agreement of the parties. 2. The contractor shall bear liability for defects, discovered during the guarantee period, unless he proves that they occurred due to the normal wear and tear of the project or of the parts thereof, its incorrect instructions, elaborated by the customer himself or by the third persons attracted by him, the improper repair of the project, carried out by the customer himself or by the third persons attracted by him. 3. The running of the guarantee period lapses for all the time during which the project could not be exploited due to the defects for which the contractor is liable. 4. In case of discovery of defects, indicated in Item 1 of Article 754 of this Code, during the guarantee period, the customer shall inform the contractor about them within reasonable time upon their discovery. Article 756. The Time-limits of Discovery of the Improper Quality of Building Works In the event of making claims for the improper quality of the result of the works, the rules, specified by Items 1-5 of Article 724 of this Code shall be applied. The deadline for the discovery of defects shall be five years in conformity with Items 2 and 4 of Article 724 of this Code. Article 757. Elimination of Defects at the Expense of the Customer 1. The building contract may provide for the obligation of the contractor to eliminate on the demand of the customer and at his expense the defects for which the contractor is not liable. 2. The contractor shall have the right to refuse to perform the obligation, indicated in Item 1 of this Article, in cases where the removal of defects is not connected directly with the subject of the contract or cannot be realized by the contractor for the reasons beyond his control. _ 4. Contract for Design and Survey Works Article 758. Contract for Design and Survey Works Under the contract for design and survey works the contractor (designer or surveyor) shall undertake to elaborate technical documentation of the customer and/or perform survey works, whereas the customer shall undertake to accept and pay for their result. Article 759. Initial Data for the Performance of Design and Survey Works 1. Under the contract for design and survey works the customer shall be obliged to give to the contractor his assignment for designing, and also other initial data needed for drawing up technical documentation. An assignment for the performance of design works may be prepared by the contractor on behalf of the customer. In this case the assignment shall become mandatory for the parties since the time of its approval by the customer. 2. The contractor shall be obliged to observe the requirements containing in the assignment and in other initial data for the performance of design and survey works, and shall have the right to depart from them only with the customer's consent. Article 760. The Contractor's Obligations 1. Under the contract for design and survey works the contractor shall be obliged: to perform the works in keeping with the assignment and other initial data on designing and with the contract; to coordinate the ready technical documents with the customer and, whenever necessary, together with the customer - with competent state bodies and local self-government bodies; to transfer to the customer ready technical documents and the results of the survey works. The contractor shall have no right to give technical documents to third persons without the customer's consent. 2. Under the contract for design and survey works the contractor shall guarantee to the customer that third persons do not have the right to prevent the performance of the works or restrict their performance on the basis of the technical documentation prepared by the contractor. Article 761. The Contractor's Liability for the Improper Performance of Design and Survey Works 1. Under the contract for design and survey works the contractor shall bear liability for the improper drawing up of technical documents and for the performance of survey works, including defects discovered later on during construction, and also in the process of the exploitation of the project, set up on the basis of the technical documents and the data of the survey works. 2. In the event of discovery of defects in technical documents or in survey works the contractor shall be obliged to remake technical documentation gratis on the customer's demand and accordingly carry out the necessary additional survey works, and also to reimburse to the customer the losses caused, if the law or the contract for performance of design and survey works establishes otherwise. Article 762. The Customer's Obligations Under the contract for design and survey works the customer shall be obliged to take the following measures, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract: to pay to the contractor the fixed price in full after the completion of all works or to pay it in instalments after the completion of individual stages of the work; to use technical documentation received from the contractor only for the purposes, provided for by the contract, not to turn over technical documents to third persons and not to divulge the data contained therein without the contractor's consent; to render assistance to the contractor in the performance of design and survey works in the scope and on the terms and conditions stipulated by the contract; to participate together with the contractor in the coordination of ready technical documentation with relevant state bodies and local self-government bodies; to reimburse the contractor's additional expenses, incurred by changes in the initial data for the performance of design and survey works due to the circumstances beyond the contractor's control; to draw the contractor in the participation in the case on a claim filed by a third person to the contractor in connection with the defects of the compiled technical documents or the performed survey works. _ 5. Contract Works for State Needs Article 763. The State Contract for the Performance of Contract Works to Meet State Needs 1. Contract building works (Article 740), design and survey works (Article 758), intended for meeting the needs of the Russian Federation or a subject of the Russian Federation and financed at the expense of the corresponding budgets and extra-budgetary sources, shall be performed on the basis of the state contract for the fulfilment of contract works to meet state needs. 2. Under the state contract for contract works to meet state needs (hereinafter referred to as the state contract) the contractor shall undertake to perform building, design and other works related to the construction and repair of the projects of a production and non-production character and to transfer them to the state customer, whereas the state customer shall undertake to accept the fulfilled works, to pay for them or to ensure their payment. Article 764. The Parties to the State Contract Under the state contract the role of the state customer shall be payed by the state body which possesses the required investment resources or by the organization vested by the relevant state body with the right to dispose of such resources, while the role of the contractor shall be played by a legal entity or individual. Article 765. The Grounds and Procedure for the Conclusion of a State Contract The grounds and procedure for the conclusion of a state contract shall be determined in keeping with the provisions of Articles 527 and 528 of this Code. Article 766. The Contents of the State Contract 1. The state contract shall contain the terms of the scope and value of the work subject to performance, the time-limits of its beginning and end, the amount and procedure of financing and paying the works and the methods of security of the parties' obligations. 2. In case where a state contract is concluded according to the results of a tender for placing the order for contract works to meet state needs, the terms and conditions of the state contract shall be determined in accordance with the announced tender terms and the offer tendered by the contractor who is recognized as the bidding winner. Article 767. Changes in the State Contract 1. In case of the diminution of the resources of the corresponding budget in the statutory manner, allocated for the financing of contract works, the parties shall be obliged to agree upon new dates, and, whenever necessary, other conditions of the performance of the works. The contractor shall have the right to demand that the state customer compensate the losses caused by changes in the dates of the fulfilment of the works. 2. Unless otherwise stipulated by the law, changes in the state contract, not associated with the circumstances, indicated in Item 1 of this Article, shall be made by the agreement of the parties. Article 768. Legal Regulation of the State Contract The law on contracts for state needs shall be applicable to the relations involved in state contracts for the fulfilment of contract works for state needs in the part which is not regulated by this Code.

(Content of Part II)

Chapter 38. Performance of Research and Development and Technological Works

Article 769. Contracts for the Performance of Research and Development and Technological Works

1. Under the contract for the performance of research and development and technological works the executor shall be obliged to carry out scientific research, specified by the customer's technical assignment, while under the contract for the development and technological works he shall be obliged to develop the sample of a new product, elaborate design documentation or new technology for it, whereas the customer shall undertake to accept the work and pay for it. 2. The contract with the executor may cover both the entire cycle of research, development and manufacture of the sample of the new product and its particular stages (elements). 3. Unless otherwise stipulated by the law or the contract, the risk of accidental impossibility of executing contracts for the performance of research and development and technological works shall be borne by the customer. 4. The terms and conditions of the contracts for performance of research and development and technological works shall correspond to the laws and other legal acts on exclusive rights (intellectual property). Article 770. The Performance of Works 1. The executor shall be obliged to carry out scientific research in person. He shall have the right to draw third persons in the fulfilment of a contract for scientific research works only with the customer's consent. 2. During the performance of development or technological works the executor shall have the right, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract, to draw third persons in its execution. The rules for the general contractor and subcontractor (Article 706) shall be applicable to the relations between the executor and the third persons. Article 771. The Confidentiality of Information Which Constitutes the Subject of the Contract 1. Unless otherwise stipulated by the contracts for the performance of research and development and technological works, the parties thereto shall be obliged to ensure the confidentiality of information relating to the subject of the contract, the progress of its execution and the obtained results. The scope of information recognized as confidential shall be determined by the contract. 2. Each party shall undertake to publish information to be recognized as confidential and obtained during the performance of the work only with the consent of the other party. Article 772. The Rights of the Parties to the Results of the Works 1. The parties to the contracts for the performance of research and development and technological works shall have the right to make use of the works, including those amenable to legal protection, within the framework of the contract and on its terms and conditions. 2. Unless otherwise stipulated by the contract, the customer shall have the right to make use of the results of the work given to him by the executor, including those amenable to legal protection, while the executor shall have the right to use the obtained results of the works for his own needs. Article 773. The Executor's Obligations The executor shall be obliged to take the following measures under the contracts for the performance of research and development and technological works: to perform the works in keeping with the technical assignment agreed upon with the customer and to turn over to the customer their results within the period fixed by the contract; to coordinate with the customer the necessity for the use of the results of intellectual activity that belong to third persons and the acquisition of rights to their use; to remove the defects, made through his fault, in the fulfilled works with his own forces and at his own expense, if they can involve departures from the technical and economic parameters, envisaged by the technical assignment or the contract; to inform forthwith the customer about the ascertained impossibility to receive the expected results or about the inexpediency of continuing the work; to guarantee to the customer the transfer of the results which have been received under the contract and which do not break the exclusive rights of other persons. Article 774. The Customer's Obligations 1. In contracts for the performance of research and development and technological work the customer shall be obliged to undertake the following measures: to give to the executor information needed for the fulfilment of the work; to accept the results of the fulfilled works and to pay for them. 2. The contract may also provide for the obligation of the customer to give to the executor a technical assignment and to agree with him the programme) technical and economic parameters) or the topics of the works. Article 775. The Consequences of the Impossible Attainment of Results of Scientific Research Works If in the course of scientific research works it is found out that it is impossible to attain results owing to the circumstances that are beyond to executor's control, the customer shall be obliged to pay for the value of the works carried out before the ascertainment of the impossibility to obtain results, envisaged by the contract for the performance of scientific research works, but not over and above the corresponding part of the price of the work, indicated in the contract. Article 776. The Consequences of the Impossible Continuation of Research and Development and Technological Works If during the performance of research and development and technological works it is found out that the impossible or inexpedient continuation of the works has arisen not through the fault of the executor, the customer shall be obliged to pay for the expenses incurred by the executor. Article 777. The Liability of the Executor for the Breach of a Contract 1. The executor shall be liable to the customer for breaking the contracts for the performance of research and development and technological works, unless he proves that such breach has taken not through the fault of the executor (Item 1 of Article 401). 2. The executor shall be obliged to reimburse the losses caused by him to the customer within the limits of the cost of the works in which defects have been discovered, if the contract provides that they are subject to compensation within the limits of the total cost of the works under the contract. The lost profit shall be subject to compensation in cases stipulated by the contract. Article 778. Legal Regulation of the Contracts for the Performance of Research and Development and Technological Works The rules of Articles 708, 709 and 738 of this Code shall be applicable accordingly to the dates of the fulfilment of works and to their price, and also to the consequences of the customer's non-appearance for the receipt of the results of the works. The rules of Articles 763-768 of this Code shall be applicable to the state contracts for the performance of research and development and technological works to meet state needs.

(Content of Part II)

Chapter 39. The Repayable Rendering of Services

Article 779. The Contract for the Repayable Rendering of Services


1. Under the contract of repayable rendering of services the executor shall undertake to render services (to perform certain actions or carry out certain activity) according to the customer's assignment, while the customer shall undertake to pay for these services.
2. The rules of this Chapter shall be applicable to the contracts of rendering the communication services, medical, veterinary, audit, consulting, information, instruction, tourist and other services, except for the services rendered under the contracts, envisaged by Chapters 37, 38, 40, 41, 44, 45, 46, 47, 49, 51 and 53 of this Code.

Article 780. The Execution of the Contract for the Repayable Rendering of Services


Unless otherwise stipulated by the contract for the repayable rendering of services, the executor shall be obliged to render the services in person.

Article 781. Payment for Services


1. The customer shall be obliged to pay of the services rendered to him within the period and in the procedure indicated in the contract for the repayable rendering of services.
2. If it is impossible to execute the contract through the fault of the customer, the services rendered shall be subject to full payment, unless otherwise stipulated by the law or the contract for the repayable rendering of services.
3. In case where it is impossible to execute the contract due to the circumstances for which neither party is answerable, the customer shall reimburse the executor's actual expenses, unless otherwise provided for by the law or the contract for repayable rendering services.

Article 782. The Unilateral Refusal to Execute the Contract for the Repayable Rendering of Services


1. The contractor shall have the right to refuse to execute the contract for the repayable rendering of services, provided the executor's actually incurred expenses are paid out.
2. The executor shall have the right to refuse to execute the obligations under the contract for the repayable rendering of services, provided the customer's losses are fully reimbursed.

Article 783. The Legal Regulations of the Contract for the Repayable Rendering of Services


The general provisions on the work and labour contract (Articles 702-729) and the provisions on the domestic contract (Articles 730-739) shall be applicable to the contract for the repayable rendering services, unless this runs counter to Articles 779-782 of this Code, and also to the specific subject of the contract for the repayable rendering of services.

(Content of Part II)

Chapter 40. Carriage

Article 784. General Provisions on Carriage


1. Cargoes, passengers and baggage shall be transported on the basis of the contract of carriage.
2. The general conditions of carriage shall be determined by transport charters and codes, other laws and rules issued in accordance with these laws. The conditions of the carriage of cargoes, passengers and baggage by particular transport vehicles, and also the liability of the parties for this transportation shall be determined by the agreement of the parties, unless otherwise stipulated by this Code, transport charters and codes, other laws and rules issued in conformity with them.

Article 785. The Contract of Carriage of Cargo


1. Under the contract of carriage of cargo the carrier shall undertake to deliver the cargo entrusted to him by the consignor to the point of destination and to release it to the person (consignee) authorized to receive it, while the consignor shall undertake to pay a fixed charge for the carriage of cargo.
2. The conclusion of a contract for the carriage of cargo shall be confirmed by the drawing up and issue of a consignment bill to the consignor of cargo (bill of lading or any other cargo document, stipulated by the relevant transport charter or code).

Article 786. The Contract of Carriage of the Passenger


1. Under the contract of carriage of the passenger the carrier shall undertake to transport the passenger to the point of destination, and in case of delivery of luggage to the point of destination and to issue it to the person authorized to receive it; the passenger shall undertake to pay the fixed charge for the journey and for the carriage of luggage in case of its registry.
2. The conclusion of a contract of the passenger carriage shall be certified with a ticket, while the booking of luggage by the passenger - with a luggage receipt. The forms of the ticket and the luggage receipt shall be established in the order, prescribed by transport charters and codes.
3. The passenger shall have the right in the order, prescribed by the relevant transport charter or code: to carry with himself his children free of charge or on other easy terms;
to carry with himself hand luggage free of charge within the limits of fixed norms;
to book luggage for carriage for a tariff charge.

Article 787. The Freight Contract


Under the freight contract (charter) one party shall undertake to provide to the other party (affreighter) for charge the entire or partial capacity of one or several transport facilities for one or several voyages or flights for the haulage of cargoes, passengers and baggage.
Procedure for the conclusion of a freight contract, and also the form of the said contract shall be established by transport charters and codes.

Article 788. Through Mixed Traffic


The mutual relations of transport organizations that carry cargoes, passengers and baggage with the aid of various transport vehicles under a single transport document (through mixed traffic), and also the procedure of the organization of this carriage shall be determined by the agreements between the organizations of the respective types of transport, concluded in keeping with the law on direct mixed (combined) carriage.

Article 789. Carriage by Public Transport


1. The carriage realized by a profit-making organization shall be recognized as the carriage by public transport, if it transpires from the law, other legal acts, that the said organization is duty-bound to effect the carriage of cargoes, passengers and baggage in case of an application by any individual or legal entity. The list of organizations which are obligated to effect the carriage to be recognized as the carriage by public transport shall be published in the established order.
2. The contract of carriage by public transport shall be a public agreement (Article 426).

Article 790. Payment for Carriage


1. Payment for carriage, fixed by the agreement of the parties, shall be collected for the transportation of cargoes, passengers and baggage, unless otherwise stipulated by the law or other legal acts.
2. Payment for the carriage of cargoes, passengers and baggage by public transport shall be estimated on the basis of the rates, approved in the order, established by transport charters and codes.
3. Works and services, performed or rendered by the carrier at the request of the cargo owner and not specified by rates, shall be paid by the agreement of the parties.
4. The carrier shall have the right to withhold the cargo and baggage, given to him for carriage, as security for the payments for carriage due to him (Articles 359 and 360), unless otherwise stipulated by the law, other legal acts, the contract of carriage or unless the contrary follows from the substance of the obligation.
5. In cases where the laws or other legal acts have introduced preferences for the payment for the carriage of cargoes, passengers and baggage, the expenses incurred in this connection shall be reimbursed by the transport organization from the resources of the appropriate budget.

Article 791. The Supply of Transport Vehicles, the Loading and Unloading of Cargo


1. The carrier shall be obliged to drive up serviceable transport vehicles in a condition fit for the carriage of cargo to the consignor for loading cargo in time, fixed by the order accepted from him, the contract of carriage or the agreement on the organization of carriage. The consignor of cargo shall have the right to waiver the supplied transport vehicles which are not fit for the carriage of cargo.
2. The loading (unloading) of cargo shall be carried out by the transport organization or the consignor (consignee) in the procedure, specified by the contract, with the observance of the provisions of transport charters and codes and the rules promulgated in compliance with them.
3. The loading (unloading) of cargo, realized by the forces and means of the consignor (consignee), shall be effected in the periods of time, stipulated by the contract, unless such periods have been fixed by transport charters and codes and the rules adopted in conformity with them.

Article 792. Time-limits for the Delivery of Cargo, Passengers and Baggage


The carrier shall be obliged to deliver cargo, passengers or baggage to the point of destination in the time-limits, fixed in the procedure, stipulated by transport charters and codes, and in the absence of such time-limits - within the reasonable period.

Article 793. Liability for Breaking the Obligations of Carriage


1. In case of default on the obligations of carriage or of improper discharge of such obligations, the parties shall bear liability, established by this Code, transport charters and codes, and also by the agreement of the parties.
2. Agreements between transport organizations and passengers or cargo owners on the limitation or elimination of the carrier's statutory liability shall be void, except for the cases when the possibility of such agreements is provided for by transport charters or codes for the carriage of cargo.

Article 794. The Carrier's Liability for Failure to Drive up Transport Vehicles and the Consignor's Liability for Non-use of Driven-up Transport Vehicles


1. For failure to drive up transport vehicles for the carriage of cargo in keeping with the accepted order or any other contract the carrier shall bear the liability, established by transport charters and codes and also by the agreement of the parties, and for failure to submit cargo or for non-use of driven-up transport vehicles for other reasons the consignor shall bear the liability, established by transport charters and codes, and also by the agreement of the parties.
2. The carrier and the consignor shall be released from liability in case of failure to drive up transport vehicles or of non-use of driven-up transport vehicles, if this was due to the following reasons: force majeure, and also other elements (fires, snow-drifts, floods) and hostilities;
the termination or limitation of the carriage of cargo in certain directions, which has been practiced in the order, prescribed by the respective transport charter or code;
in other cases, provided for by transport charters and codes.

Article 795. The Liability of the Carrier for the Delayed Dispatch of the Passenger


1. For the delayed dispatch of the transport vehicle which carries the passenger or for the late arrival of such transport vehicle at the point of destination (except for carriage in urban or suburban communication) the carrier shall pay a fine to the passenger in the amount, fixed by the corresponding transport charter or code, unless he proves that the delay or lateness have taken place due to force majeure, the removal of the malfunction of transport vehicles threatening the lives and health of passengers or due to other circumstances beyond the carrier's control.
2. If the passenger refuses to be carried because of the delayed dispatch of a transport vehicle, the carrier shall be obliged to return the fare to the passenger.

Article 796. The Liability of the Carrier for the Loss and Short Delivery of, and Damage to, Cargo or Baggage


1. The carrier shall be liable for the non-safety of cargo or baggage after it was accepted for carriage and before it was issued to the consignee, the person authorized by him or the person authorized to receive baggage, unless he proves that the loss and short delivery of, or damage to, cargo or baggage have taken place due to the circumstances which the carrier could not prevent and whose removal has not depended on him.
2. The damage caused during the carriage of cargo or baggage shall be recovered by the carrier in the following cases: in case of the loss or short delivery of cargo of baggage - in the amount of the value of the lost or missing cargo or baggage;
in case of the damage to cargo or baggage - in the amount of the sum by which its value fell, and if it is impossible to restore the damaged cargo or baggage - in the amount of its value;
in case of the loss of cargo or baggage delivered for carriage with the announcement of its value - in the amount of the announced value of cargo or baggage.
The value of cargo or baggage shall be determined on the basis of its price, indicated in the seller's bill or envisaged by the contract, and in the absence of a bill or with reference to the price in the contract in terms of the price which under comparable circumstances is usually charged for similar goods.
3. In addition to the restitution of the ascertained damage, caused by the loss and short delivery or, or damage to, cargo or baggage, the carrier shall return to the consignor (consignee) the payment for carriage, recovered for the carriage of the lost, missing, spoiled or damaged cargo or baggage, if this payment is not a part of the value of cargo.
4. Documents on the causes of the non-safety of cargo or baggage (commercial report, general form statement, etc.), compiled by the carrier unilaterally, shall be subject to the appraisal by the court in case of a dispute in addition to other documents certifying the circumstances, which can serve as a ground for the liability of the carrier, consignor or consignee of cargo or baggage.

Article 797. Claims and Suits in the Carriage of Cargoes


1. Before bringing a suit against the carrier that follows from the carriage of cargo it is obligatory to make a claim on him in the procedure stipulated by the respective transport charter or code.
2. A suit against the carrier may be brought by the consignor or consignee in case of a full or partial refusal of the carrier to satisfy the claim or in case of non-receipt of a reply from the carrier within 30 days.
3. The period of limitation on the claims following from the carriage of cargo shall fixed in one year since the time, determined in keeping with transport charters and codes.

Article 798. Contracts for the Organization of the Carriage of Cargo


In case of need for systematic carriage the carrier and the cargo owner may conclude long-term contracts for the organization of carriage.
Under the contract of the organization of the carriage of cargo the carrier shall undertake to accept in fixed time-limits, while the cargo owner shall undertake to present cargo for carriage in the stipulated scope. The contract for the organization of the carriage of cargo shall determine the amounts, time-limits and other conditions for the provision of transport facilities and for the presentation of cargo for carriage, the procedure of payments, and also other conditions for the organization of carriage.

Article 799. Contracts Concluded Between Transport Organizations


Contracts for the organization of the work of ensuring the carriage of cargo (complex agreements, contracts for centralized delivery of cargo and others) may be concluded between the organizations of different kinds of transport.
Procedure for the conclusion of such contracts shall be determined by transport charters and codes, other laws and other legal acts.

Article 800. The Carrier's Liability for the Infliction of Harm to the Life and Health of a Passenger


The liability of the carrier for the harm inflicted to the life and health of a passenger shall be determined according to the rules of Chapter 59 of this Code, unless the law or the contract of carriage provides for the carrier's increased liability.

(Content of Part II)

Chapter 41. Transport Forwarding

Article 801. Contract of Transport Forwarding


1. Under the contract of transport forwarding one party (forwarding agent shall undertake to perform or organize the performance of the services of cargo carriage for reward and at the expense of the other party (consignor or consignee as a client). The contract of transport forwarding may provide for the forwarder's obligation to organize the carriage of cargo by transport and along the route, chosen by the forwarding agent or the client, the obligation of the forwarding agent to conclude a contract (contracts) of the carriage of cargo on behalf of the client or on his own behalf, to ensure the dispatch and receipt of cargo, and also other obligations for carriage.
The contract of transport forwarding may provide as additional services such operations necessary for the delivery of cargo as the receipt of documents required for export or import, the performance of customs and other formalities, the inspection of the quantity and condition of cargo, its loading and unloading, the payment of duties, fees and other expenses to be incurred by the client, the storage of cargo, its receipt in the point of destination, and also the fulfilment of other operations and the provision of services, specified by the contract.
2. The rules of this Chapter shall also extend to the cases where in keeping with the contract the obligations of the forwarding agent shall be discharged by the carrier.
3. The conditions for the fulfilment of the contract of transport forwarding shall be determined by the agreement of the parties, unless otherwise stipulated by the law on transport forwarding, by other laws and other legal acts.

Article 802. The Form of the Contract of Transport Forwarding


1. The contract of transport forwarding shall be concluded in writing.
2. The client shall issue to the forwarding agent a power of attorney, if it is necessary for the discharge of his obligations.

Article 803. The Liability of the Forwarding Agent under the Contract of Transport Forwarding


For default on the obligations or improper discharge of obligations the forwarding agent shall bear liability on the grounds and in the amount which are determined in accordance with the rules of Chapter 25 of this Code.
If the forwarding agent proves that the infringement of the obligation is caused by the improper execution of the contracts of carriage, the liability of this forwarding agent to the client shall be determined by the same rules under which the relevant carrier is liable to the forwarding agent.

Article 804. Documents and Other Information Submitted to the Forwarding Agent


1. The client shall be obliged to submit to the forwarding agent documents and other information about the properties of cargo, the terms of its carriage, and also other information needed for the discharge of the forwarder's obligation, specified by the contract of transport forwarding.
2. The forwarding agent shall be obliged to inform the client about the discovered shortcomings of received information, and in case of incomplete information to request from the client additional data.
3. In case of the non-submission of the necessary information by the client the forwarding agent shall have the right not to proceed to the discharge of relevant obligations until the time of presenting such information.
4. The client shall bear liability for the losses caused to the forwarding agent in connection with the breach of the obligation of presenting information, indicated in Item 1 of this Article.

Article 805. The Discharge of the Forwarding Agent's Obligations by a Third Person


If it does not follow from the contract of transport forwarding that the forwarder should discharge his duties in person, the forwarder shall have the right to draw other persons in the discharge of his obligations.
The entrustment of a third person with the discharge of the obligation shall not release the forwarder from the liability to the client for the execution of the contract.

Article 806. Unilateral Refusal to Execute the Contract of Transport Forwarding


Any party shall have the right to refuse to execute the contract of transport forwarding by warning the other party within a reasonable period.
In case of unilateral refusal to execute the contract the party which stated his refusal shall reimburse to the other party the losses caused by the dissolution of the contract.

(Content of Part II)


Part III
Section V
Chapter 61
General Provisions GoverningSuccession
Chapter 62
Succession by Will
Chapter 63
Succession by Operation of Law (Art. 1141 - 1151)
Chapter 64
Acquisition of Inheritance
Chapter 65
Succession of Specific Types of Assets
Section VI
International Private Law
Chapter 66
General Provisions
Chapter 67
The Law Governing Determination of the Legal Status of Persons
Chapter 68
The Law Governing Proprietary and Personal Non-ProprietaryRelations

PART III

SECTION V
THE LAW OF SUCCESSION

Chapter 61. General Provisions GoverningSuccession

Article 1110. Succession

1. In the case of succession the deceased's estate (inheritance, assets of estate) shall pass to other persons by universal succession, i.e. in an unchanged, single form at the same time, except as otherwise required by the present Code.
2. Succession shall be governed by the present Code and other laws and, in the cases specified by law, by other legal acts.

Article 1111. Grounds for Succession

Succession shall be by will and by operation of law. Succession by operation of law shall take place when and where it is not changed by a will and also in the other cases established by the present Code.

Article 1112. Deceased's Estate

The deceased's estate shall incorporate the items and other property owned by the deceased as of the date of opening of the inheritance, in particular, rights in rem and liabilities. Rights and liabilities inseparable from the personality of the deceased, in particular the right to alimony, right to damages for harm inflicted to the citizen's life or health and also rights and liabilities prohibited for succession by the present Code or other laws shall not be included in the estate. Personal incorporeal rights and other intangible wealth shall not be included in the estate.

Article 1113. The Opening of an Inheritance

An estate shall be opened on the death of a citizen. The announcement of a citizen's death by a court shall cause the same legal consequences as the death of a citizen.

Article 1114. The Time of Opening of an Inheritance

1. The day of the citizen's death shall be deemed the date of opening of the inheritance. In the case of announcement of a citizen's death on the day when the decision of the court whereby the citizen is announced dead becomes final shall be deemed the date of opening of the inheritance and in cases when under Item 3 of Article 45 of the present Code the day of death of the citizen is recognised as the date of the citizen's alleged death - the date of death indicated in the decision of the court. 2. Citizens who die on the same day shall be deemed to have died at the same time for the purposes of hereditary succession, and shall not inherit from each other. In such cases the heirs of each of them shall be called upon to inherit.

Article 1115. The Place of Opening of an Inheritance

The deceased's last abode shall be deemed the place of opening of an inheritance (Article 20). If the last abode of a deceased person who had property on the territory of the Russian Federation is not known or is located outside of it, the place of opening the estate in the Russian Federation shall be deemed the place where the assets of such an estate are located. If such assets of estate are located in different places, the place where the immovable property of the estate or the most valuable part of the immovable property is located shall be deemed the place of opening of the inheritance, or should there be no immovable property, the place where movable property or the most valuable part thereof is located. Article 1116. Persons Who Can Be Called Upon to Inherit 1. Those left alive as of the date of opening of the inheritance and also persons conceived during the lifetime of the deceased and born after the opening of the inheritance can be called upon to inherit. In the case of succession by will the legal entities specified in the will and existing as of the date of opening of the inheritance can also be called upon to inherit. 2. In the case of succession by will the Russian Federation, Russian regions, municipal entities, foreign states and international organisations can be called upon to inherit, and in the case of succession by operation of law, the Russian Federation in compliance with Article 1151 of the present Code. Article 1117. Unworthy Heirs 1. The following shall not be entitled to inherit either by operation of law or by will: citizens who by their deliberate illegal actions directed against the deceased or any of the deceased's heirs or against the exercise of the deceased's last intentions expressed in a will assisted or tried to assist in their being called upon to inherit or other persons' being called upon to inherit or who tried to assist in increasing the share of the estate they or other persons are entitled to, if such circumstances have been proven in court. However, citizens to whom the deceased has bequeathed property after they lost their right to inherit shall be entitled to inherit this property. Parents shall not be entitled to inherit from children in respect of whom parents have been deprived of their parental rights by the court, provided these rights had not been restored as of the date of opening the inheritance. 2. On the application of a person concerned the court shall refuse entitlement to citizens who deliberately and persistently evaded performing their duties of upkeep which the deceased vested in them by law. 3. According to the rules set out in Chapter 60 of the present Code, a person not having a right of inheritance or deprived of a right of inheritance under the present article (unworthy heir) shall return all property received without grounds from the estate. 4. The regulations of the present article shall extend to heirs entitled to a compulsory share in the estate. 5. The regulations of the present article shall accordingly extend to the testamentary trust (Article 1137). If the subject matter of a testamentary trust was the performance of certain work for or the provision of a certain service to an unworthy beneficiary, the beneficiary shall reimburse the heir who has discharged the trust for the value of the work or service performed for the unworthy beneficiary.

Chapter 62. Succession by Will

Article 1118. General Provisions

1. Property can be disposed of on death only by means of a will. 2. The will can be created by a citizen who had his full dispositive capacity as of the time when it was created. 3. The will shall be created in person. The will cannot be created through a representative. 4. The will shall contain dispositions of only one citizen. The will shall not be created by two citizens or more. 5. The will is a one-party deal which creates rights and duties after the opening of the inheritance.

Article 1119. The Freedom of Will

1. The deceased shall be entitled to leave by will at his/her discretion property to any persons, to set heirs' shares in the estate in any way, to deprive one, several or all legal heirs of inheritance without indicating reasons for such a deprivation and also to include other dispositions in the will in compliance with the rules of the present Code concerning succession, to revoke or alter his/her created will. The freedom of the will shall be limited by the rules of compulsory share of estate (Article 1149). 2. The deceased shall not be obligated to inform anybody of the content, creation, alteration or revocation of a will. Article 1120. The Right to Leave Any Property in a Will The deceased shall be entitled to create a will containing dispositions relating to any property, in particular, a property that he/she might acquire in the future. The deceased can dispose of his/her property or a portion thereof by means of one or several wills. Article 1121. The Appointment of an Heir and an Alternate Heir in a Will 1. The deceased can create a will for the benefit of one or several persons (Article 1116) which are or are not his/her legal heirs. 2. In his/her will the deceased can indicate an alternate heir (can sub-appoint an heir) for the case of death of the heir appointed by him/her in the will or death of the legal heir prior to the opening of the inheritance or simultaneously with the deceased's death or after the opening of the inheritance but before accepting the inheritance or the heir's failure to accept the inheritance due to other reasons or refusal to accept it or lack of entitlement or the heir's being refused the inheritance as an unworthy heir. Article 1122. The Shares of Heirs in Property Left by a Will 1. Property left by will to two or several heirs without their shares in the estate being specified and without an indication as to who is to take the specific items or rights from the estate shall be deemed left by will to heirs in equal shares. 2. In a will an indication of a portion of an indivisible item (Article 133) intended for each of the heirs in kind shall not cause the invalidity of the will. Such item shall be deemed left by will in shares corresponding to the value of these portions. The procedure for the heirs to use this indivisible item shall be established in compliance with the portions of the item intended for them in the will. In a certificate of the right to inheritance relating to an indivisible item left by will in shares in kind, the shares of the heirs and the procedure for use of such item, given the consent of the heirs, shall be specified in compliance with the present article. If a dispute between the heirs occurs, their shares and the procedure for use of the indivisible item shall be determined by a court. Article 1123. The Secrecy of a Will A notary, another person attesting to a will, translator, executor of the will and also a citizen who signs a will on the deceased's behalf shall not disclose information concerning the content of the will, its creation, alteration or revocation before the opening of the inheritance. If the secrecy of a will is violated, the testator shall be entitled to claim reimbursement for moral harm and also use other remedies to protect civil rights as laid down in the present Code. Article 1124. General Rules Concerning the Form of and Procedure for the Creation of a Will 1. The will shall be created in writing and attested by a notary. A will can be attested by other persons in the cases specified in Item 7 of Article 1125, Article 1127 and Item 2 of Article 1128 of the present Code. Failure to observe the rules established by the present Code as concerning the written form and attestation of a will shall cause the invalidity of the will. A will can be drawn up in simple written form only in exceptional cases as specified in Article 1129 of the present Code. 2. If under the rules of the present Code witnesses are in attendance when a will is drawn up, signed and attested or when a will is passed to a notary the following persons shall not be such witnesses and shall not sign the will on the testator's behalf: a notary or other person who attests to the will; a person being a beneficiary of the will or a testamentary trust, the spouse, children and parents of the person; citizens without full dispositive capacity; illiterate persons; citizens with such physical disabilities that do not allow them to understand the essence of the event in full; persons without a sufficient degree of command of the language in which the will is written, except for cases of a closed will. 3. In events when under the rules of the present Code the attendance of witnesses is compulsory when a will is drawn up, signed and attested or when a will is passed to a notary, the absence of a witness when the said actions are being committed shall cause the invalidity of the will and the lack of the witness's compliance with the provisions of Item 2 of the present article may be deemed a ground for the will's being recognised as void. 4. The will shall bear an indication of the place and date of its attestation, except for the case specified in Article 1126 of the present Code. Article 1125. A Will Attested by a Notary 1. A will attested by a notary shall be signed by the testator or written by a notary on the testator's words. Technical facilities can be used to write or record a will (computer, typewriter etc.). 2. A will written by a notary on a testator's words shall be read in full by the testator in the presence of the notary before it is signed. If the testator cannot read the will by himself (herself) the notary shall read out the text for him/her, with a relevant annotation to this effect being entered in the will as including the reasons why the testator could not read the will by himself (herself). 3. The will shall be signed by the testator's own hand. If a testator, due to physical disability, grave illness or illiteracy, cannot sign a will by his/her own hand the will can be signed on his/her behalf on his/her request by another citizen with a notary in attendance. The will shall include the reasons why the testator could not sign the will by himself (herself) and also the full name and residential address of the citizen who signed the will on the testator's request, in compliance with the citizen's personal identity document. 4. A witness can be in attendance when a will is drawn up and attested by a notary if the testator so wishes. If a will is drawn up and attested with a witness in attendance it shall be signed by the witness and it shall bear an indication of the full name and residential address of the witness in compliance with the witness's personal identity document. 5. The notary shall warn the witness and also citizens who signs a will on the testator's behalf of the need for observing the will nondisclosure clause (Article 1123). 6. While attesting to a will the notary shall explain to the testator the content of Article 1149 of the present Code and enter a relevant annotation. 7. Where under law the officials of local government bodies and officials of consular institutions of the Russian Federation have a right to accomplish notarial actions the will can be attested by a relevant official instead of a notary, in compliance with the rules of the present Code concerning the form of a will, the procedure for notarial attestation of a will and secrecy of a will. Article 1126. Closed Wills 1. The testator shall be entitled to create a will without providing other persons, including a notary, with the chance of familiarising himself with the content thereof (a closed will). 2. The closed will shall be hand-written and signed by the testator. Failure to observe these rules shall cause the invalidity of the will. 3. The closed will shall be passed in a sealed envelope by the testator to a notary in the presence of two witnesses who shall put their signatures on the envelope. The envelope signed by the witnesses shall be put into another envelope and sealed in the presence of the notary, who shall enter an annotation on the envelope with information on the testator from whom the notary has accepted the closed will, on the place and date of acceptance thereof, the full names and residential addresses of each of the witnesses in compliance with their personal identity documents. When the notary accepts the envelope with the closed will from the testator, the notary shall explain to the testator the content of Item 2 of the present article and Article 1149 of the present Code and shall enter a relevant annotation in the second envelope and shall also issue a document to the testator to confirm the acceptance of the closed will. 4. Upon the presentation of a certificate of death of a person who has created a closed will, a notary shall within 15 days after the presentation of the certificate open the envelope with the will in the presence of at least two witnesses and the persons concerned from among the legal heirs who expressed their desire to attend. After the opening of the envelope the text of the will contained therein shall be immediately read out by the notary, whereafter the notary shall draw up and sign together with the witnesses a protocol which acknowledges that the envelope with the will has been opened and that it contains the full text of the will. The original will shall be kept in the custody of the notary. A copy of the protocol attested by a notary shall be issued to the heirs. Article 1127. Wills Qualifying as Wills Attested by a Notary 1. The following shall qualify as wills attested by a notary: 1) wills of citizens undergoing medical treatment in in-patient institutions, hospitals, other stationary medical treatment institutions or residing in old-age and disabled nursing houses attested by the chief physicians, deputy chief physicians in charge of medical work or physicians on duty at these in-patient institutions, hospitals and other stationary medical treatment institutions and also the chiefs of the hospitals, directors or chief physicians of old-age and disabled nursing houses; 2) wills of citizens who stay aboard vessels during their navigation, if such vessels navigate under the State Flag of the Russian Federation, attested by the captains of these vessels; 3) will of citizens who are in prospecting, Arctic or other similar expeditions, attested by the chiefs of these expeditions; 4) wills of military servicemen and in the places of deployment of military units where there are no notaries, also wills of civilians employed by these units, members of their families and members of the families of military servicemen, attested by the commanders of the military units; 5) wills of citizens staying at penitentiary institutions, attested by the chiefs of the penitentiary institutions. 2. A will qualifying as a will attested by a notary shall be signed by the testator in the presence of the person attesting to the will and of a witness, who shall also sign the will. As far as the rest is concerned, such a will shall be subject to the rules of Articles 1124 and 1125 of the present Code. 3. A will attested in compliance with the present article shall be forwarded, as soon as possible, by the person who has attested it to the place of abode of the testator via the justice bodies. If the person who has attested a will knows the place of abode of the testator the will shall be forwarded directly to a relevant notary. 4. If in any of the cases mentioned in Item 1 of the present article a citizen who intends to create a will expresses his/her intention to invite a notary for this purpose and there is a reasonable possibility for satisfying such an intention, the persons who enjoy under the said item the right of attesting a will shall do their best to invite a notary to the testator. Article 1128. The Testamentary Disposition of Funds in Banks 1. The right to funds paid by a citizen as a bank deposit or in any other bank account of the citizen may be left by will or in compliance with the procedure set out in Articles 1124 - 1127 of the present Code or by means of creation of testamentary dispositions in writing in the branch of bank where the account is located. Such testamentary dispositions shall have the effect of a will attested by a notary in respect of the funds kept in the account. 2. Testamentary disposition of rights to funds in a bank shall be signed by the hand of the testator and include the date of creation and shall be attested by a bank official entitled to accept for execution the client's instructions concerning the funds in his/her account. The procedure for creation of testamentary dispositions in respect of funds in banks shall be set out by the Government of the Russian Federation. 3. Rights to funds in respect of which testamentary dispositions have been created in a bank shall be incorporated in the estate and be generally inherited in compliance with the rules of the present Code. These funds shall be handed out to heirs under a certificate of right to inheritance and in compliance therewith, except for the cases specified in Item 3 of Article 1174 of the present Code. 4. Accordingly, the rules of the present article shall be applicable to other credit organisations entitles to raise citizens' funds in deposit or other accounts. Article 1129. Wills under Extraordinary Circumstances 1. A citizen who is in a situation that obviously threatens his/her life and who, by the virtue of prevailing extraordinary circumstances, is deprived of an opportunity to create a will under the rules of Articles 1124 - 1128 of the present Code may make his/her last wishes as to the disposition of his/her property in a simple written form. The citizen's last wishes set out in simple written form shall be deemed his/her will, if the testator has written a document in his/her own hand in the presence of two witnesses the content whereof evidences that it is a will. 2. A will created under the circumstances specified in Paragraph 1 of Item 1 of the present article shall no longer be valid if within one month after the termination of these circumstances the testator fails to create a will in any other form specified in Articles 1124 - 1128 of the present Code. 3. In accordance with the present article a will created under extraordinary circumstances shall be subject to execution only on the condition that a court acting on the request of the persons concerned confirms the fact that the will has been created under extraordinary circumstances. The said claim shall be filed before the expiry of the term set for acceptance of the inheritance. Article 1130. The Revocation and Alteration of a Will 1. The testator shall be entitled to revoke or alter a will he/she has created, at any time after the creation thereof without an indication of the reason for the revocation or alteration. No one's consent is required for revoking or altering a will, in particular, of persons appointed as heirs in the will that is being revoked or altered. 2. The testator is entitled, by means of a new will, to revoke a previous will as a whole or to amend it by means of revocation or alteration of specific testamentary dispositions contained therein. A subsequent will not containing a direct indication concerning revocation of a previous will or specific testamentary dispositions contained therein shall revoke the previous will in full or in as much as it conflicts with the subsequent will. A will fully or partially revoked by a subsequent will shall not be deemed restored if the subsequent will is revoked by the testator in full or in as much as the relevant portion is concerned. 3. In the case of invalidity of the subsequent will, succession shall take effect according to the previous will. 4. Also a will can be revoked by means of will revocation dispositions. The will revocation dispositions shall be created in the form established by the present Code for the creation of a will. The will revocation instructions shall be therefore subject to the rules of Item 3 of the present article. 5. A will created under extraordinary circumstances (Article 1129) can only revoke or alter the same kind of will. 6. Testamentary dispositions in a bank (Article 1128) can only revoke or alter testamentary dispositions concerning the disposition of funds in this bank. Article 1131. Invalidity of a Will 1. In the event of violation of the provisions of the present Code causing the invalidity of a will, depending on the grounds for the invalidity, the will shall be deemed invalid by virtue of having been recognised as such by a court (a contentious will) or irrespective of such recognition (a will that is null and void). 2. A will can be recognised as void by a court on the complaint filed by a person whose rights or lawful interests are violated by the will. A will shall not be subject to contention before the opening of the inheritance. 3. Slips of the pen and other insignificant breaches of the procedure for the creation, signing or attestation of a will shall not serve as grounds for the invalidity of a will if a court has established that they do not affect the construction of the testator's will. 4. Both a will and its specific testamentary dispositions can be void. The invalidity of specific dispositions contained in a will shall not be deemed to affect the rest of the will if one can suppose that it would have been included in the will even if the void dispositions were not there. 5. The invalidity of a will shall not deprive the persons specified therein as heirs or beneficiaries of the right to succession by operation of law or under another will that is valid. Article 1132. Construction of Wills While constructing a will a notary, executor or court shall take into account the literal meaning of the words and expressions contained therein. If the literal meaning of a provision of a will is vague it shall be established by means of comparison with other provisions and the sense of the will as a whole. In such cases the fullest exercise of the testator's will shall be ensured. Article 1133. Execution of Wills Execution of a will shall be effected by heirs under the will, except for cases when its execution is fully or partially effected by the executor of the will (Article 1134). Article 1134. Executor of Wills 1. The testator may appoint a personal representative (executor) specified in the will to execute the will, irrespective of his/her being an heir or not. The citizen's consent to act as executor shall be expressed by the citizen by means of his signature in the will or in an application attached thereto or in an application filed with the notary within one month after the date of opening of the inheritance. A citizen shall be deemed to have granted his/her consent to act a the executor of a will if he/she proceeds to execute the will within one month after the date of opening of the inheritance. 2. After the opening of an inheritance the court can relieve the executor of the will from his/her duties either on his/her own request or on the request of heirs if there are circumstances obstructing the execution of his/her duties. Article 1135. The Powers of the Executor of the Will 1. The powers of the executor of a will shall be based on the will whereby he/she is appointed as executor and they shall be certified by a certificate issued by the notary. 2. Except as otherwise required by the will, the executor of the will shall take the measures required for executing the will, namely: 1) arrange for the passage of assets of estate to the heirs entitled thereto in compliance with the wishes of the testator expressed in the will and law; 2) take measures on his/her own or through the notary for preserving the estate and administering it in the interests of the heirs; 3) receive the amounts of money owed to the testator and other assets for the purpose of passing them to the heirs, unless the assets are subject to transfer to other persons (Item 1 Article 1183); 4) perform testamentary dispositions or demand that heirs perform under testamentary trust provisions (Article 1137) under provisions whereby they are to execute a duty (Article 1139). 3. The executor of a will shall be entitled to act in connection with the execution of the will in his own name, in particular, in court, other governmental bodies and institutions. Article 1136. Reimbursement of Expenses Relating to the Execution of a Will The executor of a will shall be entitled to receive a reimbursement on the account of the estate for the necessary expenses incurred in connection with execution of the will and also a remuneration on the account of the estate if there is a provision to this effect in the will. Article 1137. Testamentary Trust 1. The testator is entitled to vest in one or several heirs a duty by will or by operation of law the execution of a duty of property nature for the benefit of one or several persons (beneficiaries) who acquire a right to claim execution of the duty (testamentary trust). A testamentary trust shall be established in the will. A will may contain a testamentary trust only. 2. The object of the testamentary trust can be transferred to a beneficiary into his/her ownership, possession by another right in rem or use of an item incorporated in the estate, transfer to a beneficiary of an item in action incorporated in the estate, acquisition for a beneficiary and transfer thereto of another property, performance of specific work for him/her or the provision thereto of a specific service or the making of periodical payments for his/her benefit etc. In particular, an heir entitled to a residential house, an apartment or other housing accommodation may be vested by a testator with the duty to grant a right to use this facility or a part thereof to another person for the lifetime of such a person or for another term. At a subsequent transfer of the title to assets of estate to another person the right of use of such assets granted by a testamentary trust shall remain in effect. 3. Relationships between a beneficiary (creditor) and an heir vested with the duty of executing a testamentary trust (debtor) shall be subject to the provisions of the present Code concerning liabilities, except as otherwise required by the rules of the present section and the essence of the testamentary trust. 4. The right to receive a testamentary trust shall be in effect for a three-year term after the date of opening of an inheritance and shall be non-transferable to other persons. However, an alternate beneficiary may be appointed together with a beneficiary in cases when the beneficiary dies before the opening of the inheritance or simultaneously with the testator or refuses to accept the testamentary trust, did not exercise his/her right to receive the testamentary trust or is deprived of the right to receive the testamentary trust in compliance with the rules of Item 5 Article 1117 of the present Code. Article 1138. Execution of a Testamentary Trust 1. An heir vested with the duty to execute a testamentary trust shall execute it within the limits of the value of the portion of estate he/she took less the testator's debts relating to the heir. If an heir vested with the duty to execute a testamentary trust is entitled to a compulsory share of estate, his duty to execute the testamentary trust shall be limited to the value of the portion of estate he/she took which exceeds the amount of his/her compulsory share. 2. If the duty to execute a testamentary trust is vested in several heirs, such a gift shall be an encumbrance on the right of each of them to the estate commensurately to one's share in the estate, except as otherwise required by the will. 3. If a beneficiary dies before the opening of the inheritance or simultaneously with the testator or refused to receive a testamentary trust (Article 1160), had not exercised his/her right to receive the testamentary trust within a three-year term after the opening of the inheritance or was deprived of the right to receive the testamentary trust in compliance with the rules of Article 1117 of the present Code, the heir with the duty to execute the testamentary trust shall be relieved from the duty, except for cases when an alternate heir has been appointed for this heir. Article 1139. Private Purpose Trust 1. In a will the testator may vest in one or several heirs a duty by will or by operation of law to commit an action of property or nonproperty nature aimed at attaining a commonly beneficial aim (private purpose trust). Such a duty may also be vested in the executor of a will on the condition that the will allocates a portion of assets of the estate for the purposes of execution of the private purpose trust. The testator is also entitled to vest in one or several heirs the duty of upkeeping domestic animals belonging to the testator and also of exercising the necessary supervision and care in respect thereof. 2. A private purpose trust whose object is actions of property nature shall be subject to the rules of Article 1138 of the present Code. 3. Persons concerned, the executor of the will and any of the heirs are entitled to claim in court the enforcement of a private purpose trust, except as otherwise required by the will.

Article 1140. Transfer of the Duty to Execute a Testamentary Trust or Private Purpose Trust to Other Heirs

If, as the result of the circumstances specified in the present Code the portion of the estate due to a heir vested with a duty to execute a testamentary trust or private purpose trust is transferred to other heirs the latter shall execute the testamentary trust or private purpose trust, except as otherwise required by the will or law.

(Content of Part III)

Chapter 63. Succession by Operation of Law

Article 1141. General Provisions

1. Legal heirs shall be called upon to inherit in compliance with the priority ranking set out in Articles 1142 - 1145 and 1148 of the present Code. The heirs of each next category shall inherit if there are no heirs of the preceding categories, i.e. if there are no heirs of the preceding categories or if neither of them are entitled to inherit or if all of them have been barred from inheritance (Article 1117), or deprived of inheritance (Item 1 Article 1119), if neither of them have accepted inheritance or if all of them have disclaimed inheritance. 2. Heirs of one category shall inherit in equal shares, except for the heirs who inherit by right of representation (Article 1146). Article 1142. First Category Heirs 1. Legal heirs of the first category are the children, spouse and parents of the testator. 2. The testator's grandchildren and their issue shall inherit by right of representation. Article 1143. Second Category Heirs 1. If there are no heirs of the first category the legal heirs of the second category shall be the full and half brothers and sisters of the testator, his grandfather and grandmother both on the side of the father and on the side of the mother. 2. The children of full and half brothers and sisters of the testator (nephews, nieces of the testator) shall inherit by right of representation. Article 1144. Third Category Heirs 1. If there are no heirs of the first and second categories the legal heirs of the third category shall be the full and half brothers and sisters of the of the parents of the testator (uncles and aunts of the testator). 2. Cousins of the testator shall inherit by right of representation. Article 1145. Next Category Heirs 1. If there are no heirs of the first, second and third categories (Articles 1142 - 1144), the right to inherit by law shall be acquired by the testator's relatives of the third, fourth and fifth degree of kinship who do not qualify as heirs of the preceding categories. The degree of kinship shall be determined by the number of births that separate relatives from each other. The birth of the testator in this case does not count. 2. Under Item 1 of the present article the following shall be called upon to inherit: as heirs of the fourth category: relatives of the third degree of kinship - great grandfathers and great grandmothers of the testator; as heirs of the fifth category: relatives of the fourth degree of kinship - children of full nephews and nieces of the testator (grandsons and granddaughters once removed) and brothers and full sisters of their grandfathers and grandmothers (grandsons and granddaughters once removed) and full brothers and sisters of their grandfathers and grandmothers once removed); as the heirs of the sixth category: relatives of the fifth degree of kinship - children of grandsons and granddaughters of the testator once removed (grand grandsons and grand granddaughters once removed), children of his cousins (nephews and nieces once removed) and children of his grandfathers and grandmothers once removed (uncles and aunts once removed). 3. If there are no heirs of the preceding categories the following shall be called upon to inherit as heirs of the seventh category by law: stepsons, stepdaughters, the stepfather and the stepmother of the testator. Article 1146. Succession by Right of Representation 1. The share of a legal heir who has died before the opening of the inheritance or simultaneously with the testator shall be passed by right of representation to his relevant issue in the cases specified in Item 2 of Article 1142, Item 2 of Article 1143 and Item 2 of Article 1144 of the present Code and it shall be divided between them in equal shares. 2. The issue of a legal heir who has been deprived of inheritance by the testator (Item 1 of Article 1119) shall not inherit by right of representation. 3. The issue of an heir who has died before the opening of the inheritance or simultaneously with the testator and who would not have had a right of inheritance under Item 1 of Article 1117 of the present Code shall not inherit by the right of representation. Article 1147. Succession by Adopted Children and Adopters 1. In the case of succession by operation of law an adopted child and his/her issue on one side and the adopter and his/her relatives on the other side shall qualify as relatives by origin (blood relatives). 2. The adopted child and his/her issue shall not inherit by operation of law after the death of the parents of the adopted child and other blood relatives thereof and the parents of the adopted child and other blood relatives thereof shall not inherit by operation of law after the death of the adopted child and his/her issue, except for the cases specified in Item 3 of the present article. 3. In cases when under the Family Code of the Russian Federation an adopted child retains under a court decision relations with one of his/her parents or other blood relatives the adopted child and his/her issue shall inherit by operation of law after the death of these relatives and the latter shall inherit by operation of law after the death of the adopted child and his/her posterity. Inheritance under the present item shall not exclude inheritance under Item 1 of the present article. Article 1148. Succession by Disabled Dependants of the Testator 1. Citizens qualifying as the legal heirs specified in Articles 1143 - 1145 of the present Code who are disabled as of the date of opening of the inheritance but not included in the category of heirs are called upon to inherit shall inherit by operation of law together and in equal shares with the heirs of that category if they had been dependants of the testator for at least a one-year term preceding the death of the testator, regardless of whether they resided together with the testator or not. 2. Legal heirs shall be deemed citizens not included in the circle of heirs specified in Articles 1142 - 1145 of the Code but who were disabled when the inheritance was opened who had been dependants of the testator at least for the one-year term preceding the death of the testator and resided together with him/her. If other legal heirs exist they shall inherit together pari passu with the heirs of the category called upon to inherit. 3. If there are no other legal heirs the disabled dependants of the testator shall inherit by themselves as eighth category heirs. Article 1149. The Right to a Compulsory Share of Estate 1. The minor or disabled children of the testator, his disabled spouse and parents and also the disabled dependants of the testator who are subject to be called upon to inherit under Items 1 and 2 of Article 1148 of the present Code shall inherit irrespective of the content of the will at least half of the share each of them is entitled to in the case of succession by operation of law (compulsory share). 2. The right to a compulsory share in an estate shall be satisfied out of the residual part of the estate even if it is going to diminish the rights of other legal heirs to that portion of estate and if the nonbequeathed part of assets is insufficient to satisfy the right to compulsory share, out of the portion of assets that has been bequeathed. 3. Everything that an heir entitled to a compulsory share takes out of the estate on any ground shall count as part of the compulsory share, in particular, the value of a testamentary trust established for the benefit of such an heir. 4. If the exercise of a right to a compulsory share of an estate is going to cause the impossibility of passing to an heir property which was not used during the testator's lifetime by an heir entitled to a compulsory share and which had been used by an heir by will as his residential facility (a residential house, apartment, other living quarters, dacha etc.) or used as the main source of means of subsistence (means of labour, a creative studio etc.) the court may cut the size of the compulsory share or refuse to award such a share with due regard to the property status of the heirs entitled to a compulsory share. Article 1150. The Rights of a Spouse to Inheritance The right of inheritance that the surviving spouse of the testator has by will or by operation of law shall not diminish the spouse's right to the portion of property gained during the period of marriage with the testator and deemed their common property. The share of the deceased spouse in this property determined in compliance with Article 256 of the present Code shall be deemed a part of the estate and it shall pass to the heirs in compliance with the rules established by the present Code.

Article 1151. Escheat

1. If there are no legal heirs and heirs by will or if neither of the heirs has a right to inherit or all heirs have been deprived of their right of inheritance (Article 1117) or neither of the heirs have accepted the inheritance or all the heirs refused their inheritance and neither of them has indicated that the inheritance is waived for the benefit of another heir (Article 1158) the decedent's estate shall be deemed escheat. 2. Escheat property shall pass into the ownership of the Russian Federation by succession by operation of law. 3. The procedure for succession and recording of escheat property and also the procedure for transferring such property into the ownership of Russian regions or municipal entities shall be set out by a law.

(Content of Part III)

Chapter 64. Acquisition of Inheritance

Article 1152. Acceptance of Inheritance

1. To acquire inheritance a heir shall accept it. No acceptance is required for the acquisition of escheat property (Article 1151). 2. The acceptance of a portion of inheritance by an heir means acceptance of the whole inheritance due to him/her, whatever the nature and the whereabouts thereof. When an heir is called upon to inherit simultaneously on several grounds (by will and by operation of law or by hereditary transition and as the result of opening an inheritance etc.) the heir may accept an inheritance he is entitled to on one of these grounds, on several of them or on all of them. No acceptance of inheritance shall be stipulated by conditions or special clauses. 3. The acceptance of an inheritance by one or several heirs shall not mean an acceptance of inheritance by other heirs. 4. An accepted inheritance shall be recognised as owned by the heir from the date of opening of the inheritance, irrespective of the time of the actual acceptance and also irrespective of the time of state registration of the heir's rights to assets of estate where such a right is subject to state registration. Article 1153. The Methods of Accepting an Inheritance 1. An inheritance is accepted by means of the heir's filing an inheritance acceptance application or an application for a certificate of the right to the inheritance with the notary or personal representative under law at the place of opening of the inheritance. If an heir's application is passed to the notary by another person or the signature of the heir is mailed on the application shall be attested by a notary, an official empowered to accomplish notarial actions (Item 7 of Article 1125) or a person empowered to attest powers of attorney in compliance with Item 3 of Article 185 of the present Code). An inheritance can be accepted through a representative if the power of accepting an inheritance is specifically established in powers of attorney. No powers of attorney are required for a personal representative to accept an estate. 2. Until and unless the contrary is proven, an heir shall be deemed to have accepted an inheritance if he has committed actions evidencing an actual acceptance of the inheritance, in particular, if the heir: has commenced possession or administration of assets of the estate; has taken measures for preserving assets of the estate, protecting it against third persons' encroachments or claims; has incurred expenses on his account towards maintenance of assets of the estate; has paid the testator's debts or received from third persons amounts of money payable to the testator. Article 1154. The Term for Acceptance of an Inheritance 1. An inheritance can be accepted within six months after the date of opening of the inheritance. If the inheritance is opened on the date of the alleged death of a citizen (Item 1 of Article 1114) the inheritance can be accepted within six months after the date when the court decision whereby the citizen is announced dead becomes final. 2. If a right of inheritance emerges for other persons as the result of an heir's disclaimer of an inheritance or an heir's disqualification on the grounds established by Article 1117 of the present Code such person can accept the inheritance within six months after the date of occurrence of their right of inheritance. 3. Persons whose right of inheritance occurs only due to an heir's non-acceptance of an inheritance can take the inheritance within three months after the expiry of the term specified in Item 1 of the present article. Article 1155. Acceptance of an Inheritance upon the Expiry of the Established Term 1. On the application filed late by a heir as concerning the term set for acceptance of an inheritance (Article 1154) the court may reinstate the term and recognise the heir as having accepted the inheritance if the heir did not know and was not supposed to know of the opening of the inheritance or if the heir has missed the term due to other legitimate reasons and on the condition that the heir who missed the term set for acceptance of the inheritance has filed his/her application with the court within six months after the time when the causes/reasons for the lateness ceased to exist. Having recognised an heir as having accepted an inheritance, the court shall determine the shares of all the heirs in the estate and if necessary shall designate measures for safeguarding the rights of the new heir to his/her entitlement (Item 3 of the present Article). The certificates of a right of inheritance issued earlier shall be recognised by the court as void. 2. An heir can accept an inheritance after the expiry of the term set for the acceptance thereof without resorting to the court if all the other heirs who have accepted the inheritance grant their consent thereto in writing. If such a written consent is granted by heirs in the absence of a notary, their signatures on the documents whereby the consent is granted shall be attested in the manner specified in Paragraph 2 of Item 1 of Article 1153 of the present Code. The heirs' consent shall be deemed a ground for a notary to annul the certificate of right of inheritance issued earlier and to issue a new certificate. If, under a certificate issued earlier, state registration has been accomplished in respect of a right to immovable property, the notary's decision to annul the certificate issued earlier and the new certificate shall be deemed a ground for amending the state registration records correspondingly. 3. A heir who accepts an inheritance after the expiry of the established term in keeping with the rules set out in the present article shall be entitled to take his/her entitlement in compliance with the rules of Articles 1104, 1105, 1107 and 1108 of the present Code which, in the case specified in Item 2 of the present Article, shall be applicable except as otherwise required by a written agreement concluded by the heirs. Article 1156. The Transfer of a Right to Accept an Inheritance (Hereditary Transition) 1. If an heir called upon to inherit by will or by operation of law dies after the opening of the inheritance without having accepted it within the established term, the right of accepting his/her entitlement shall pass to his/her legal heirs, or if all assets of the estate have been left by will, to his/her heirs by will (hereditary transition). The right of accepting an inheritance by way of hereditary transition is not incorporated into the estate left after the death of such a heir. 2. The right of accepting an inheritance that belonged to a deceased heir may be exercised by his/her heirs on general terms. If the portion of the term set for the purposes of inheritance acceptance that remains after the death of an heir is less than three months, the term shall be extended to reach three months. Upon the expiry of the term set for inheritance acceptance purposes the heirs of a deceased heir may be recognised by the court as having accepted the inheritance under Article 1155 of the present Code if the court is of the opinion that the reasons for the lateness are legitimate. 3. The right of an heir to accept a portion of inheritance as a compulsory share (Article 1149) shall not be transferable to his/her heirs. Article 1157. The Right of Disclaimer 1. The heir is entitled to disclaim the gift he is entitled to, for the benefit of other persons (Article 1158) or without an indication of a person for whose benefit he rejects his/her gift. No disclaimer shall be possible in the case of escheat. 2. The heir is entitled to disclaim the gift he is entitled to within a term set for acceptance of inheritance (Article 1154), in particular, in cases when he has already accepted the gift. If the heir has committed actions evidencing the actual acceptance of an inheritance (Item 2 of Article 1153) a court may recognise him/her as having disclaimed the inheritance on the application of such heir, in particular, after the expiry of the set term if the court finds that the reasons for the lateness are legitimate. 3. A disclaimer of an inheritance shall not be subject to alteration or reversed. 4. In the case of a minor heir, an heir lacking dispositive capacity or having a partial dispositive capacity disclaimer of an inheritance shall be admitted on a preliminary consent of the body of tutorship and guardianship. Article 1158. Disclaimer of an Inheritance for the Benefit of Other Persons and Disclaimer of a Portion of a Gift 1. The heir is entitled to disclaim an inheritance for the benefit of other persons from among the heirs under a will or who belong to any category and who have not been refused inheritance (Item 1 Article 1119), in particular, for the benefit of those who were called upon to inherit by the right of representation or inheritance transition (Article 1156). No disclaimer shall be for the benefit of any of the above persons: of assets inherited under a will if the whole of the decedent's estate is left by will for heirs appointed by the decedent; of a compulsory share of an estate (Article 1149); if an alternate heir has been appointed for the heir in question (Article 1121); 2. No disclaimer shall be for the benefit of persons who are not specified in Item 1 of the present article. No disclaimer of inheritance shall be stipulated by conditions or special clauses. 3. An heir shall not disclaim a portion of his/her gift. However, if an heir is called upon to inherit simultaneously on several grounds (by will, by law or by inheritance transition or as a result of opening of an inheritance etc.) he shall be entitled to disclaim the gift he is entitled to on one of these grounds, on several of them or on all of them. Article 1159. Methods of Disclaimer 1. The disclaimer of an inheritance shall be effected by the heir by means of filing a disclaimer application with a notary or official empowered under law to issue certificates of inheritance at the place of opening of the inheritance. 2. If a disclaimer application is filed with a notary by a person other than the heir or if it is mailed the signature of the heir on such application shall be attested in the manner established in Paragraph 2 of Item 1 of Article 1153 of the present Code. 3. An inheritance may be disclaimed through a representative if disclaimer powers are laid down in the powers of attorney. No powers of attorney is required for a legal representative to disclaim inheritance. Article 1160. Right of Disclaimer of a Testamentary Trust 1. The beneficiary is entitled to refuse accepting a trust (Article 1137). In this case no trust for the benefit of another person, a trust stipulated by a clause or condition is permitted. 2. If the beneficiary is at the same time an heir his/her right specified in the present article shall not depend on his/her right to accept the inheritance or disclaim it. Article 1161. Increment of Shares of Estate 1. If an heir does not accept his/her gift, disclaims his/her gift without indicating that the disclaimer is for the benefit of another heir (Article 1158), does not have the right to inherit or if his/her right of inheritance is forfeited on the grounds established by Article 1117 of the present Code or as a result of invalidity of the will the portion of the estate to which such heir would have been entitled shall pass to the legal heirs called upon to inherit, pro rata to their shares of the estate. However, if the testator has left all property to the heirs he appointed, the portion of the estate to which an heir who disclaimed his/her gift or who was dropped on the other specified grounds was entitled shall pass to the other heirs by will pro rata to their shares of the estate, except as otherwise required by the will in respect of distribution of that portion of the estate. 2. The rules contained in Item 1 of the present article shall not be applicable if an alternate heir (Item 2 Article 1121) has been appointed for the heir who disclaimed his/her gift or who was dropped on other grounds. Article 1162. Certificate of Right to Inheritance 1. A certificate of right to inheritance shall be issued at the place of opening of the inheritance by a notary or an official empowered by law to accomplish such a notarial action. The certificate shall be issued on the application of an heir. If heirs so wish one certificate may be issued for all the heirs or a separate certificate may be issued to each of the heirs, for the whole of the estate or for specific parts thereof. The same procedure shall be applicable when a certificate is issued in the case of escheat in the Russian Federation (Article 1151). 2. If, after the issue of a certificate of right to inheritance, assets of the estate are discovered which are not covered by such a certificate, an additional certificate of right to inheritance shall be issued. Article 1163. Term for Issue of a Certificate of Right to Inheritance 1. A certificate of right to inheritance shall be issued to heirs at any time upon the expiry of six months after the date of opening of the inheritance, except for the cases specified in the present Code. 2. In the case of succession both by will and by operation of law a certificate of right to inheritance may be issued before the expiry of six months after the opening of the inheritance if there is reliable information evidencing that there are no other heirs entitled to the inheritance or a portion thereof apart from the persons who have applied for the certificate. 3. The issuance of a certificate of right to inheritance shall be suspended by the decision of a court and also in the case of existence of a heir conceived but not yet born. Article 1164. Heirs' Common Ownership In the case of succession by operation of law if an estate passes to two or several heirs and in the case of succession by will if an estate is left by will to two or several heirs without an indication of specific assets of the estate to be taken by each of the heirs the estate shall be put into the share ownership of the heirs as of the time of opening of the inheritance. Heirs' common ownership of assets of an estate shall be subject to the provisions of Chapter 16 of the present Code on share ownership with due regard to the rules set out in Articles 1165 - 1170 of the present Code. However, in the distribution of an estate the rules of Articles 1168 - 1170 of the present Code shall be applicable within three years after the opening of the inheritance. Article 1165. Distribution of Decedent's Estate by Agreement between Heirs 1. The assets of estate in the share ownership of two or several heirs can be divided by agreement between them. The agreement on distribution of estate shall be subject to the rules of the present Code concerning the form of deals and form of agreements. 2. An agreement on distribution of estate incorporating immovable property, in particular, an agreement on devolution of the share of one or several heirs may be concluded by heirs after a certificate of right to inheritance has been issued thereon. The state registration of heirs' ownership of immovable property being the subject matter of an agreement on distribution of estate shall be accomplished on the basis of the agreement on distribution of estate and the certificate of a right to an inheritance issued earlier and in cases when the state registration of heirs' rights to immovable property has been accomplished before the heirs entered the agreement on distribution of estate, on the basis of the agreement on distribution of estate. 3. A discrepancy between the way an estate is distributed by heirs in an agreement they concluded and the shares of the estate to which the heirs are entitled as specified in the certificate of right to inheritance shall not cause refusal of state registration of their rights to the immovable property received as the result of distribution of the estate. Article 1166. Safeguarding the Interests of a Child in the Case of Distribution of Estate If there is an heir who has been conceived but not yet born, distribution of an estate shall be accomplished only after the birth of such a heir. Article 1167. Safeguarding the Lawful Interests of Minors, Citizens Lacking Dispositive Capacity or Having a Limited Dispositive Capacity in the Case of Distribution of Estate If among the heirs there are minor citizens, citizens without dispositive capacity or having a limited dispositive capacity an estate shall be distributed in compliance with the rules of Article 37 of the present Code. For the purpose of safeguarding the lawful interests of the said heirs the tutorship and guardianship body shall be notified of the drawing up of an agreement on distribution of estate (Article 1165) has been drawn up and of a court's hearing a case of distribution of estate. Article 1168. Right in Rem Relating to an Indivisible Item in Cases of Distribution of Estate 1. An heir who had a right of share ownership together with the testator in respect of an indivisible item (Article 133) the share in the right of which is incorporated in the estate shall have a preferential right of obtaining as offsetting his/her share of the estate the thing that was in common ownership, over the heirs who had not been party to the common ownership before, irrespective of their having used the item or not. 2. An heir who had been permanently using an indivisible item (Article 133) incorporated in an estate shall have a preferential right of obtaining as offsetting his/her share in the estate this thing, over the heirs who had not been using the thing and had not been party to the common ownership thereof. 3. If an estate incorporates housing accommodation (residential house, apartment etc.) which cannot be physically divided, the heirs who had been residing in the housing accommodation as of the date of opening of the inheritance and who do not have other housing accommodation shall have the right to enjoy a preferential treatment, in cases of distribution of estate, over the other heirs not being owners of the housing accommodation incorporated in the estate in obtaining this housing accommodation as offsetting their shares of the estate. Article 1169. Preferential Right to Ordinary Household Articles in Cases of Distribution of Estate In the case of distribution of estate an heir who had been residing as of the date of opening of an inheritance together with the testator shall have a preferential right of obtaining as offsetting his/her share of the estate household articles. Article 1170. Compensation of Mismatch between Received Assets of an Estate and the Share in the Estate 1. A mismatch between the assets of estate claimed by an heir by a preferential right under Articles 1168 or 1169 of the present Code and the heir's share of the estate shall be eliminated by means of his/her transferring other assets of the estate to other heirs or by the provision of another compensation, in particular, disbursement of the relevant amount of money. 2. Except as otherwise required by an agreement between all the heirs, the exercise of a preferential right by any of them shall be possible after the provision of a relevant compensation to other heirs. Article 1171. Preservation of an Estate and Administration of an Estate 1. For the purpose of safeguarding the rights of heirs, beneficiaries and other persons concerned the executor of a will or the notary at the place where an inheritance is opened shall take the measures specified in Articles 1172 and 1173 of the present Code as well as other necessary measures for preservation and administration of the estate. 2. The notary shall take measures for preservation and administration of the estate on the application of one or several heirs, executor of the will, a local government body, the tutorship and guardianship body or other persons acting in the interests of preservation of the estate. If an executor of the will has been appointed (Article 1134) the notary shall take measures for preservation and administration of the estate in agreement with the executor. The executor of the will shall take measures for the preservation and administration of the estate on his own or at the request of one or several heirs. 3. For the purpose of ascertaining the subject matter of gifts and preserving it banks, other credit institutions and other legal entities shall inform the notary, at the notary's request, of the information they have concerning assets belonging to the testator. The information so obtained shall be passed by the notary only to the executor of the will and to the heirs. 4. The notary shall take measures for preservation and administration of the estate within a term set by the notary with due regard to the nature and value of the estate and also the time required for the heirs to commence owning their gifts but not exceeding six months, or in the cases specified in Items 2 and 3 of Article 1154 and Item 2 of Article 1156 of the present Code, not exceeding nine months after the opening of the inheritance. The executor of the will shall take measures for the preservation and administration of the estate within the term required for executing the will. 5. In cases when assets of the estate are located in different places, the notary at the place where the inheritance has been opened shall forward instructions on the preservation and administration of the assets of the estate to the notary at the place where the relevant portion of the assets is located, via the bodies of justice. If the notary at the place of opening of the inheritance knows who should take measures for the preservation of the estate, such instructions shall be forwarded to the relevant notary or official. 6. The procedure for preservation and administration of estate, in particular, the procedure for drawing up an inventory of the estate shall be determined by the legislation on notaries. The maximum limits on remuneration payable under an agreement of custody of estate and agreement of trust of estate shall be set by the Government of the Russian Federation. 7. In cases when a right to accomplish notarial actions is granted under law to officials of local government bodies and officials of consular institutions of the Russian Federation the necessary measures for preservation and administration of an estate can be taken by the relevant official. Article 1172. Measures for Preservation of the Estate 1. For the purpose of preserving an estate the notary shall draw up an inventory of the estate in the presence of two witnesses qualifying under the criteria established in Item 2 of Article 1124 of the present Code. The executor of the will, heirs and in relevant cases representatives of the tutorship and guardianship body can be in attendance when an inventory of estate is being drawn up. At the request of persons specified in Paragraph 2 of the present item, the estate shall be valuated by agreement of the heirs. If no agreement is made the estate or the portion thereof not covered by a valuation agreement shall be valuated by an independent appraiser on the account of the person who has demanded the valuation of the estate, with these expenses later being distributed among the heirs pro rata to the value of the assets of estate received by each of them. 2. Money in cash incorporated in the estate shall be deposited with the notary and foreign currency valuables, precious metals and stones, articles made from them and securities that do not require management shall be handed over to a bank into the custody thereof under an agreement in compliance with Article 921 of the present Code. 3. If the notary is aware that weapons make up a portion of the estate he shall notify the bodies of interior affairs accordingly. 4. Assets incorporated in the estate but not specified in Items 2 and 3 of the present article, if it does not require management, shall be passed by the notary under an agreement to an heir into the custody thereof, or if it cannot be passed to a heir, to another person at the notary's discretion. In the case of succession by a will whereby an executor of the will is appointed, the executor of the will shall be responsible for the custody of the said assets of estate on his own or by means of entering into a custody agreement with an heir or another person chosen at the discretion of the notary. Article 1173. Management on Trust of the Estate If the estate incorporates assets that require management apart from preservation (an enterprise, an interest in the authorised (aggregate) capital of a partnership or company, securities, exclusive rights etc.) the notary, acting as a trustee under Article 1026 of the present Code, shall conclude a trust agreement in respect of such assets. In the case of succession by a will whereby an executor of the will is appointed, the rights of the trustee shall belong to the executor of the will. Article 1174. Reimbursement of Expenses Incurred Due to the Death of the Testator and Expenses Towards Preservation and Administration of the Estate 1. The necessary expenses incurred due to the pre-death illness of the testator, decent funeral expenses, including the necessary expenses incurred as payment for the place of burial of the testator, estate preservation and administration expenses and also testamentary expenses shall be reimbursable out of the decedent's estate within the value thereof. 2. Claims for reimbursement of the expenses specified in Item 1 of the present article may be presented to heirs which have accepted their gifts and, before the acceptance of a gift, to the executor of the will or satisfied on the account of the estate. Such expenses shall be reimbursed before the repayment of debts to creditors of the testator and within the limits of value of the portion of the estate taken by each of the heirs. In such cases expenses incurred in connection with the testator's illness and funeral shall rank as first category, estate preservation and administration expenses as second category and testamentary expenses as third category. 3. Any amounts of money owned by the testator, including bank deposits and accounts, may be used to bear the testator's decent funeral expenses. The banks having in their deposits or accounts the testators' amounts of money shall provide them on the notary's decision to the person specified in the decision for the purpose of making payment towards these expenses. An heir to whom amounts of money in the testator's deposit or any other bank account have been left by will, in particular in cases when they were left by means of testamentary instructions in a bank (Article 1128), shall be entitled at any time before the expiry of six months after the opening of the inheritance to receive from the testator's deposit or bank account amounts of money required for the funeral of the testator. The amount of money handed out by the bank in keeping with the present item for funeral purposes to an heir or a person indicated in the notary's decision shall not exceed one hundred times the minimum monthly wage as established by the law as of the date of application for the money. The rules of the present item shall be correspondingly applicable to other credit organisation entitled to raise citizens' funds in deposit and other accounts. Article 1175. Heirs' Liabilities for the Testator's Debts 1. Heirs who have accepted their gift shall be liable together for the debts of the testator (Article 323). Each of the heirs shall be liable for the testator's debts within the limits of the value of the gift he/she takes. 2. An heir who has accepted his/her gift by way of hereditary transition (Article 1156) shall be liable for the testator's debts within the limits of the value of the gift and the gift shall not be collected for the debts of the heir from which he/she acquired the right to the gift. 3. Testator's creditors are entitled to present their claims to heirs who have accepted their gifts, within the statutory limitation term set for relevant claims. Until the acceptance of the gift creditors' claims may be presented to the executor of the will or the estate may be collected to satisfy the claims. In the latter case a court shall suspend considering the case until the time when the estate is distributed among the heirs or passed to the Russian Federation by way of escheat. When the testator's creditors file claims, the statutory limitation term established for relevant claims shall not be broken, suspended or reinstated.

(Content of Part III)

Chapter 65. Succession of Specific Types of Assets

Article 1176. Succession of Rights Connected with an Interest in Economic Partnerships and Companies and Production Co-Operatives

1. The estate of a participant in a general partnership or of a general partner in a partnership in commendam, a participant in a limited liability company or a supplementary liability company or a member of a production co-operative shall include the participant's (member's) share of the share (authorised) capital (assets) of the respective partnership, company or co-operative. If for an heir to join a business partnership or production cooperative or for an heir to acquire a share in the authorised capital of a business company the consent of the rest of the participants in the partnership or company or members of the co-operative is required under the present Code, other laws or the foundation documents of a business partnership or company or a production co-operative, and if the heir has been refused such a consent he/she shall be entitled to receive from the business partnership or company or production co-operative the actual value of inherited share or a portion of the assets pro rata to the share, in the manner established for such cases by the rules of the present Code, other laws or the foundation documents of the legal entity. 2. The estate of an investor in a partnership in commendam shall include his/her share in the share capital of the partnership. The heir to whom this share has been transferred shall become an investor in the partnership in commendam. 3. The estate of a participant in a joint-stock company shall include the shares he/she owned. The heirs by whom these shares have been taken shall become participants in the company. Article 1177. Succession of Rights Relating to Participation in a Consumer Co-Operative 1. The estate of a member of a consumer co-operative shall include his/her share. An heir of a member of a housing, dacha or other consumer co-operative shall be entitled to admittance as member of a respective co-operative. Admittance to membership in the co-operative shall not be refused for such an heir. 2. The decision of the issue as to which of the heirs may be admitted to become a member of a consumer co-operative in the case when the testator's share has been taken by several heirs and also the procedure, methods and term for disbursing amounts of money payable to the heirs who have not become members of the co-operative or for handing out assets in kind to them in place of the money shall be governed by the law on consumer co-operatives and the foundation documents of the respective co-operative. Article 1178. Succession of an Enterprise An heir who, as of the date of opening an inheritance, had been registered as an individual entrepreneur or a commercial organisation being an heir by will shall enjoy a preferential right in the case of estate distribution to receive an enterprise incorporated in the estate to offset his share of inheritance (Article 132), given the observance of the rules of Article 1170 of the present Code. If neither of the heirs has the said preferential right or has not exercised such right, the enterprise incorporated in the estate shall not be subject to partition and shall come under the share ownership of the heirs in compliance with the gifts they are entitled to, except as otherwise required by an agreement of the heirs who have taken the estate incorporating the enterprise. Article 1179. Succession of Property of a Member of a Peasant (Individual) Farm 1. On the death of any member of peasant (individual) farm inheritance shall be opened and succession shall be accomplished on general terms, given the observance of the rules of Articles 253-255 and 257-259 of the present Code. 2. If an heir of a deceased member of peasant (individual) farm is not himself/herself a member of the farm he/she shall be entitled to receive compensation pro rata to the share of the assets in share ownership of members of the farm he/she is entitled to. The term for disbursement of the compensation shall be set by agreement of the heir with the members of the farm, or if there is no agreement, by a court, but it shall not exceed one year after the opening of the inheritance. If there is no agreement between the members of the farm and the said heir to the contrary, the share of the testator in the assets shall be deemed equal to the shares of other members of the farm. If the heir is admitted as a member of the farm the said compensation shall not be payable for his/her benefit. 3. In cases when on the death of a member of a peasant (individual) farm the farm is terminated (Item 1 of Article 258), in particular, in connection with the fact that the deceased had been the sole member of the farm and neither of his/her heirs wishes to keep running the peasant (individual) farm, the assets of the peasant (individual) farm shall be subject to distribution between the heirs according to the rules of Articles 258 and 1182 of the present Code. Article 1180. Succession of Items with Limited Alienability 1. Weapons, highly effective and poisonous substances, narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances and other things with limited alienability (Paragraph 2 of Item 2 of Article 129) that had been owned by the testator shall be incorporated in the estate and be inherited on the general terms established by the present Code. No special permission shall be required for taking a gift that includes such things. 2. Until the time when the heir obtains a special permission for such things, measures for ensuring the security of the things with limited alienability shall be taken in keeping with the procedure established by law for this kind of property. If the heir is refused the said permission his/her right of ownership of such property shall be subject to termination in compliance with Article 238 of the present Code and proceeds from the sale of the property less sales expenses shall be payable to the heir. Article 1181. Succession of Plots of Land A plot of land or a right of lifetime inheritable ownership of a plot of land owned by the testator shall be included in the estate and inherited on the general terms established by the present Code. No special permission is required for taking a gift incorporating this property. In the case of succession of a plot of land or a right of lifetime inheritable ownership of a plot of land, the succession shall also include the surface layer of the plot of land (soil), isolated bodies of water, forest and plants located therein. Article 1182. Peculiarities of Partition of a Plot of Land 1. The partition of a plot of land belonging to heirs by the right of common ownership shall be accomplished on the basis of the minimum size of plot of land set for the participants with a relevant purpose. 2. If the plot of land cannot be divided in the manner established by Item 1 of the present article the plot of land shall pass to an heir having a preferential right of obtaining this plot of land as offsetting his/her share of the estate. Compensation shall be provided to the other heirs in the manner established by Article 1170 of the present Code. If neither of the heirs has a preferential right of obtaining the plot of land or has exercised such his/her right the heirs shall possess, use and dispose of this plot of land by the right of share ownership. Article 1183. Succession of Outstanding Amounts of Money Granted to a Citizen as Means of Subsistence 1. The right to receive the amounts of wage/salary and payments qualifying as such, pension, stipend, social insurance benefit, damages for harm to life or health, alimony and other amounts of money provided to the testator as means of subsistence which had been payable for his benefit but had not been received in his lifetime shall belong to the members of the testator's family who had been residing together with him and also his disabled dependants, irrespective of their having resided with the deceased or not. 2. Claims for the disbursement of amounts of money under Item 1 of the present article shall be presented to the persons liable within four months after the opening of the inheritance. 3. If there are no persons entitled under Item 1 of the present article to receive outstanding amounts of money that had been owing the testator or if these persons have not presented their claims for the disbursement of such amounts of money within the established term, these amounts of money shall be included in the estate and inherited on the general terms established by the present Code. Article 1184. Succession of Assets Granted to the Testator by the State or a Municipal Entity on Privileged Terms Means of transportation and other assets granted by the state or a municipal entity to the testator on privileged terms in connection with his disability or other similar circumstances shall be incorporated in the estate and inherited on the general terms established by the present Code.

Article 1185. Succession of State Awards, Honour and Commemorative Badges

1. The state awards bestowed on the testator and covered by the legislation on the state awards of the Russian Federation shall not be included in the estate. The transfer of the said awards on the death of the decedent to other persons shall be subject to the procedure established by the legislation on state awards of the Russian Federation. 2. The state awards that had belonged to the testator which are not covered by the legislation on state awards of the Russian Federation, honour, commemorative and other badges, including awards and badges being part of collections, shall be included in the estate and inherited on the general terms established by the present Code.

(Content of Part III)

SECTION VI
INTERNATIONAL pRIVATE LAW

Chapter 66. General Provisions

Article 1186. Determining the Law Governing Civil Legal Relations Involving the Participation of Foreign Persons or Civil Legal Relations Complicated by Another Foreign Factor

1. The law applicable to civil legal relations involving the participation of foreign citizens or foreign legal entities or civil legal relations complicated by another foreign factor, in particular, in cases when an object of civil rights is located abroad shall be determined on the basis of international treaties of the Russian Federation, the present Code, other laws (Item 2 of Article 3) and usage recognised in the Russian Federation. The peculiarities of determining the law subject to application by the international commercial arbitration tribunal shall be established by a law on the international commercial arbitration tribunal. 2. If under Item 1 of the present article it is impossible to determine the law subject to application the law of the country with which a civil legal relation complicated by a foreign factor is most closely related shall apply. 3. If an international treaty of the Russian Federation contains substantive law norms governing a relevant relation, a definition on the basis of law of conflict norms governing the matters fully regulated by such substantive law norms is prohibited. Article 1187. Construction of Legal Terms in the Definition of Applicable Law 1. When applicable law is being defined legal terms shall be construed in compliance with the Russian law, except as otherwise required by law. 2. If, when applicable law is being defined, legal terms that require qualification are not known to Russian law or are known in another wording or with another content and if they cannot be defined by means of construction under Russian law a foreign law may be applied to the construction thereof. Article 1188. The Application of the Law of a Country with Several Legal Systems In cases when the law of a country where several systems of law are in effect the system of law defined in compliance with the law of that country shall apply. If under the law of that country it is impossible to define which of the systems of law is applicable the system of law to which the relation is the strongest shall apply. Article 1189. Reciprocity 1. A foreign law shall be applicable in the Russian Federation, irrespective of the applicability of Russian law to relations of the kind in the relevant foreign state, except for cases when the application of a foreign law on reciprocal basis is required by law. 2. Where the application of a foreign law depends on reciprocity such a reciprocity shall be deemed to exist unless the contrary is proven. Article 1190. Reverse Reference 1. Any reference to a foreign law in compliance with the rules of the present section shall be deemed a reference to substantive law rather than the law of conflict of the relevant country, except for the cases specified in Item 2 of the present article. 2. A reverse reference of a foreign law may be accepted in the cases of reference to the Russian law defining the legal status of a natural person (Articles 1195 - 1200). Article 1191. Establishing the Content of Foreign Law Norms 1. Where a foreign law is applied a court shall establish the content of its norms in compliance with the official construction, application practices and doctrine thereof in the relevant foreign state. 2. For the purpose of establishing the content of norms of a foreign law a court may apply in the established manner to the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation and other competent bodies or organisations in the Russian Federation and abroad for assistance and clarification or may use the services of experts. Persons being party to a case may present documents confirming the content of foreign law norms to which they refer to substantiate their claims or objections and provide other assistance to a court in establishing the content of these norms. As concerns claims relating to the pursuance of entrepreneurial activity by parties, the burden of proving the content of foreign law norms may be vested by a court in the parties. 3. If, despite measures taken in compliance with the present articles, the content of foreign law norms fails to be established within a reasonable term, the Russian law shall apply. Article 1192. Application of Imperative Norms 1. The regulations of the present section shall not affect the applicability of the imperative norms of the legislation of the Russian Federation which, due to indication in the imperative norms themselves or due to their special significance, in particular, for safeguarding the rights and law-protected interests of participants in civil law relations, regulate relevant relations, irrespective of the law that is subject to application. 2. According to the rules of the present section, when the law of any country is applied a court may take into account imperative norms of another country closely related to the relationship if under the law of that country such norms are to govern relevant relations, irrespective of the law that is subject to application. In such cases the court shall take into account the purpose and nature of such norms and also the consequences of their application or non-application. Article 1193. Public Order Clause A norm of a foreign law subject to application in keeping with the rules of the present section shall not be applicable in exceptional cases when the consequences of its application would have obviously been in conflict with the fundamentals of law and order (public order) of the Russian Federation. In such a case a relevant norm of Russian law shall be applied if necessary. A refusal to apply a norm of a foreign law shall not be based exclusively on a difference of the legal, political or economic systems of a relevant foreign state from the legal, political or economic system of the Russian Federation. Article 1194. Retortions The Government of the Russian Federation may establish reciprocal limitations (retortions) on the proprietary and personal non-proprietary rights of citizens and legal entities of the states where special limitations exist on the proprietary and personal non-proprietary rights of Russian citizens and legal entities.

(Content of Part III)

Chapter 67. The Law Governing Determination of the Legal Status of Persons

Article 1195. The Personal Law of Natural Persons

1. The personal law of a natural person shall be the law of the country of which the person is a citizen. 2. If, apart from being a Russian citizen, a person also has foreign citizenship, his/her personal law shall be deemed Russian law. 3. If a foreign citizen has place of residence in Russian Federation his/her personal law shall be deemed Russian law. 4. If a person has several foreign citizenships his/her personal law shall be deemed the law of the country in which the person has place of residence. 5. The personal law of a person without citizenship shall be deemed the law of the country where he/she has place of residence. 6. The personal law of a refugee shall be deemed the law of the country where he/she has been granted asylum. Article 1196. The Law Governing Determination of the Civil Legal Capacity of a Natural Person The civil legal capacity of a natural person shall be determined by his/her personal law. In such a case foreign citizens and persons without citizenship shall possess civil legal capacity in the Russian Federation in equal measure with Russian citizens, except for the cases established by law. Article 1197. The Law Governing Determination of the Civil Dispositive Capacity of a Natural Person 1. The civil dispositive capacity of a natural person shall be determined by his/her personal law. 2. A natural person who does not have civil dispositive capacity according to his/her personal law shall have no right to refer to his/her lacking dispositive capacity if he/she has dispositive capacity at the place where the deal was made, except for the cases in which the other party knew or was obviously supposed to know of the lack of dispositive capacity. 3. The recognition of a natural person in the Russian Federation as having no dispositive capacity or as having a limited dispositive capacity shall be governed by Russian law. Article 1198. The Law Governing Determination of the Rights of a Natural Person to a Name Natural person's rights to a name, the use and protection of a name shall be determined by his/her personal law, except as otherwise required by the present Code or other laws. Article 1199. The Law Governing Tutorship and Guardianship 1. Tutorship and guardianship over minors, adults having no dispositive capacity or having a limited dispositive capacity shall be appointed and terminated according to the personal law of the person over which it is appointed or terminated. 2. The tutor's (guardian's) duty to accept tutorship (guardianship) shall be determined according to the personal law of the person who is appointed a tutor (guardian). 3. Relations between a tutor (guardian) and a person under his/her tutorship (guardianship) shall be determined according to the law of the country whose institution has appointed the tutor (guardian). However, when a person under tutorship (guardianship) has place of residence in the Russian Federation, Russian law shall apply if it is more favourable for such a person. Article 1200. The Law Governing Cases of a Natural Person's Being Declared Missing or Dead The declaration in the Russian Federation of a natural person as missing or dead shall be governed by Russian law. Article 1201. The Law Governing Determination of the Possibility for a Natural Person to Pursue Entrepreneurial Activity The natural person's right to pursue entrepreneurial activity as an individual entrepreneur, without the formation of a legal entity, shall be determined by the law of the country where the natural person is registered as an individual entrepreneur. If this rule cannot be applied due to lack of a compulsory registration the law of the country of the main place of business shall apply. Article 1202. The Personal Law of a Legal Entity 1. The personal law of a legal entity shall be deemed the law of the country where the legal entity has been founded. 2. In particular the following shall be determined on the basis of the personal law of a legal entity: 1) an organisation's status as a legal entity; 2) the organisational legal form of a legal entity; 3) the standards governing the name of a legal entity; 4) issues concerning the formation, re-organisation and liquidation of a legal entity, in particular matters of succession; 5) the content of the legal capacity of a legal entity; 6) the procedure for acquisition of civil rights and assumption of civil duties by a legal entity; 7) in-house relations, in particular, relations between a legal entity and its founders; 8) a legal entity's capacity to be liable for its obligations. 3. A legal entity shall not refer to a limitation on the powers of its body or representative to enter into a deal which is not known in the law of the country where the body or the representative has entered into the deal, except for cases when it is proven that the other side in the deal knew or was obviously supposed to know of the said limitation. Article 1203. The Personal Law of a Foreign Organisation Not Qualifying as a Legal Entity under Foreign Law The personal law of a foreign organisation not qualifying as a legal entity under foreign law shall be deemed the law of the country where this organisation was founded. If Russian law is applicable, the activity of such an organisation shall be accordingly subject to the rules of the present Code which govern the activities of legal entities, except as otherwise required by a law, other legal acts or the substance of the relation in question.

Article 1204. Participation of a State in Civil Legal Relations Complicated by a Foreign Factor

Civil legal relations complicated by a foreign factor as involving the participation of a state shall be subject to the rules of the present section on general terms, except as otherwise established by law.

(Content of Part III)

Chapter 68. The Law Governing Proprietary and Personal Non-ProprietaryRelations

Article 1205. General Provisions Concerning the Law Governing Rights in Rem

1. The content of a right of ownership and other rights in rem relating to immovable and movable property, the exercise and protection thereof shall be determined according to the law of the country where such property is located. 2. Property shall be classified as immovable or movable in compliance with the law of the country where such property is located. Article 1206. The Law Governing the Emergence and Termination of Rights in Rem 1. The emergence and termination of a right of ownership and other rights in rem relating to property shall be determined by the law of the country where such property was located as of the time when the action was committed or another circumstance occurred which served as a ground for the emergence or termination of the right of ownership or other rights in rem, except as otherwise required under law. 2. The emergence and termination of a right of ownership or other rights in rem relating to a deal concluded in respect of property en route shall be determined by the law of the country from which the property has been dispatched, except as otherwise required under law. 3. The emergence of a right of ownership or other rights in rem in respect of property by virtue of acquisitive prescription shall be determined by the law of the country where the property was located as of the time of expiry of the acquisitive prescription term. Article 1207. The Law Governing Rights in Rem Relating to Aircraft, Vessels and Spacecraft An ownership right and other rights in rem in respect of aircraft, sea vessels, inland navigation vessels, space craft subject to state registration, the exercise and protection of such rights shall be subject to the law of the country where such aircraft, vessels and space craft are registered. Article 1208. The Law Governing Statute of Limitations The statute of limitations shall be determined by the law of the country governing a relation in question. Article 1209. The Law Governing the Form of Transaction 1. The form of transaction shall be governed by the law of place of conclusion. However, a transaction concluded abroad cannot be declared null and void because of a failure to comply with the form, if the provisions of Russian law have been observed. The rules set out in Paragraph 1 of the present item shall be applicable, in particular, to the form of powers of attorney. 2. The form of a foreign trade transaction in which at least one party is a Russian legal entity shall be governed by Russian law, irrespective of the place where the transaction was concluded. This rule shall be applicable, in particular, in cases when at least one of the parties to such a transaction is a natural person pursuing entrepreneurial activities whose personal law under Article 1195 of the present Code is Russian law. 3. The form of a transaction relating to immovable property shall be governed by the law of the country where the property is located and in respect of an immovable property recorded in a state register of the Russian Federation, by Russian law. Article 1210. Selection of Law by the Parties to a Contract 1. When they enter into a contract or later on the parties thereto may select by agreement between them select the law that will govern their rights and duties under the contract. The law so selected by the parties shall govern the emergence and termination of a right of ownership and other rights in rem relating to movable property with no prejudice for the rights of third persons. 2. An agreement of parties as to the selection of law to be applicable shall be expressly stated or shall clearly ensue from the terms and conditions of the contract or the complex of circumstances of the case. 3. Selection of applicable law made by parties after the conclusion of a contract shall have retroactive effect and it shall be deemed valid, without prejudice for the rights of third persons, beginning from the time when the contract was concluded. 4. The parties to a contract may select applicable law both for the contract as a whole and for specific parts thereof. 5. If it ensues from the group of circumstances of a case that were in existence as of the time of selection of applicable law that the contract is actually connected with only one country the parties' selection of the law of another country shall not affect the imperative norms of the country with which the contract is actually connected. Article 1211. The Law Governing a Contract in the Case of Lack of Parties' Agreement on Applicable Law 1. Where there is no agreement of parties on applicable law, the contract shall be subject to the law of the country with which the contract has the closest relation. 2. The law of the country with which a contract has the closest relation shall be deemed the law of the country where the party responsible for the performance under the contract of crucial significance for the content of the contract has its place of residence or main place of business, except as otherwise ensuing from the law, the terms or substance of the contract or the group of circumstances of the case in question. 3. A party responsible for the performance under a contract of crucial significance for the content of the contract shall be a party which, in particular, is the following, except as otherwise ensuing from law, the terms or substance of the contract or the group of circumstances of the case in question: 1) a seller - in a sales contract; 2) a donor - in a donation contract; 3) a lessor/landlord - in a lease; 4) a lender - in a contract of gratuitous use; 5) a contractor - in a contract; 6) a carrier - in a carriage contract; 7) a forwarding agent - in a forwarding contract; 8) a lender (a creditor) - in a loan (credit) contract; 9) a financial agent - in a case in action assignment financing contract; 10) a bank - in a bank deposit contract and bank account contract; 11) a custodian - in a custody contract; 12) an insurer - in an insurance policy; 13) an agent - in a contract of agency; 14) a commission agent - in a contract of commission agency; 15) an agent - in a contract of agency service; 16) a franchisor - in a contract of franchise; 17) a mortgagor - in a mortgage contract; 18) a surety - in a suretyship contract; 19) a licensor - in a licence contract. 4. The law of the country with which the contract has the closest relation shall be as follows, except as otherwise ensuing from law, the terms or substance of the contract or the complex of circumstances of the case: 1) for a contract of independent building contractor work and a contract of independent design and prospecting contractor work - the law of the country where on the whole the results stipulated by the contract are created; 2) for a contract of general partnership - the law of the country where on the whole the activity of the partnership is pursued; 3) for a contract concluded by auction, tender or commodity market - the law of the country where the auction, tender is held or the commodity market is situated. 5. A contract that has features of various types of contract shall be subject to the law of the country with which this contract as a whole has the closest relation, except as otherwise ensuing from law, the terms or substance of the contract or the group of circumstances of the case in question. 6. If internationally accepted trading terms are used in a contract it shall be deemed, unless there are directions to the contrary in the contract, that the parties have agreed on their application to their relations of business transaction usage designated by relevant trading terms. Article 1212. The Law Governing a Contract with Participation of a Consumer 1. Selection of the law governing a contract whereto a party is a natural person using, acquiring or ordering or intending to use, acquire or order movable things (works, services) for personal, family, household or other purposes and not connected with the pursuance of entrepreneurial activity shall not cause deprivation of the natural person (consumer) of remedies relating to his/her rights which are provided by imperative norms of the law of the country where the consumer has place of residence if any of the below circumstances have occurred: 1) in that country the conclusion of the contract had been preceded by an offer addressed to the consumer or an advertisement and the consumer has committed in the same country actions required for the purpose of entering into the contract; 2) a contract partner of the consumer or a representative of such a partner has received an order from the consumer in that country; 3) an order for acquisition of movable things, performance of works or provision of services has been made by the consumer in another country visited on the initiative of a contract partner of the consumer, if such an initiative was aimed at encouraging the consumer to enter into the contract. 2. If there is no agreement of the parties as to applicable law and if there are the circumstances specified in Item 1 of the present article the law of the country where the consumer has place of residence shall govern the contract with the participation of a consumer. 3. The rules established by Items 1 and 2 of the present article shall not be applicable to: 1) a carriage contract; 2) a work performance contract or a service provision contract if the work is to be performed or the service to be provided exclusively in a country other than the country where the consumer has place of residence. The exemptions specified in the present item shall not extend to contracts for the provision of the services of carriage and accommodation for a single price (irrespective of the inclusion of other services in the single price), in particular, tourist service contracts. Article 1213. The Law Governing Contracts Relating to Immovable Property 1. Where there is no agreement of parties on applicable law in respect of immovable property, the law of the country with which the contract has the closest relation shall apply. The right of the country with which the contract has the closest relation shall be deemed the law of the country where the immovable property is located, except as otherwise ensuing from law, the terms or substance of the contract or the set of circumstances of the case in question. 2. Contracts relating to plots of land, tracts of sub-soil, isolated bodies of water and other immovable property located on the territory of the Russian Federation shall be subject to Russian law. Article 1214. The Law Governing Contracts for the Formation of a Legal Entity with Foreign Interest A contract for the formation of a legal entity with foreign interest shall be subject to the law of the country in which the legal entity is to be founded. Article 1215. The Applicability of Law Governing a Contract The following shall be in particular determined by the law governing a contract in keeping with the rules of Articles 1210 - 1214, 1216 of the present Code: 1) the construction of the contract; 2) the rights and duties of the parties to the contract; 3) performance under the contract; 4) the consequences of a default on performance or improper performance under the contract; 5) the termination of the contract; 6) the consequences of invalidity of the contract. Articled 1216. The Law Governing Assignment of a Claim 1. The law governing a claim assignment agreement between the initial and new creditors shall be determined in compliance with Items 1 and 2 of Article 1211 of the present Code. 2. The admissibility of a claim assignment, relations between the new creditor and the debtor, the conditions for the claim to be presented to the debtor by the new creditor and also the issue of the debtor's appropriate performance under his obligation shall be determined by the law applicable to the claim being the subject matter of the assignment. Article 1217. The Law Governing Obligations Emerging from Unilateral Transactions Except as otherwise required by law, the terms or substance of the transaction or the set of circumstances of the case in question, obligations emerging from unilateral transactions shall be governed by the law of the country where the party assuming obligations under a unilateral transaction has place of residence or main place of business. The effective term of powers of attorney and the grounds for declaring it null and void shall be determined by the law of the country where the powers of attorney were issued. Article 1218. The Law Governing the Relations of Payment of Interest The grounds for collecting, the calculation procedure and the rate of interest on pecuniary obligations shall be governed by the law of the country governing a given obligation. Article 1219. The Law Governing Obligations Emerging as a Result of Infliction of Harm 1. Obligations emerging as a result of infliction of harm shall be governed by the law of the country where the action or other circumstance that has served as ground for damages claim occurred. In cases when the action or other circumstances caused harm in another country, the law of that country may be applied if the person causing the harm foresaw or should have foreseen the onset of the harm in that country. 2. Obligations emerging as a result of infliction of harm abroad, if the parties are citizens or legal entities of one and the same country, shall be governed by the law of that country. If the parties to such an obligation are not citizens of one and the same country but have place of residence in one and the same country the law of that country shall apply. 3. After the committing of an action or onset of another circumstance that entailed infliction of harm the parties may come to an agreement that the obligation that has emerged as a result of infliction of the harm is to be governed by the law of the country of the court. Article 1220. Applicability of the Law Governing Obligations Emerging as a Result of Infliction of Harm The following, in particular, shall be determined on the basis of the law governing obligations emerging as a result of infliction of harm: 1) a person's capacity to be liable for harm inflicted; 2) the vesting of liability for harm in a person who is not the cause of harm; 3) grounds for liability; 4) grounds for limitation of liability and relief from liability; 5) the methods of compensation for harm; 6) the scope and amount of compensation for harm. Article 1221. The Law Governing Liability for Harm Inflicted as a Result of Defects of Goods, Works or Services 1. At the discretion of the victim, the following shall be chosen to govern a claim for compensation of harm inflicted as a result of defects of goods, works or services: 1) the law of the country where the seller or manufacturer of the goods or other causer of harm has place of residence or main place of business; 2) the law of the country where the victim has place of residence or main place of business; 3) the law of the country where the works or services have been completed or the law of the country where the goods were acquired. The selection of the law at the discretion of the victim from the options set out in Sub-items 2 or 3 of the present item may be recognised only in cases when the causer of harm fails to prove that the goods were brought into the given country without his consent. 2. If the victim did not exercise his right to choose applicable law as specified in the present article the applicable law shall be determined in compliance with Article 1219 of the present Code. 3. Accordingly, the rules of the present code shall be applicable to claims for compensation of harm inflicted as a result of unreliable or insufficient information on goods, works or services.

Article 1222. The Law Governing Obligations Emerging as a Result of Unfair Competition

Obligations emerging as a result of unfair competition shall be governed by the law of the country whose market has been affected by the competition, except as otherwise required by law or the substance of the obligation.

Article 1223. The Law Governing Obligations Emerging as a Result of Unjust Gains

1. Obligations emerging as a result of unjust gains shall be governed by the law of the country where the enrichment has taken place. The parties may come to an agreement that the law of the court is to govern such obligations.
2. If an unjust gain occurs in connection with a legal relation that exists or is assumed to exist due to which property was acquired, the obligations emerging as a result of the unjust enrichment shall be governed by the national law that governed or could have governed this legal relation.

Article 1224. The Law Governing Succession Relations

1. Succession relations shall be determined by the law of the country where a testator had his last place of residence, except as otherwise required by the present article. Immovable property succession shall be governed by the law of the country where property is located and succession of immovable property recorded in a state register of the Russian Federation shall be governed by Russian law.
2. The capacity of a person to create a will or revoke it, in particular, in relation to immovable property and also the form of such a will or will revocation act shall be governed by the law of the country where the testator had place of residence as of the time of creation of such a will or act. However, a will or revocation of a will shall not be declared void because the form has failed to be observed if the form meets the requirements of the law of the place of creation of the will or will revocation act or the provisions of Russian law.

(Content of Part III)